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Author: Maria das Gracas Tavares-do-Carmo (25)


Jul
2017

The quality of dietary lipids in the maternal diet can programme the offspring to diseases in later life. We investigated whether the maternal intake of palm oil or interesterified fat, substitutes for trans-unsaturated fatty acids (FA), induces metabolic changes in the adult offspring. During pregnancy and lactation, C57BL/6 female mice received normolipidic diets containing partially hydrogenated vegetable fat rich in trans-unsaturated fatty acids (TG), palm oil (PG), interesterified fat (IG) or soyabean oil (CG).

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Sep
2017

To assess progress towards the elimination of trans-fatty acids (TFA) in foods after the 2008 Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) recommendation of virtual elimination of TFA in Latin America.
A descriptive, comparative analysis of foods that were likely to contain TFA and were commonly consumed in four cities in Latin America.
San José (Costa Rica), Mexico City (Mexico), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), Buenos Aires (Argentina).

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Dec
2016

The purpose of this study was to investigate the trans fatty acids (TFA) content and distribution in colostrum, mature milk, and diet of adolescent mothers, after TFA declaration in food labels became mandatory in Brazil. Participants were healthy adolescents (n 54, 15-19 years, 1-90 days postpartum) practicing exclusive breastfeeding. Milk samples were collected 3 days after delivery (colostrum) and in the third month postpartum (mature milk) by hand expression.

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Aug
2015

We investigated whether maternal intake of normolipidic diets with distinct fatty acid (FA) compositions alters the lipidic profile and influences the inflammatory status of the adult offsprings׳ brains. C57BL/6 female mice during pregnancy and lactation received diets containing either soybean oil (CG), partially hydrogenated vegetable fat rich in trans-fatty acids (TG), palm oil (PG), or interesterified fat (IG). After weaning, male offspring from all groups received control diet.

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Jun
2015

Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) encephalopathy is a major cause of perinatal morbimortality. There is growing evidence that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), attenuate brain injury. This study aimed to investigate the possible neuroprotective effect of maternal intake of flaxseed, rich in DHA׳s precursor α-linolenic acid, in the young male offspring subjected to perinatal HI.

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Oct
2015

Palm oil (PO) and interesterified fat (IF) have been used to replace partially hydrogenated fat (PHF), which is rich in trans isomers, in processed foods. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether normolipidic diets containing PHF, IF, or PO consumed during pregnancy and lactation affect total body adiposity and adipose tissue morphology of adult offspring mice.
Four groups of female C57BL/6 mice were fed, during pregnancy and lactation, a control diet (control group, CG), a PHF diet (trans group, TG), a PO diet (PG group), or an IF diet (IG group).

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Jan
2015

Palm oil and interesterified fat have been used to replace partially hydrogenated fats, rich in trans isomers, in processed foods. This study investigated whether the maternal consumption of normolipidic diets containing these lipids affects the insulin receptor and Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) contents in the hypothalamus and the hypophagic effect of centrally administered insulin in 3-month-old male offspring. At 90 days, the intracerebroventricular injection of insulin decreased 24-h feeding in control rats but not in the palm, interesterified or trans groups.

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Mar
2015

High levels of biscuit and salty snack consumption have an effect on human health. This aim of this study was to determine the fatty acid (FA) composition of 19 different biscuits and 10 types of salty snacks by gas chromatography. Palmitic acid was predominant in 79% of biscuits and represented more than 55% of the total saturated fatty acids (SFAs) in salty snacks.

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Feb
2013

There is no consensus about the effects of protein restriction on neurogenesis and behavior. Here, for the first time, we evaluated the effects of protein restriction during gestation and lactation, on the two major neurogenic regions of the adult brain, the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone (SVZ), simultaneously. We also assessed different types of behavior relevant to each region.

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May
2012

The aim of the study was to determine the effects of different dietary fatty acids during the first half of pregnancy on the fatty acid composition of maternal adipose tissue and of maternal and fetal plasma at mid- and late-pregnancy. Pregnant rats received soybean-, olive-, fish-, linseed- or palm-oil diets from conception to day 12 of gestation. Virgin rats receiving the same treatments were studied in parallel.

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Apr
2012

To investigate whether dietary trans fatty acids (TFAs) are incorporated in the hippocampus and its effects on the growth and aversive and spatial memories of young rats.
Wistar rat offspring whose mothers were fed with normolipidic diets containing soybean oil (soy group) or hydrogenated vegetable oil (trans group) during gestation and lactation were used. Male and female pups received the same diets as their mothers until the end of behavioral testing.

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Oct
2011

To investigate flaxseed as a partial source of protein and an exclusive source of lipids and fibers in the development of the central nervous system by analyzing hippocampal fatty acid composition and cognitive and locomotor functions.
Experimental diets were given to dams during preconception, pregnancy, and lactation and to their pups after weaning. Female Wistar rats were separated into three groups according to experimental diet: a control group (CG) and a flaxseed group (FG), fed ad libitum diets, and a modified control group (MCG), pair-fed with the FG.

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Mar
2011

Undernutrition still affects mothers and children in developing countries and thus remains the major focus of nutritional intervention efforts. Neuronal development, which classically includes neurogenesis, migration, maturation, and synapse refinement, begins in utero and continues into the early postnatal period. These processes are not only genetically regulated but also clearly susceptible to environmental manipulation.

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Dec
2011

The placenta is fundamental for fetal development. The aim of this study was to determine Ca, Fe, Cu, and Zn content in the fetal and maternal portions of the placentas of teenage and adult women. Measurement of the minerals was conducted using Synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence.

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Feb
2011

We tested whether diets containing partially hydrogenated fat (PHVO, rich in trans fatty acids) or palm oil (PO, rich in saturated fat-C16 palmitic fatty acid) had different effects on the propensity for venous thrombosis, a marker of haemostatic cardiovascular risk.
Female Wistar rats were fed normolipidic diets containing PHVO or PO during lactation, and their young male pups were fed the same diets from weaning until the 180th day of life. We evaluated platelet fatty acid composition, serum lipids, platelet aggregation, clotting time, and venous thrombus formation.

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Feb
2011

Adolescence is marked by intensive growth and development. When pregnancy occurs during this period of the mother's growth, there is an increase in her nutritional needs. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of calcium, iron, copper, and zinc in maternal plasma, the placenta, and in the cord plasma of pregnant teenagers and adults.

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Jun
2010

Being born small for gestational age (SGA) is a known risk factor for greater neonatal mortality and disease in later life. Some determinants of the incidence of SGA newborns have been studied but little is known about the role of leptin in the beginning of pregnancy.
To investigate the effect of serum leptin concentration in the 1st gestational trimester on the incidence of SGA newborns and to identify other determining factors in the occurrence of SGA.

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Oct
2010

n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) present in fish oil (FO) potently decrease serum lipids, which is also an effect of thyroid hormones. Both PUFAs and thyroid hormones affect hepatic lipid metabolism, and here we hypothesized that a long-term diet rich in n-3 PUFAs would enhance thyroid hormone action in the liver. Female rats received isocaloric and normolipid diets containing either soybean oil (SO) or FO during lactation.

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Oct
2010

Our previous study indicated that partially hydrogenated fat (PHF) diets, rich in trans-isomers, alter plasma lipids and increase the lipogenesis rate on adipose tissue in rats at a young age. In the present study we investigated the effects of dietary PHF on the expression of genes associated with glucose and lipid metabolism in rat adipose tissue.
Female Wistar rats were fed normolipidic diets containing PHF (rich in trans-fatty acids and poor in polyunsaturated fatty acids [PUFAs]), soy oil (rich in omega-6 PUFAs), and fish oil (rich in omega-3 PUFAs) during gestation and lactation; young male pups were fed the same diets from weaning until 120 d of life.

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Jun
2008

The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of malnutrition and nutritional rehabilitation on learning and memory performance and brain fatty acid composition. Pregnant and lactating Wistar rats were either fed ad libitum on a commercial laboratory chow or a multideficient diet from north-eastern Brazil (regional basic diet; RBD). After weaning, RBD offspring either continued on the multideficient diet (malnourished group) or switched to a control diet (rehabilitated group), until day 70.

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Jun
2008

Trans fatty acids (TFAs) are derived from vegetable oil hydrogenation and can be found in most manufactured food products. Our main objective was to evaluate the effects of TFA consumption by lactating dams on cardiac glucose metabolism of adult offspring by analyzing glucose transporter-4 in the left ventricle. To investigate the energy homeostasis, insulin sensitivity and hepatic glycogen content were also measured.

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Jan
2008

The presence of trans fatty acids (TFA) in human milk may be a concern because of their possible adverse nutritional effects on the infant development. TFA may interfere with the metabolism of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Marked variation in TFA of milk appears in different populations.

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Mar
2007

Breastfeeding has a major impact on public health, since human breast milk is the best food for infants up to six months of age. The lipid fraction in human milk is the main source of energy for the infant and supplies essential nutrients such as fat-soluble vitamins and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Essential fatty acids (EFA), specifically linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3), are precursors of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), including docosahexaenoic (DHA) and arachidonic (ARA) acids.

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Sep
2004

Lactation is associated with an increase in lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in the mammary gland (MG) and a decrease in adipose tissue because lactation redirects circulating substrates to the MG for milk synthesis. We investigated the effects of different dietary contents of trans-fatty acid (TFA) on LPL activity in maternal tissues and fatty acid composition in milk.
Lactating rats were fed semisynthetic isocaloric diets containing 7% soy oil (control), 7% partially hydrogenated vegetable oil (7%-PHVO), 5% PHVO plus 2% soy oil (5%-PHVO), or 3.

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