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Author: Mark Dow (15)


May
2017

A modular synthetic approach was developed in which variation of the triplets of building blocks used enabled systematic variation of the macrocyclic scaffolds prepared. The approach was demonstrated in the synthesis of 17 diverse natural product-like macrocyclic scaffolds of varied (12-20-membered) ring size. The biological relevance of the chemical space explored was demonstrated through the discovery of a series of macrocycles with significant antimycobacterial activity.

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Jan
2017

Considerable research documents the cross-modal reorganization of auditory cortices as a consequence of congenital deafness, with remapped functions that include visual and somatosensory processing of both linguistic and nonlinguistic information. Structural changes accompany this cross-modal neuroplasticity, but precisely which specific structural changes accompany congenital and early deafness and whether there are group differences in hemispheric asymmetries remain to be established. Here, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to examine microstructural white matter changes accompanying cross-modal reorganization in 23 deaf adults who were genetically, profoundly, and congenitally deaf, having learned sign language from infancy with 26 hearing controls who participated in our previous fMRI studies of cross-modal neuroplasticity.

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Nov
2015

Activity-directed synthesis (ADS), a novel discovery approach in which bioactive molecules emerge in parallel with associated syntheses, was exploited to develop a weakly binding fragment into novel androgen receptor agonists. Harnessing promiscuous intermolecular reactions of carbenoid compounds enabled highly efficient exploration of chemical space. Four substrates were prepared, yet exploited in 326 reactions to explore diverse chemical space; guided by bioactivity alone, the products of just nine of the reactions were purified to reveal diverse novel agonists with up to 125-fold improved activity.

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Jun
2015

The design, synthesis and decoration of six small molecule libraries is described. Each library was inspired by structures embedded in the framework of specific alkaloid natural products. The development of optimised syntheses of the required molecular scaffolds is described, in which reactions including Pd-catalysed aminoarylation and diplolar cycloadditions have been exploited as key steps.

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Jan
2015

Controlling the properties of lead molecules is critical in drug discovery, but sourcing large numbers of lead-like compounds for screening collections is a major challenge. A unified synthetic approach is described that enabled the synthesis of 52 diverse lead-like molecular scaffolds from a minimal set of 13 precursors. The divergent approach exploited a suite of robust, functional group-tolerant transformations.

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Dec
1969

Electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillations in multiple frequency bands can be observed during functional activity of the cerebral cortex. An important question is whether activity of focal areas of cortex, such as during finger movements, is tracked by focal oscillatory EEG changes. Although a number of studies have compared EEG changes to functional MRI hemodynamic responses, we can find no previous research that relates the fMRI hemodynamic activity to localization of the multiple EEG frequency changes observed in motor tasks.

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Dec
1969

Brain reorganization associated with altered sensory experience clarifies the critical role of neuroplasticity in development. An example is enhanced peripheral visual processing associated with congenital deafness, but the neural systems supporting this have not been fully characterized. A gap in our understanding of deafness-enhanced peripheral vision is the contribution of primary auditory cortex.

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Dec
1969

A range of metathesis substrates was assembled from triplets of unsaturated building blocks. The approach involved the iterative attachment of a propagating and a terminating building block to a fluorous-tagged initiating building block. Metathesis cascade chemistry was used to "reprogram" the molecular scaffolds.

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Jul
2012

The developing brain responds to the environment by using statistical correlations in input to guide functional and structural changes-that is, the brain displays neuroplasticity. Experience shapes brain development throughout life, but neuroplasticity is variable from one brain system to another. How does the early loss of a sensory modality affect this complex process? We examined cross-modal neuroplasticity in anatomically defined subregions of Heschl's gyrus, the site of human primary auditory cortex, in congenitally deaf humans by measuring the fMRI signal change in response to spatially coregistered visual, somatosensory, and bimodal stimuli.

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Jan
2012

The discovery of biologically active small molecules is shaped, in large part, by their synthetic (or biosynthetic accessibility). However, chemists' historical exploration of chemical space has been highly uneven and unsystematic. This article describes synthetic strategies that have emerged that may allow chemical space to be explored more systematically.

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Aug
2011

The present study traced the emergence of the neural circuits for reading in five-year-old children of diverse pre-literacy ability. In the fall and winter of kindergarten, children performed a one-back task with letter versus false font stimuli during fMRI scanning. At the start of kindergarten, children with on-track pre-literacy skills (OT) recruited bilateral temporo-parietal regions for the letter > false font comparison.

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Aug
2004

The ovulatory process is characterized by focalized extracellular matrix degradation at the apex of preovulatory follicles. Many studies have implicated the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) as potential mediators of follicle rupture. Objectives of this study were to determine localization and effect of the gonadotropin surge on temporal expression of MMP-1 and MMP-13 in bovine preovulatory follicles.

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May
2002

Follicular formation, growth or atresia, and ovulation as well as luteal formation and subsequent regression are dependent upon cyclical remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The proteinaceous and nonproteinaceous components of the ECM provide the tissue specific, extracellular architecture to which cells attach. Furthermore, the ECM modulates cellular activities through cellular surface receptors and serves as a reservoir for specific growth factors, cytokines, and binding proteins.

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Jun
2002

The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in the ovulatory process, but the specific roles of individual MMPs are unclear. This study examined the effect of the preovulatory gonadotropin surge on localization and regulation of MMP-2, MMP-14, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2) mRNA and MMP-2 and TIMP-2 activity in bovine preovulatory follicles and new corpora lutea (CL). Ovaries containing ovulatory follicles or new CL were collected at approximately 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 48 h (CL) after a GnRH-induced gonadotropin surge.

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May
2002

This study examined the effect of the preovulatory gonadotropin surge on the temporal and spatial regulation of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), and uPA receptor (uPAR) mRNA expression and tPA, uPA, and plasmin activity in bovine preovulatory follicles and new corpora lutea collected at approximately 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 48 h after a GnRH-induced gonadotropin surge. Messenger RNAs for tPA, uPA, and uPAR were increased in a temporally specific fashion within 24 h of the gonadotropin surge. Localization of tPA mRNA was primarily to the granulosal layer, whereas both uPA and uPAR mRNAs were detected in both the granulosal and thecal layers and adjacent ovarian stroma.

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