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Author: Martina Kirsch (17)


Dec
1969

Alcohol Use Disorder is a highly prevalent mental disorder which puts a severe burden on individuals, families, and society. The treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder is challenging and novel and innovative treatment approaches are needed to expand treatment options. A promising neuroscience-based intervention method that allows targeting cortical as well as subcortical brain processes is real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback.

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Oct
2017

Alcohol metabolizing enzymes, such as the alcohol dehydrogenases and the aldehyde dehydrogenases, regulate the levels of acetaldehyde in the blood and play an important role in the development and maintenance of alcohol addiction. Recent genome-wide systematic searches found associations between a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs1789891, risk allele: A, protective allele: C) in the alcohol dehydrogenase gene cluster and the risk of alcohol dependence. The current study investigated the effect of this single nucleotide polymorphism on alcohol consumption, craving for alcohol, relapse risk and brain gray matter volume.

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May
2017

Individual differences in reward sensitivity along with weakened executive control are characteristic for alcohol use disorder (AUD). Emerging translational models of psychotherapy propose the integration of such neurobiological risk profiles to elucidate the mechanisms underlying behavior change in order to improve intervention efficacy. The primary aim of the study was to investigate whether striatal baseline reward sensitivity can be used as a neurobiological predictor of intervention-specific changes in neural functioning during AUD therapy.

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May
2017

According to prevailing neurobiological theories of addiction, altered function in neural reward circuitry is a central mechanism of alcohol dependence. Growing evidence postulates that the ventral striatum (VS), as well as areas of the prefrontal cortex, contribute to the increased incentive salience of alcohol-associated cues, diminished motivation to pursue non-drug rewards and weakened strength of inhibitory cognitive control, which are central to addiction. The present study aims to investigate the neural response and functional connectivity underlying monetary, non-drug reward processing in alcohol dependence.

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Dec
1969

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) receptors are highly expressed in the amygdala, caudate and hypothalamus. GATA4 gene encodes a transcription factor of ANP associated with the pathophysiology of alcohol dependence. We have previously demonstrated that the GATA4 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs13273672 revealed stronger alcohol-specific amygdala activation associated with lowered relapse risk to heavy drinking at 90 days in the AA-homozygotes.

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Nov
2015

The aim of the current study was to determine genotype effects of four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes of the N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptor (GRIN1, GRIN2A, GRIN2C) and kainate receptor (GRIK1), which have been previously associated with alcoholism, on behavior, neural cue-reactivity and drinking outcome. Eighty-six abstinent alcohol dependent patients were recruited from an in-patient setting. Neuropsychological tests, genotyping and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were used to study genotype effects.

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Jul
2016

It has been shown that in alcoholic patients, alcohol-related cues produce increased activation of reward-related brain regions like the ventral striatum (VS), which has been proposed as neurobiological basis of craving. Modulating this activation might be a promising option in the treatment of alcohol addiction. One approach might be real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback (rtfMRI NF).

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Aug
2015

The endogenous opioid system is involved in the pathophysiology of alcohol-use disorders. Genetic variants of the opioid system alter neural and behavioral responses to alcohol. In particular, a single nucleotide polymorphism rs1799971 (A118G) in the mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) is suggested to modulate alcohol-related phenotypes and neural response in the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system.

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Jul
2015

Mesocorticolimbic reactivity to alcohol-associated cues has been shown to be associated with relapse to renewed drinking and to be decreased by cue-exposure-based extinction training (CET). Evidence from preclinical studies suggests that the extinction of conditioned alcohol-seeking behavior might be facilitated by drugs increasing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-associated memory consolidation.
In this study, we assessed the efficacy of CET treatment supplemented with the partial NMDA-receptor agonist D-cycloserine (DCS) at reducing mesolimbic cue reactivity (CR), craving, and relapse risk in alcoholism.

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May
2014

Two genome-wide association studies recently showed alcohol dependence to be associated with a single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs13273672) located on a gene (GATA4) that encodes a transcription factor of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). A growing body of evidence suggests that ANP might be involved in the symptomology of alcohol dependence. This study examined whether reactivity to alcohol cues in the ANP target region amygdala, a key area implicated in addictive behavior, differs depending on the GATA4 genotype of a patient.

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Jul
2012

Alcohol-associated cues are able to elicit brain activations in mesocorticolimbic networks that are related to the rewarding properties of the drug. Some authors hypothesize that the activation of the mesocorticolimbic reward system triggers an attention allocation to alcohol-associated cues. Yet, no functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies examining this proposition are available.

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Jun
2011

In alcohol-dependent patients, alcohol-associated cues elicit brain activation in mesocorticolimbic networks involved in relapse mechanisms. Cue-exposure based extinction training (CET) has been shown to be efficacious in the treatment of alcoholism; however, it has remained unexplored whether CET mediates its therapeutic effects via changes of activity in mesolimbic networks in response to alcohol cues. In this study, we assessed CET treatment effects on cue-induced responses using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).

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Apr
2011

The functional decryption of the human proteome is the challenge which follows the sequencing of the human genome. Specific binders to every human protein are key reagents for this purpose. In vitro antibody selection using phage display offers one possible solution that can meet the demand for 25,000 or more antibodies, but needs substantial standardisation and minimalisation.

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Aug
2009

Aspergillus fumigatus is a common airborne fungal pathogen for humans. It frequently causes an invasive aspergillosis (IA) in immunocompromised patients with poor prognosis. Potent antifungal drugs are very expensive and cause serious adverse effects.

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Sep
2008

Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) belongs to the Alphavirus group. Several species of this family are also pathogenic to humans and are recognized as potential agents of biological warfare and terrorism. The objective of this work was the generation of recombinant antibodies for the detection of VEEV after a potential bioterrorism assault or an natural outbreak of VEEV.

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Mar
2007

The connection of the variable part of the heavy chain (VH) and and the variable part of the light chain (VL) by a peptide linker to form a consecutive polypeptide chain (single chain antibody, scFv) was a breakthrough for the functional production of antibody fragments in Escherichia coli. Being double the size of fragment variable (Fv) fragments and requiring assembly of two independent polypeptide chains, functional Fab fragments are usually produced with significantly lower yields in E. coli.

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Dec
1969

The cerebellum and the hippocampus are key structures for the acquisition of conditioned eyeblink responses. Whereas the cerebellum seems to be crucial for all types of eyeblink conditioning, the hippocampus appears to be involved only in complex types of learning. We conducted a differential conditioning study to explore the suitability of the design for magnetencephalography (MEG).

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