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Author: Martina Ott (16)


Jan
2018

Multimodal imaging combines complementary platforms for spatially resolved tissue analysis that are poised for application in life science and personalized medicine. Unlike established clinical in vivo multimodality imaging, automated workflows for in-depth multimodal molecular ex vivo tissue analysis that combine the speed and ease of spectroscopic imaging with molecular details provided by mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) are lagging behind. Here, we present an integrated approach that utilizes non-destructive Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscopy and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) MSI for analysing single-slide tissue specimen.

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Dec
1969

Mutation-specific vaccines have become increasingly important in glioma immunotherapy; however, shared neoepitopes are rare. For diffuse gliomas, a driver mutation in the gene for isocitrate dehydrogenase type-1 has been shown to produce an immunogenic epitope currently targeted in clinical trials. For highly aggressive midline gliomas, a recurrent point mutation in the histone-3 gene () causes an amino acid change from lysine to methionine at position 27 (K27M).

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Aug
2017

Despite a multiplicity of clinical trials testing immune checkpoint inhibitors, the frequency of expression of potential predictive biomarkers is unknown in glioma.
In this study, we profiled the frequency of shared biomarker phenotypes. To clarify the relationships among tumor mutational load (TML), mismatch repair (MMR), and immune checkpoint expression, we profiled patients with glioma (n = 327), including glioblastoma (GBM) (n = 198), whose samples had been submitted for analysis from 2009 to 2016.

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Apr
2017

Mutations in codon 132 of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 are frequent in diffuse glioma, acute myeloid leukemia, chondrosarcoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. These mutations result in a neomorphic enzyme specificity which leads to a dramatic increase of intracellular D-2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) in tumor cells. Therefore, mutant IDH1 protein is a highly attractive target for inhibitory drugs.

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Dec
1969

Tryptophan metabolism is a key process that shapes the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. The two rate-limiting enzymes that mediate tryptophan depletion, indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO), have moved into the focus of research and inhibitors targeting IDO and TDO have entered clinical trials. Local tryptophan depletion is generally viewed as the crucial immunosuppressive mechanism.

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Aug
2016

Influencing cancer metabolism by lifestyle changes is an attractive strategy as - if effective - exercise-induced problems may be less severe than those induced by classical anti-cancer therapies. Pursuing this idea, clinical trials evaluated the benefit of e.g.

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Feb
2016

Neoangiogenesis is a pivotal therapeutic target in glioblastoma. Tumor monitoring requires imaging methods to assess treatment effects and disease progression. Until now mapping of the tumor vasculature has been difficult.

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Dec
2015

Malignant gliomas and other types of tumors generate a local immunosuppressive microenvironment, which prohibits an effective anti-tumor immune response and promotes tumor growth. Along with others, we have recently demonstrated that catabolism of the essential amino acid tryptophan via tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) is an important mechanism mediating tumor-associated immunosuppression particularly in gliomas. The pathways regulating TDO in tumors, however, are poorly understood.

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Jan
2015

Tryptophan catabolism is increasingly recognized as a key and druggable molecular mechanism active in cancer, immune, and glioneural cells and involved in the modulation of antitumor immunity, autoimmunity and glioneural function. In addition to the pivotal rate limiting enzyme indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase, expression of tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) has recently been described as an alternative pathway responsible for constitutive tryptophan degradation in malignant gliomas and other types of cancer. In addition, TDO has been implicated as a key regulator of neurotoxicity involved in neurodegenerative diseases and ageing.

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Aug
2014

Monoallelic point mutations of isocitrate dehydrogenase type 1 (IDH1) are an early and defining event in the development of a subgroup of gliomas and other types of tumour. They almost uniformly occur in the critical arginine residue (Arg 132) in the catalytic pocket, resulting in a neomorphic enzymatic function, production of the oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG), genomic hypermethylation, genetic instability and malignant transformation. More than 70% of diffuse grade II and grade III gliomas carry the most frequent mutation, IDH1(R132H) (ref.

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Feb
2014

Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) inhibitors have entered clinical trials based on their ability to restore anti-tumor immunity in preclinical studies. However, the mechanisms leading to constitutive expression of IDO in human tumors are largely unknown. Here we analyzed the pathways mediating constitutive IDO expression in human cancer.

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Jan
2014

Prophylaxis with unmethylated cytosine phosphate guanidine (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) protects against several systemic experimental infections. Escherichia coli is a major cause of Gram-negative neonatal bacterial meningitis and also causes meningitis and meningoencephalitis in older and immunocompromised patients.
Wild-type (wt) and Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9)-deficient mice were rendered neutropenic by intraperitoneal administration of the anti-Ly-6G monoclonal antibody.

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Sep
2013

Disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a hallmark of acute inflammatory lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. This disruption may precede and facilitate the infiltration of encephalitogenic T cells. The signaling events that lead to this BBB disruption are incompletely understood but appear to involve dysregulation of tight-junction proteins such as claudins.

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Dec
1969

Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is the catalytic subunit of the Polycomb-repressive complex 2 (PRC2) that epigenetically silences gene transcription through histone H3 lysine trimethylation (H3K27me3). EZH2 has been implicated in stem cell maintenance and is overexpressed in hematological and solid malignancie`s including malignant glioma. EZH2 is thought to promote tumor progression by silencing tumor suppressor genes.

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Oct
2011

Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) by environmental xenobiotic toxic chemicals, for instance 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin), has been implicated in a variety of cellular processes such as embryogenesis, transformation, tumorigenesis and inflammation. But the identity of an endogenous ligand activating the AHR under physiological conditions in the absence of environmental toxic chemicals is still unknown. Here we identify the tryptophan (Trp) catabolite kynurenine (Kyn) as an endogenous ligand of the human AHR that is constitutively generated by human tumour cells via tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO), a liver- and neuron-derived Trp-degrading enzyme not yet implicated in cancer biology.

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