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Author: Matthias Endres (239)



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Feb
2018

Suramin is a trypan blue analogon originally developed to treat protozoan infections, which was found to have diverse antitumor effects. One of the most severe side effects in clinical trials was the development of a peripheral sensory-motor polyneuropathy. In this study, we aimed to investigate suramin-induced neuropathy with a focus on calcium (Ca) homeostasis as a potential pathomechanism.

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Jan
2018

Delayed cell death in the penumbra region of acute ischemic stroke occurs through apoptotic mechanisms, making it amenable to therapeutic interventions. Fas/CD95 mediates apoptotic cell death in response to external stimuli. In mature neurons, Fas/CD95 signaling is modulated by Fas-apoptotic inhibitory molecule 2 (Faim2), which reduces cell death in animal models of stroke, meningitis, and Parkinson disease.

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Jan
2018

To investigate parameters associated with hematoma enlargement in non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant (NOAC)-related intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH).
This retrospective cohort study includes individual patient data for 190 patients with NOAC-associated ICH over a 5-year period (2011-2015) at 19 departments of neurology across Germany. Primary outcome was the association of prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) administration with hematoma enlargement.

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Feb
2018

Prehospital stroke severity scales may help to triage acute ischemic stroke patients with large vessel occlusion (LVO) for direct transportation to a comprehensive stroke center. The impact on resource use and time to reperfusion treatment for patients with and without LVO is unknown.
Based on empirical distributions of stroke symptom severity, prehospital delay times, and stroke symptom severity-dependent likelihood of LVO, we simulate prehospital incidents of stroke-like symptoms in abstract geographical environments to estimate the impact of prehospital triage strategies based on different cutoffs of the rapid arterial occlusion evaluation scale.

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Dec
2017

After stroke, macrophages in the ischemic brain may be derived from either resident microglia or infiltrating monocytes. Using bone marrow (BM)-chimerism and dual-reporter transgenic fate mapping, we here set out to delimit the responses of either cell type to mild brain ischemia in a mouse model of 30 min transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). A discriminatory analysis of gene expression at 7 days post-event yielded 472 transcripts predominantly or exclusively expressed in blood-derived macrophages as well as 970 transcripts for microglia.

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Feb
2018

Background Acute vascular effects of high intensity physical activity are incompletely characterized. Circulating microparticles are cellular markers for vascular activation and damage. Methods Microparticles were analysed in 99 marathon runners (49 ± 6 years, 22% female) of the prospective Berlin Beat of Running study.

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Dec
1969

Stroke is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. In addition to neuronal death resulting directly from energy depletion due to lack of blood supply, inflammation and microglial activation following ischemic brain injury has been increasingly recognized to be a key contributor to the pathophysiology of cerebrovascular disease. However, our understanding of the cross talk between the ischemic brain and the immune system is limited.

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Nov
2017

Therapeutic oral anticoagulation on hospital admission reduces morbidity and mortality after acute ischaemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). The underlying mechanism is not fully understood. In order to assess the impact of INR-level on admission on stroke volume, lesion pattern and the frequency of intracranial arterial occlusion, we analysed serial MRI measurements in AF patients suffering acute ischaemic stroke.

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Jan
2018

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors are regulators of inflammatory signaling. This has fostered hope that PPAR agonists might have neuroprotective potential. We hypothesized that PPARδ activation by the novel orally administered lipophilic PPARδ agonist SAR145 may improve short- and long-term outcome after focal brain ischemia.

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Dec
2017

Selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) impair platelet function and have been linked to a higher risk of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage-an association that may be augmented by oral anticoagulants (OAC). We aimed to assess whether preadmission treatment with SSRIs in patients with acute ischemic stroke is associated with post-thrombolysis symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) and functional outcome.
A multicenter retrospective analysis was conducted in prospective registries of patients treated by thrombolysis within 4.

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Dec
1969

The transcription factor ZEB1 has gained attention in tumor biology of epithelial cancers because of its function in epithelial-mesenchymal transition, DNA repair, stem cell biology and tumor-induced immunosuppression, but its role in gliomas with respect to invasion and prognostic value is controversial. We characterized ZEB1 expression at single cell level in 266 primary brain tumors and present a comprehensive dataset of high grade gliomas with Ki67, p53, IDH1, and EGFR immunohistochemistry, as well as EGFR FISH. ZEB1 protein expression in glioma stem cell lines was compared to their parental tumors with respect to gene expression subtypes based on RNA-seq transcriptomic profiles.

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Sep
2017

To determine whether the manner of consent, i.e., informed consent by patients themselves or informed consent by proxy, affects clinical characteristics of samples of acute stroke patients enrolled in clinical trials.

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Aug
2017

While regular physical exercise has many health benefits, strenuous physical exercise may have a negative impact on cardiac function. The 'Berlin Beat of Running' study focused on feasibility and diagnostic value of continuous ECG monitoring in recreational endurance athletes during a marathon race. We hypothesised that cardiac arrhythmias and especially atrial fibrillation are frequently found in a cohort of recreational endurance athletes.

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Jul
2017

Reports on neuroprotective effects of Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in ischemic brain tissue are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to determine if plasma levels of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 in acute stroke patients are indicative of 3 months functional outcome. Plasma levels were measured via chemiluminescence immunoassay in heparin blood samples of patients included in the EARLY trial (NCT00562588).

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Aug
2017

Patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and large vessel occlusion may benefit from direct transportation to an endovascular capable comprehensive stroke center (mothership approach) as opposed to direct transportation to the nearest stroke unit without endovascular therapy (drip and ship approach). The optimal transport strategy for patients with AIS and unknown vessel status is uncertain. The rapid arterial occlusion evaluation scale (RACE, scores ranging from 0 to 9, with higher scores indicating higher stroke severity) correlates with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and was developed to identify patients with large vessel occlusion in a prehospital setting.

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Apr
2017

Several studies showed reduced stroke severity in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) if the international normalized ratio (INR) was ≥ 2 at stroke onset. There are no respective data for non-vitamin K-dependent oral anticoagulants (NOACs). The aim of this study was to compare the impact of NOAC or phenprocoumon intake on stroke severity.

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Jan
2018

Background Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) mismatch was suggested to identify stroke patients with unknown time of symptom onset likely to be within the time window for thrombolysis. Aims We aimed to study clinical characteristics associated with DWI-FLAIR mismatch in patients with unknown onset stroke. Methods We analyzed baseline MRI and clinical data from patients with acute ischemic stroke proven by DWI from WAKE-UP, an investigator-initiated, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of MRI-based thrombolysis in stroke patients with unknown time of symptom onset.

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May
2017

Etiology of acute ischemic stroke remains undetermined (cryptogenic) in about 25% of patients after state-of-the-art diagnostic work-up.
One-hundred and three patients with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-proven acute ischemic stroke of undetermined origin were prospectively enrolled and underwent 3-T cardiac MRI and magnetic resonance angiography of the aortic arch in addition to state-of-the-art diagnostic work-up, including transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). We analyzed the feasibility, diagnostic accuracy, and added value of cardiovascular MRI (cvMRI) compared with TEE for detecting sources of stroke.

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Apr
2017

Atrial fibrillation (AF) and dementia are both frequent diseases with substantial socioeconomic impact. While AF has been associated with cognitive dysfunction and dementia, we currently lack an exact understanding of the complex association between AF and cognitive decline. Based on an extended literature search we summarize key publications focusing on AF-related cognitive decline and dementia.

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Oct
2017

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder of high prevalence and major socioeconomic impact. Patients suffering from PTSD typically present intrusion and avoidance symptoms and alterations in arousal, mood and cognition that last for more than 1 month. Animal models are an indispensable tool to investigate underlying pathophysiological pathways and, in particular, the complex interplay of neuroendocrine, genetic and environmental factors that may be responsible for PTSD induction.

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May
2017

Cerebral edema caused by the disruption of the blood-brain barrier is a major complication after stroke. Therefore, strategies to accelerate and enhance neurovascular recovery after stroke are of prime interest. Our main aim was to study the role of ephrinB2/EphB4 signaling in mediating the vascular repair and in blood-brain barrier restoration after mild cerebral ischemia occlusion/reperfusion.

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Apr
2017

Elevated levels of cardiac troponin, and especially their relative changes over time, indicate acute myocardial injury. They are also frequently observed after acute ischemic stroke (AIS), indicating poor functional outcome and increased mortality. However, recent evidence showed that, in most AIS patients, myocardial injury is not caused by coronary ischemia.

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Dec
1969

Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) is an established approach to treat symptomatic non-permanent atrial fibrillation (AF). Detecting AF recurrence after PVI is important, if discontinuation of oral anticoagulation after ablation is considered.
Patients with symptomatic paroxysmal AF were enrolled in the prospective randomized mesh ablator vs.

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Mar
2017

We describe clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of stroke patients with unknown time of symptom onset potentially eligible for thrombolysis from a large prospective cohort.
We analyzed baseline data from WAKE-UP (Efficacy and Safety of MRI-Based Thrombolysis in Wake-Up Stroke: A Randomized, Doubleblind, Placebo-Controlled Trial), an investigator-initiated, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of MRI-based thrombolysis in stroke patients with unknown time of symptom onset. MRI judgment included assessment of the mismatch between visibility of the acute ischemic lesion on diffusion-weighted imaging and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery.

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Feb
2017

The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) correlates with presence of large anterior vessel occlusion (LAVO). However, the application of the full NIHSS in the prehospital setting to select patients eligible for treatment with thrombectomy is limited. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of simple clinical selection strategies.

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Aug
2017

Microglia senescence may promote neuropsychiatric disease. This prompted us to examine the relationship between microglia activation states and telomere biology. A panel of candidate genes associated with telomere maintenance, mitochondrial biogenesis, and cell-cycle regulation were investigated in M1- and M2-polarized microglia in vitro as well as in MACS-purified CD11b+ microglia/brain macrophages from models of stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and chronic stress.

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Jan
2017

The association of elevated lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) levels and the incidence of cardiovascular disease, especially coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke, is well established. However, evidence on the association between Lp(a) levels and residual vascular risk in stroke survivors is lacking. We aimed to elucidate the risk for recurrent cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events in the patients with first-ever ischemic stroke with elevated Lp(a).

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Aug
2017

The pattern of vascular remodelling in relation to recovery after stroke remains largely unclear. We used steady-state contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging to assess the development of cerebral blood volume and microvascular density in perilesional and exofocal areas from (sub)acutely to chronically after transient stroke in rats. Microvascular density was verified histologically after infusion with Evans Blue dye.

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Aug
2016

VE-cadherin is the chief constituent of endothelial adherens junctions. However, the role of VE-cadherin in the pathogenesis of cerebrovascular diseases including brain ischemia has not yet been investigated.
VE-cadherin heterozygous (VEC(+/-)) mice and wildtype controls were subjected to transient brain ischemia by 30 min filamentous middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo)/reperfusion.

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Dec
1969

The aim of this study was to explore the signaling and neuroprotective effect of transactivator of transcription (TAT) protein transduction of the apoptosis repressor with CARD (ARC) in in vitro and in vivo models of cerebral ischemia in mice. In mice, transient focal cerebral ischemia reduced endogenous ARC protein in neurons in the ischemic striatum at early reperfusion time points, and in primary neuronal cultures, RNA interference resulted in greater neuronal susceptibility to oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD). TAT.

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Sep
2016

Specialised CT-equipped mobile stroke treatment units shorten time to intravenous thrombolysis in acute ischaemic stroke by starting treatment before hospital admission; however, direct effects of pre-hospital thrombolysis on clinical outcomes have not been shown. We aimed to compare 3-month functional outcomes after intravenous thrombolysis in patients with acute ischaemic who had received emergency mobile care or and conventional care.
In this observational registry study, patients with ischaemic stroke received intravenous thrombolysis (alteplase) either within a stroke emergency mobile (STEMO) vehicle (pre-hospital care covering 1·3 million inhabitants of Berlin) or within conventional care (normal ambulances and in-hospital care at the Charité Campus Benjamin Franklin in Berlin).

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Aug
2016

Specialized computed tomography-equipped stroke ambulances shorten time to intravenous thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke by starting treatment before hospital arrival. Because of longer travel-time-to-scene, time benefits of this concept are expected to diminish with longer distances from base station to scene.
We used data from the Prehospital Acute Neurological Treatment and Optimization of Medical Cares in Stroke (PHANTOM-S) trial comparing time intervals between patients for whom a specialized stroke ambulance (stroke emergency mobile) was deployed and patients with conventional emergency medical service.

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Sep
2016

Endothelial dysfunction may contribute to the pathophysiology of migraine with aura. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha (SDF-1α) is involved in the maintenance of endothelial integrity via mobilization of vascular stem cells.
We sought to determine whether SDF-1α levels are decreased in women with MA.

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Apr
2016

To assess whether statin treatment before or after acute ischemic stroke (AIS) affects the risk of acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), postacute ICH, and mortality within 90 days.
Data were sought from the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive, an international repository of clinical trials data. Using propensity score matching, we retrospectively compared patients with prior statin treatment and newly initiated statin within 3 days after AIS to patients without statin exposure.

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Mar
2016

A relevant proportion of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) have elevated levels of cardiac troponins (cTn). However, the frequency of coronary ischemia as the cause of elevated cTn is unknown. The aim of our study was to analyze coronary vessel status in AIS patients with elevated cTn compared with patients presenting with non-ST-segment-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS).

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Feb
2016

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is estimated to account for approximately every fifth ischemic stroke. In routine clinical practice, detection of undiagnosed, clinically silent AF represents a major diagnostic challenge, and in up to 30% of patients with ischemic stroke, AF remains undetected. The MonDAFIS study has been designed to quantify the diagnostic yield and clinical relevance of systematic electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring for patients with acute ischemic stroke during the subsequent in hospital stay.

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Dec
1969

Designing treatment strategies for unruptured giant intracranial aneurysms (GIA) is difficult as evidence of large clinical trials is lacking. We examined the outcome following surgical or endovascular GIA treatment focusing on patient age, GIA location and unruptured GIA.
Medline and Embase were searched for studies reporting on GIA treatment outcome published after January 2000.

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Feb
2016

The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is a fast, cheap, noninvasive indicator of atherosclerotic burden that may also be a predictor of stroke recurrence. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we sought to explore ABI's merit as a marker for stroke recurrence and vascular risk by synthesizing the data currently available in stroke literature.
We searched Embase, MEDLINE, and Pubmed databases for prospective cohort studies that included consecutive patients with stroke and transient ischemic attack, measured ABI at baseline, and performed a follow-up assessment at least 12 months after initial stroke or transient ischemic attack.

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Oct
2015

About 4.6 million persons in Germany are now taking statins, i.e.

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Nov
2015

Genetics of alcohol use disorders: Actin gets into the act.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2015 Nov 29;112(47):E6411. Epub 2015 Oct 29.
Golo Kronenberg, Matthias Endres, Karen Gertz

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Oct
2015

An effective diagnostic work-up in hospitalized patients with acute ischemic stroke is vital to optimize secondary stroke prevention. The HEart and BRain interfaces in Acute ischemic Stroke (HEBRAS) study aims to assess whether an enhanced MRI set-up and a prolonged Holter-ECG monitoring yields a higher rate of pathologic findings as compared to diagnostic procedures recommended by guidelines (including stroke unit monitoring for at least 24 h, echocardiography and ultrasound of brain-supplying arteries).
Prospective observational single-center study in 475 patients with acute ischemic stroke and without known atrial fibrillation.

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Jan
2016

The purpose of this study is to characterize the spectrum of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings in patients with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES)and determine its associations with severity of edema. In this retrospective cross-sectional study electronic medical reports were screened for patients with PRES. Clinical and laboratory data closest to onset of clinical symptoms were collected.

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Nov
2015

Common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) is an established marker for atherosclerosis. The role of triglycerides in CCA-IMT remains controversial. We sought to determine if elevated fasting and post-challenge triglycerides are associated with CCA-IMT.

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Dec
2015

Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks in 188 countries, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.

Lancet 2015 Dec 11;386(10010):2287-323. Epub 2015 Sep 11.
, Mohammad H Forouzanfar, Lily Alexander, H Ross Anderson, Victoria F Bachman, Stan Biryukov, Michael Brauer, Richard Burnett, Daniel Casey, Matthew M Coates, Aaron Cohen, Kristen Delwiche, Kara Estep, Joseph J Frostad, K C Astha, Hmwe H Kyu, Maziar Moradi-Lakeh, Marie Ng, Erica Leigh Slepak, Bernadette A Thomas, Joseph Wagner, Gunn Marit Aasvang, Cristiana Abbafati, Ayse Abbasoglu Ozgoren, Foad Abd-Allah, Semaw F Abera, Victor Aboyans, Biju Abraham, Jerry Puthenpurakal Abraham, Ibrahim Abubakar, Niveen M E Abu-Rmeileh, Tania C Aburto, Tom Achoki, Ademola Adelekan, Koranteng Adofo, Arsène K Adou, José C Adsuar, Ashkan Afshin, Emilie E Agardh, Mazin J Al Khabouri, Faris H Al Lami, Sayed Saidul Alam, Deena Alasfoor, Mohammed I Albittar, Miguel A Alegretti, Alicia V Aleman, Zewdie A Alemu, Rafael Alfonso-Cristancho, Samia Alhabib, Raghib Ali, Mohammed K Ali, François Alla, Peter Allebeck, Peter J Allen, Ubai Alsharif, Elena Alvarez, Nelson Alvis-Guzman, Adansi A Amankwaa, Azmeraw T Amare, Emmanuel A Ameh, Omid Ameli, Heresh Amini, Walid Ammar, Benjamin O Anderson, Carl Abelardo T Antonio, Palwasha Anwari, Solveig Argeseanu Cunningham, Johan Arnlöv, Valentina S Arsic Arsenijevic, Al Artaman, Rana J Asghar, Reza Assadi, Lydia S Atkins, Charles Atkinson, Marco A Avila, Baffour Awuah, Alaa Badawi, Maria C Bahit, Talal Bakfalouni, Kalpana Balakrishnan, Shivanthi Balalla, Ravi Kumar Balu, Amitava Banerjee, Ryan M Barber, Suzanne L Barker-Collo, Simon Barquera, Lars Barregard, Lope H Barrero, Tonatiuh Barrientos-Gutierrez, Ana C Basto-Abreu, Arindam Basu, Sanjay Basu, Mohammed O Basulaiman, Carolina Batis Ruvalcaba, Justin Beardsley, Neeraj Bedi, Tolesa Bekele, Michelle L Bell, Corina Benjet, Derrick A Bennett, Habib Benzian, Eduardo Bernabé, Tariku J Beyene, Neeraj Bhala, Ashish Bhalla, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Boris Bikbov, Aref A Bin Abdulhak, Jed D Blore, Fiona M Blyth, Megan A Bohensky, Berrak Bora Başara, Guilherme Borges, Natan M Bornstein, Dipan Bose, Soufiane Boufous, Rupert R Bourne, Michael Brainin, Alexandra Brazinova, Nicholas J Breitborde, Hermann Brenner, Adam D M Briggs, David M Broday, Peter M Brooks, Nigel G Bruce, Traolach S Brugha, Bert Brunekreef, Rachelle Buchbinder, Linh N Bui, Gene Bukhman, Andrew G Bulloch, Michael Burch, Peter G J Burney, Ismael R Campos-Nonato, Julio C Campuzano, Alejandra J Cantoral, Jack Caravanos, Rosario Cárdenas, Elisabeth Cardis, David O Carpenter, Valeria Caso, Carlos A Castañeda-Orjuela, Ruben E Castro, Ferrán Catalá-López, Fiorella Cavalleri, Alanur Çavlin, Vineet K Chadha, Jung-Chen Chang, Fiona J Charlson, Honglei Chen, Wanqing Chen, Zhengming Chen, Peggy P Chiang, Odgerel Chimed-Ochir, Rajiv Chowdhury, Costas A Christophi, Ting-Wu Chuang, Sumeet S Chugh, Massimo Cirillo, Thomas K D Claßen, Valentina Colistro, Mercedes Colomar, Samantha M Colquhoun, Alejandra G Contreras, Cyrus Cooper, Kimberly Cooperrider, Leslie T Cooper, Josef Coresh, Karen J Courville, Michael H Criqui, Lucia Cuevas-Nasu, James Damsere-Derry, Hadi Danawi, Lalit Dandona, Rakhi Dandona, Paul I Dargan, Adrian Davis, Dragos V Davitoiu, Anand Dayama, E Filipa de Castro, Vanessa De la Cruz-Góngora, Diego De Leo, Graça de Lima, Louisa Degenhardt, Borja del Pozo-Cruz, Robert P Dellavalle, Kebede Deribe, Sarah Derrett, Don C Des Jarlais, Muluken Dessalegn, Gabrielle A deVeber, Karen M Devries, Samath D Dharmaratne, Mukesh K Dherani, Daniel Dicker, Eric L Ding, Klara Dokova, E Ray Dorsey, Tim R Driscoll, Leilei Duan, Adnan M Durrani, Beth E Ebel, Richard G Ellenbogen, Yousef M Elshrek, Matthias Endres, Sergey P Ermakov, Holly E Erskine, Babak Eshrati, Alireza Esteghamati, Saman Fahimi, Emerito Jose A Faraon, Farshad Farzadfar, Derek F J Fay, Valery L Feigin, Andrea B Feigl, Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad, Alize J Ferrari, Cleusa P Ferri, Abraham D Flaxman, Thomas D Fleming, Nataliya Foigt, Kyle J Foreman, Urbano Fra Paleo, Richard C Franklin, Belinda Gabbe, Lynne Gaffikin, Emmanuela Gakidou, Amiran Gamkrelidze, Fortuné G Gankpé, Ron T Gansevoort, Francisco A García-Guerra, Evariste Gasana, Johanna M Geleijnse, Bradford D Gessner, Pete Gething, Katherine B Gibney, Richard F Gillum, Ibrahim A M Ginawi, Maurice Giroud, Giorgia Giussani, Shifalika Goenka, Ketevan Goginashvili, Hector Gomez Dantes, Philimon Gona, Teresita Gonzalez de Cosio, Dinorah González-Castell, Carolyn C Gotay, Atsushi Goto, Hebe N Gouda, Richard L Guerrant, Harish C Gugnani, Francis Guillemin, David Gunnell, Rahul Gupta, Rajeev Gupta, Reyna A Gutiérrez, Nima Hafezi-Nejad, Holly Hagan, Maria Hagstromer, Yara A Halasa, Randah R Hamadeh, Mouhanad Hammami, Graeme J Hankey, Yuantao Hao, Hilda L Harb, Tilahun Nigatu Haregu, Josep Maria Haro, Rasmus Havmoeller, Simon I Hay, Mohammad T Hedayati, Ileana B Heredia-Pi, Lucia Hernandez, Kyle R Heuton, Pouria Heydarpour, Martha Hijar, Hans W Hoek, Howard J Hoffman, John C Hornberger, H Dean Hosgood, Damian G Hoy, Mohamed Hsairi, Guoqing Hu, Howard Hu, Cheng Huang, John J Huang, Bryan J Hubbell, Laetitia Huiart, Abdullatif Husseini, Marissa L Iannarone, Kim M Iburg, Bulat T Idrisov, Nayu Ikeda, Kaire Innos, Manami Inoue, Farhad Islami, Samaya Ismayilova, Kathryn H Jacobsen, Henrica A Jansen, Deborah L Jarvis, Simerjot K Jassal, Alejandra Jauregui, Sudha Jayaraman, Panniyammakal Jeemon, Paul N Jensen, Vivekanand Jha, Fan Jiang, Guohong Jiang, Ying Jiang, Jost B Jonas, Knud Juel, Haidong Kan, Sidibe S Kany Roseline, Nadim E Karam, André Karch, Corine K Karema, Ganesan Karthikeyan, Anil Kaul, Norito Kawakami, Dhruv S Kazi, Andrew H Kemp, Andre P Kengne, Andre Keren, Yousef S Khader, Shams Eldin Ali Hassan Khalifa, Ejaz A Khan, Young-Ho Khang, Shahab Khatibzadeh, Irma Khonelidze, Christian Kieling, Daniel Kim, Sungroul Kim, Yunjin Kim, Ruth W Kimokoti, Yohannes Kinfu, Jonas M Kinge, Brett M Kissela, Miia Kivipelto, Luke D Knibbs, Ann Kristin Knudsen, Yoshihiro Kokubo, M Rifat Kose, Soewarta Kosen, Alexander Kraemer, Michael Kravchenko, Sanjay Krishnaswami, Hans Kromhout, Tiffany Ku, Barthelemy Kuate Defo, Burcu Kucuk Bicer, Ernst J Kuipers, Chanda Kulkarni, Veena S Kulkarni, G Anil Kumar, Gene F Kwan, Taavi Lai, Arjun Lakshmana Balaji, Ratilal Lalloo, Tea Lallukka, Hilton Lam, Qing Lan, Van C Lansingh, Heidi J Larson, Anders Larsson, Dennis O Laryea, Pablo M Lavados, Alicia E Lawrynowicz, Janet L Leasher, Jong-Tae Lee, James Leigh, Ricky Leung, Miriam Levi, Yichong Li, Yongmei Li, Juan Liang, Xiaofeng Liang, Stephen S Lim, M Patrice Lindsay, Steven E Lipshultz, Shiwei Liu, Yang Liu, Belinda K Lloyd, Giancarlo Logroscino, Stephanie J London, Nancy Lopez, Joannie Lortet-Tieulent, Paulo A Lotufo, Rafael Lozano, Raimundas Lunevicius, Jixiang Ma, Stefan Ma, Vasco M P Machado, Michael F MacIntyre, Carlos Magis-Rodriguez, Abbas A Mahdi, Marek Majdan, Reza Malekzadeh, Srikanth Mangalam, Christopher C Mapoma, Marape Marape, Wagner Marcenes, David J Margolis, Christopher Margono, Guy B Marks, Randall V Martin, Melvin B Marzan, Mohammad T Mashal, Felix Masiye, Amanda J Mason-Jones, Kunihiro Matsushita, Richard Matzopoulos, Bongani M Mayosi, Tasara T Mazorodze, Abigail C McKay, Martin McKee, Abigail McLain, Peter A Meaney, Catalina Medina, Man Mohan Mehndiratta, Fabiola Mejia-Rodriguez, Wubegzier Mekonnen, Yohannes A Melaku, Michele Meltzer, Ziad A Memish, Walter Mendoza, George A Mensah, Atte Meretoja, Francis Apolinary Mhimbira, Renata Micha, Ted R Miller, Edward J Mills, Awoke Misganaw, Santosh Mishra, Norlinah Mohamed Ibrahim, Karzan A Mohammad, Ali H Mokdad, Glen L Mola, Lorenzo Monasta, Julio C Montañez Hernandez, Marcella Montico, Ami R Moore, Lidia Morawska, Rintaro Mori, Joanna Moschandreas, Wilkister N Moturi, Dariush Mozaffarian, Ulrich O Mueller, Mitsuru Mukaigawara, Erin C Mullany, Kinnari S Murthy, Mohsen Naghavi, Ziad Nahas, Aliya Naheed, Kovin S Naidoo, Luigi Naldi, Devina Nand, Vinay Nangia, K M Venkat Narayan, Denis Nash, Bruce Neal, Chakib Nejjari, Sudan P Neupane, Charles R Newton, Frida N Ngalesoni, Jean de Dieu Ngirabega, Grant 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The Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factor study 2013 (GBD 2013) is the first of a series of annual updates of the GBD. Risk factor quantification, particularly of modifiable risk factors, can help to identify emerging threats to population health and opportunities for prevention. The GBD 2013 provides a timely opportunity to update the comparative risk assessment with new data for exposure, relative risks, and evidence on the appropriate counterfactual risk distribution.

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Sep
2015

Chronic inflammatory airway disease (CIAD) has emerged as independent risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and ischemic stroke but the impact of co-existing CIAD in patients with ischemic stroke is less clear.
We retrospectively analyzed 1013 patients with acute ischemic stroke who were consecutively admitted to the Department of Neurology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany within one year. Mean follow-up was 80 months (IQR 32-85 months).

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