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Author: Meline Stoy (16)


Jan
2018

Anticipatory anxiety and harm avoidance are essential features of panic disorder (PD) and may involve deficits in the reward system of the brain, in particular in the ventral striatum. While neuroimaging studies on PD have focused on fearful and negative affective stimulus processing, no investigations have directly addressed deficits in reward and loss anticipation. To determine whether the ventral striatum shows abnormal neural activity in PD patients during anticipation of loss or gain, an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment using a monetary incentive delay task was employed in 10 patients with PD and 10 healthy controls.

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Dec
1969

Studying psychiatric disorders across nosological boundaries aims at a better understanding of mental disorders by identifying comprehensive signatures of core symptoms. Here, we studied neurobiological correlates of emotion processing in several major psychiatric disorders. We assessed differences between diagnostic groups, and investigated whether there is a psychopathological correlate of emotion processing that transcends disorder categories.

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Jan
2015

A dimensional approach in psychiatry aims to identify core mechanisms of mental disorders across nosological boundaries.
We compared anticipation of reward between major psychiatric disorders, and investigated whether reward anticipation is impaired in several mental disorders and whether there is a common psychopathological correlate (negative mood) of such an impairment.
We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a monetary incentive delay (MID) task to study the functional correlates of reward anticipation across major psychiatric disorders in 184 subjects, with the diagnoses of alcohol dependence (n = 26), schizophrenia (n = 44), major depressive disorder (MDD, n = 24), bipolar disorder (acute manic episode, n = 13), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, n = 23), and healthy controls (n = 54).

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Apr
2013

Patients with depression show an enhanced preoccupation with negative expectations and are often unable to look forward to positive events. Here we studied anticipatory emotional processes in unmedicated depressed patients using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Consistent with a negative processing bias, we hypothesized enhanced responses to negative and attenuated responses to positive expectancy cues in brain areas associated with emotional expectancy.

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Dec
1969

While hemispheric specialization of language processing is well established, lateralization of emotion processing is still under debate. Several conflicting hypotheses have been proposed, including right hemisphere hypothesis, valence asymmetry hypothesis and region-specific lateralization hypothesis. However, experimental evidence for these hypotheses remains inconclusive, partly because direct comparisons between hemispheres are scarce.

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Nov
2012

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is associated with impaired processing and regulation of emotions. A vast body of research has elucidated the altered neural processes that occur in response to emotional stimuli, while little is known about anticipatory processes. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate neural activation during the presentation and anticipation of negative stimuli.

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May
2012

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) involves deficits in the reward system. While neuroimaging studies have focused on affective stimulus processing, few investigations have directly addressed deficits in the anticipation of incentives. We examined neural responses during gain and loss anticipation in patients with MDD before and after treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI).

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Jun
2011

Dysfunctional reward processing has been proposed as a main deficit in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which could be modulated by treatment with methylphenidate (MPH).
We examined differences in reward processing in adulthood (independent of actual ADHD) depending on MPH treatment during childhood.
Eleven males with childhood ADHD treated with MPH, 12 drug-naïve males with childhood ADHD, and 12 controls matched by age, handedness, and smoking behavior were studied drug-free using functional magnetic resonance imaging.

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Mar
2011

In spite of excessive fear during a panic attack, studies have found no or little evidence for an activation of cortisol during natural panic attacks. Whether this phenomenon is related to psychopathology or outcome of psychotherapy is unknown. In this study, 10 patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia were treated with cognitive behavioural therapy including 3 in-vivo exposures (flooding) to individual phobic situations.

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Aug
2011

Neural correlates of emotional dysregulation in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and persisting influence of Methylphenidate (MPH) still remain insufficiently understood. Decreased activation in the subgenual cingulate and the ventral striatum were found during the perception of positive and negative affective pictures in drug-naïve males with ADHD during childhood (n=10). Males with ADHD during childhood treated with MPH (n=10) did not show any significant differences compared to healthy controls (n=10).

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May
2010

Self-referential processing involves a complex set of cognitive functions, posing challenges to delineating its independent neural correlates. While self-referential processing has been considered functionally intertwined with episodic memory, the present study explores their overlap and dissociability. Standard tasks for self-referential processing and episodic memory were combined into a single fMRI experiment.

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Jul
2010

Increased responsiveness to appetitive and reduced responsiveness to aversive anticipatory cues may be associated with dysfunction of the brain reward system in mania. Here we studied neural correlates of gain and loss expectation in mania using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).
Fifteen manic patients and 26 matched healthy control individuals performed a monetary incentive delay task, during which subjects anticipated to win or lose a varying amount of money.

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Apr
2010

The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in depression and anxiety. Antidepressants and exercise increase BDNF expression, and both have an antidepressant and anxiolytic activity. To further characterize the association of anxiety, BDNF and exercise, we studied panic disorder patients (n=12) and individually matched healthy control subjects (n=12) in a standardized exercise paradigm.

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Aug
2009

In major depression, prefrontal regulation of limbic brain areas may be a key mechanism that is impaired during the processing of affective information. This prefrontal-limbic interaction has been shown to be modulated by serotonin (5-HTT) genotype, indicating a higher risk for major depressive disorder (MDD) with increasing number of 5-HTT low-expression alleles.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess neural response to uncued unpleasant affective pictures in 21 unmedicated patients with MDD compared to 21 matched healthy controls, taking into account genetic influences of the 5-HTT (SCL6A4) high- and low-expression genotype.

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Feb
2009

The present study in hypomanic and manic patients explored how amygdala responses to affective stimuli depend on the valence of the stimuli presented.
We compared 10 patients with 10 matched healthy control subjects. We measured blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses in the amygdala while subjects passively viewed photographs taken from the International Affective Picture System.

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Feb
2008

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been suggested to involve deficits in reward processing. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare the neural responses to reward anticipation and outcomes in 10 adults with ADHD and 10 controls as they played a monetary incentive delay task. Adults with ADHD were unmedicated, and groups were matched for age, verbal IQ and smoking habits.

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