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Author: Michael A Rapp (80)


Dec
1969

Previous studies on working memory training have indicated that transfer to non-trained tasks of other cognitive domains may be possible. The aim of this study is to compare working memory training and transfer effects between younger and older adults (n = 60). A novel approach to adaptive n-back training (12 sessions) was implemented by varying the working memory load and the presentation speed.

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Sep
2012

Age-related decline in cognitive speed has been associated with prefrontal dopamine D1 receptor availability, but the contribution of presynaptic dopamine and noradrenaline innervation to age-related changes in cognition is unknown.
In a group of 16 healthy participants aged 22-61 years, we used PET and the radioligand FDOPA to measure catecholamine synthesis capacity (K (in) (app); millilitres per gram per minute) and the digit symbol substitution test to measure cognitive speed, a component of fluid IQ.
Cognitive speed was associated with the magnitude of K (in) (app) in the prefrontal cortex (p < 0.

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Nov
2012

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between dementia severity, age, gender, and prescription of psychotropics, and syndromes of agitation and depression in a sample of nursing home residents with dementia.
The Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI) was administered to residents with dementia (N = 304) of 18 nursing homes. Agitation symptoms were clustered using factorial analysis.

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Jun
2013

Fluid intelligence represents the capacity for flexible problem solving and rapid behavioral adaptation. Rewards drive flexible behavioral adaptation, in part via a teaching signal expressed as reward prediction errors in the ventral striatum, which has been associated with phasic dopamine release in animal studies. We examined a sample of 28 healthy male adults using multimodal imaging and biological parametric mapping with (1) functional magnetic resonance imaging during a reversal learning task and (2) in a subsample of 17 subjects also with positron emission tomography using 6-[(18) F]fluoro-L-DOPA to assess dopamine synthesis capacity.

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Apr
2012

To assess the association between migrant status and depressive symptoms among the older population in Germany.
In a cross-sectional study with the German subsample of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), a population-based sample of 2890 German residents aged 50 years or older (mean age 65 years, 55 % women), the association between migrant status (defined as being born outside of, and having immigrated to Germany) and depressive symptoms (≥ 4 points on the EURO-D scale) was examined by multiple logistic regression analysis.
A total of 539 respondents (19 %) were migrants.

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Apr
2012

This study examines the effect of age on rate of cognitive decline in different stages of dementia, of nursing home and assisted-living residents.
In this longitudinal study, the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) was used to measure rate of cognitive decline in subjects who were nondemented [Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR)=0; n=353], questionably demented (CDR=0.5; n=121), or frankly demented (CDR≥1; n=213) at baseline.

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Apr
2011

There is evidence that major depression increases the risk for dementia, but there is conflicting evidence as to whether depression may accelerate cognitive decline in dementia. The authors tested the hypothesis that decline in cognitive function over time is more pronounced in patients with dementia with comorbid depression, when compared with patients with dementia without depression history.
Prospective, longitudinal cohort study of aging.

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Feb
2011

Negative mood states are characterized by both stress hormone dysregulation and serotonergic dysfunction, reflected by altered thalamic serotonin transporter (5-HTT) levels. However, so far, no study examined the individual association between cortisol response and cerebral in vivo 5-HTT levels in patients suffering from negative mood states.
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess the interrelation of cortisol response, thalamic 5-HTT levels, and anxiety in healthy subjects and two previously published samples of patients with unipolar major depression (UMD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), controlling for age, gender, 5-HTT genotype, smoking, and seasonality.

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May
2010

The neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia, including aggressiveness, agitation, depression, and apathy are often treated with psychotropic drugs and are a frequent reason for hospitalization, placing an economic burden on the health care system. International guidelines recommend syndrome-specific pharmacotherapy. We studied the question whether drug-prescribing practices are, in fact, syndrome-specific.

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May
2010

Neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia like agitation, depression and apathy often result in increased prescriptions of psychotropics. In Germany, outpatient clinics at psychiatric hospitals play an important role in the treatment of neuropsychiatric symptoms in nursing homes. The aim of this study was to test whether the severity and pharmacotherapy differed in patients treated by outpatient clinics at psychiatric hospitals, as compared to primary care specialists.

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Jun
2010

We report on the treatment of a patient suffering from dementia with Lewy bodies who initially presented with severe neurological and psychopathological symptoms. After treating the patient with levodopa and clozapine, these symptoms remitted.

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Dec
1969

Persistent depressive symptoms after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are common and increase the risk of recurrent cardiac events and mortality. However, the neurobiological correlates of post-ACS depressive symptoms have not yet been studied.
Three months after ACS, 22 patients were scanned for the presence of cerebral deep white matter changes and microstructural abnormalities in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

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Mar
2010

Behavioural and psychological symptoms of Dementia include agitation, depression and apathy. Apathy is a common condition and a major challenge especially in nursing home residents. The development of a brief intervention for nursing home residents combining physical activation and reminiscence therapy in order to reactivating apathic residents and increasing their quality of life will be described.

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Jan
2010

Cognitive decline has been described in elderly patients with schizophrenia, but the underlying pathology remains unknown. Some studies report increases in plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, but there is no evidence for an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) in elderly schizophrenics. Models of a decreased cerebral reserve suggest that increases in AD-related neuropathology below the threshold for a neuropathological diagnosis could be related to dementia severity in elderly schizophrenia patients.

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Dec
2009

The mini-mental state exam (MMSE) has been used to address questions such as determination of appropriate cutoff scores for differentiation of individuals with intact cognitive function from patients with dementia and rate of cognitive decline. However, little is known about the relationship of performance in specific cognitive domains to subsequent overall decline.
To examine the specific and/or combined contribution of four MMSE domains (orientation for time, orientation for place, delayed recall, and attention) to prediction of overall cognitive decline on the MMSE.

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Mar
2009

We investigate dynamic posture control and working memory (NBack) retest practice in young and older adults, focusing on older adults' potential for improvement in the component tasks but more importantly in dual-task performance. Participants performed the 2 tasks in 11 sessions under single- and dual-task conditions. Posture improvement was observed with retest practice for both groups.

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Dec
2008

The process of migration may be associated not only with great hope, but also with distressing experiences that can lead to trauma and posttraumatic stress disorders. Although some of the symptoms induced by trauma are common across cultures, the strategies used to deal with them are often culture-specific. In the following paper, we consider the unique aspects of trauma-focused psychotherapy in patients with a history of migration.

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Oct
2008

There is evidence that depression in old age is associated with an increased mortality risk, but studies have also yielded inconclusive results. Possible moderators of the depression-mortality association in old age discussed in the literature are differences in cardiovascular morbidity, effects of multimorbidity, and increasing effects of subthreshold depression symptoms, such as minor depression and loneliness, on mortality. This study is concerned with the depression-mortality association in old and very old age.

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Oct
2008

Culture-specific concepts of health and disease, cultural values, and other culture-specific factors can influence the outcome of psychotherapeutic interventions in migrant patients. In this article, culture-specific factors, and specifically, their role in sexually traumatized migrant patients from Turkey, are reviewed and illustrated with two case reports. The influence of culture-specific factors on trauma-focussed psychotherapy is being discussed.

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Feb
2008

Recent evidence suggests that a history of major depression may lead to increases in hippocampal neuropathology in Alzheimer disease (AD). The authors tested the hypothesis that neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are more pronounced in the brains of patients with AD with comorbid depression as compared with patients with AD without depression.
Brain samples from patients were selected from the U.

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Jul
2006

Some, but not most, schizophrenia patients have below-average intelligence years before they manifest psychosis. However, it is not clear if those whose intelligence falls within-normal-range nevertheless have cognitive abnormalities. We examined the association between intra-individual variability in intellectual performance and risk for schizophrenia in individuals with normal IQ.

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Feb
2006

The hallmark pathological changes in Alzheimer disease (AD) are abundant plaque and tangle formation, especially in the temporal lobes and hippocampus. Although there is increasing evidence that major depression may interact with neuropathological processes in AD, there have been no studies of neuropathological changes in AD as a function of history of major depression.
To test the hypothesis that neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are more pronounced in the hippocampus of patients with AD with a lifetime history of major depressive disorder, as compared with patients with AD without depression history.

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Jan
2006

With age, the performance of multiple tasks decreases, a pattern exaggerated in Alzheimer disease (AD). At the same time, recent research, based on adaptive theories of healthy aging, indicates a preference of older adults to allocate resources toward tasks of higher immediate value (e.g.

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Dec
2005

Consistent evidence indicates that some, but not most, patients with schizophrenia have below-average intelligence years before they manifest psychosis. However, it is not clear whether this below-average premorbid intelligence is stable or progressive.
To examine whether increased risk for schizophrenia is associated with declining intellectual performance from childhood through adolescence.

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Jun
2005

The authors examined the association between neuropsychological tests of executive functioning and episodic memory and functional disability in nursing home residents versus community-dwelling older adults.
The neuropsychological performance of 96 residents from the Jewish Home and Hospital, Bronx, NY and 192 gender- and age-matched older adults from residential communities in the New York metropolitan area was assessed in eight tasks (Word List Recall, Delayed Recall, Recognition, Boston Naming, Verbal Fluency, Trailmaking A and B, and Digit Symbol Substitution). Functional status was derived from the Clinical Dementia Rating scale (CDR) extended activities of daily living scores.

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Jun
2005

A prognostic role for depressive disorder presence and/or elevated depressive symptoms in the onset and recurrence of cardiovascular disease has been largely supported. Depression is a multifaceted disorder, encompassing a wide range of somatic, cognitive, and mood symptoms; it varies in intensity, duration, frequency, course, and family history; it can be assessed continuously or categorically; it can be obtained by interview or by self-report; and importantly, the cardiac prognostic impact of these distinctions may vary. We provide an overview of definitions and possible assessment of depression, and we discuss key assessment distinctions.

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Jun
2005

Recent evidence suggests that cross-domain variability in cognition may be related to subsequent cognitive decline beyond mean performance levels in cognitive tasks.
To examine age-related changes in cross-domain variability across cognitive task performance in very old nursing home residents in contrast to community-dwelling older adults. To explore the relationship between cross-domain variability in cognition and functional disability in very old age.

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Apr
2005

Executive dysfunction, possibly related to vascular pathology, has been well documented in patients with a first episode of major depressive disorder in later life (late-onset geriatric major depression). However, it is unclear whether the neuropsychological presentation differs in patients with a lifetime history of major depressive disorder (recurrent geriatric major depressive disorder). The purpose of this study was to explore differences in neuropsychological function, symptoms, and cardiovascular comorbidity between patients with late-onset and recurrent geriatric major depression.

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Feb
2005

Longitudinal studies of neuropsychological changes in the preclinical phase of Alzheimer disease (AD) have yielded mixed results. Although some studies report tests of episodic memory, others report tests of attention and executive functions as reliable predictors of subsequent AD. Following theoretical models of neuropsychological processes before AD onset, the authors examined the predictive value of attention and executive function in the preclinical phase of AD in old age.

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