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Author: Michael Greicius (66)


Dec
2017

A reduction in glucose metabolism in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) predicts conversion to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and tracks disease progression, signifying its importance in AD. We aimed to use decline in PCC glucose metabolism as a proxy for the development and progression of AD to discover common genetic variants associated with disease vulnerability.
We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of decline in PCC fludeoxyglucose F 18 ([F] FDG) positron emission tomography measured in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative participants (n = 606).

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Dec
1969

Altered brain connectivity has been described in people with Parkinson's disease and in response to dopaminergic medications. However, it is unclear whether dopaminergic medications primarily 'normalize' disease related connectivity changes or if they induce unique alterations in brain connectivity. Further, it is unclear how these disease- and medication-associated changes in brain connectivity relate differently to specific motor manifestations of disease, such as bradykinesia/rigidity and tremor.

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Oct
2017

The nicotinic system plays an important role in cognitive control and is implicated in several neuropsychiatric conditions. However, the contributions of genetic variability in this system to individuals' cognitive control abilities are poorly understood and the brain processes that mediate such genetic contributions remain largely unidentified. In this first large-scale neuroimaging genetics study of the human nicotinic receptor system (two cohorts, males and females, fMRI total= 1586, behavioral total= 3650), we investigated a common polymorphism of the high-affinity nicotinic receptor α4β2 (rs1044396 on thegene) previously implicated in behavioral and nicotine-related studies (albeit with inconsistent major/minor allele impacts).

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Mar
2017

Memory skills strongly differ across the general population; however, little is known about the brain characteristics supporting superior memory performance. Here we assess functional brain network organization of 23 of the world's most successful memory athletes and matched controls with fMRI during both task-free resting state baseline and active memory encoding. We demonstrate that, in a group of naive controls, functional connectivity changes induced by 6 weeks of mnemonic training were correlated with the network organization that distinguishes athletes from controls.

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Dec
1969

Previous studies of resting state functional connectivity have demonstrated that the default-mode network (DMN) is negatively correlated with a set of brain regions commonly activated during goal-directed tasks. However, the location and extent of anti-correlations are inconsistent across different studies, which has been posited to result largely from differences in whether or not global signal regression (GSR) was applied as a pre-processing step. Notably, coordinates of seed regions-of-interest defined within the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)/precuneus, an area often employed to study functional connectivity of the DMN, have been inconsistent across studies.

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Dec
1969

Rumination, and particularly ruminative brooding, perpetuates dysphoric mood states and contributes to the emergence of depression. Studies of adults and older adolescents have characterized the association between rumination and intrinsic functional connectivity within default mode (DMN), salience (SN) and executive control (ECN) networks; we know little, however, about the brain network basis of rumination during early puberty, a sensitive period for network reorganization. 112 early puberty boys and girls completed resting-state scans, the Ruminative Response Scale, and the Youth Self-Report questionnaire.

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Aug
2017

Hypnosis has proven clinical utility, yet changes in brain activity underlying the hypnotic state have not yet been fully identified. Previous research suggests that hypnosis is associated with decreased default mode network (DMN) activity and that high hypnotizability is associated with greater functional connectivity between the executive control network (ECN) and the salience network (SN). We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate activity and functional connectivity among these three networks in hypnosis.

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Dec
2015

In its original form, the amyloid cascade hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease holds that fibrillar deposits of amyloid are an early, driving force in pathological events leading ultimately to neuronal death. Early clinicopathological investigations highlighted a number of inconsistencies leading to an updated hypothesis in which amyloid plaques give way to amyloid oligomers as the driving force in pathogenesis. Rather than focusing on the inconsistencies, amyloid imaging studies have tended to highlight the overlap between regions that show early amyloid plaque signal on positron emission tomography and that also happen to be affected early in Alzheimer's disease.

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Jan
2016

There is a recent interest in using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for decoding more naturalistic, cognitive states, in which subjects perform various tasks in a continuous, self-directed manner. In this setting, the set of brain volumes over the entire task duration is usually taken as a single sample with connectivity estimates, such as Pearson's correlation, employed as features. Since covariance matrices live on the positive semidefinite cone, their elements are inherently inter-related.

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Oct
2015

The common and specific involvement of brain networks in clinical variants of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is not well understood. We performed task-free ("resting-state") functional imaging in 60 nonfamilial AD patients, including 20 early-onset AD (age at onset <65 years, amnestic/dysexecutive deficits), 24 logopenic aphasia (language deficits), and 16 posterior cortical atrophy patients (visual deficits), as well as 60 healthy controls. Seed-based connectivity analyses were conducted to assess differences between groups in 3 default mode network (DMN) components (anterior, posterior, and ventral) and 4 additional non-DMN networks: left and right executive-control, language, and higher visual networks.

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Dec
1969

Despite that diagnosis of neurological disorders commonly involves a collection of behavioral assessments, most neuroimaging studies investigating the associations between brain and behavior largely analyze each behavioral measure in isolation. To jointly model multiple behavioral scores, sparse multiresponse regression (SMR) is often used. However, directly applying SMR without statistically controlling for false positives could result in many spurious findings.

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Jul
2015

Transthyretin/TTR gene mutations usually cause systemic amyloidotic diseases. Few TTR variants preferentially affect the central nervous system, manifesting as oculoleptomeningeal amyloidosis. Patients with TTR meningovascular amyloidosis often show dementia, however the neuropathologic features of dementia in these cases have not been elucidated.

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Oct
2015

Mutations in the gene encoding the prion protein (PrP) are responsible for approximately 10 to 15% of cases of prion disease in humans, including Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Here, we report on the discovery of a previously unreported C-terminal PrP mutation (A224V) in a CJD patient exhibiting a disease similar to the rare VV1 subtype of sporadic (s) CJD and investigate the role of this mutation in prion replication and transmission.
We generated transgenic (Tg) mice expressing human PrP with the V129 polymorphism and A224V mutation, denoted Tg(HuPrP,V129,A224V) mice, and inoculated them with different subtypes of sCJD prions.

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Jun
2015

During rest, brain activity is synchronized between different regions widely distributed throughout the brain, forming functional networks. However, the molecular mechanisms supporting functional connectivity remain undefined. We show that functional brain networks defined with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging can be recapitulated by using measures of correlated gene expression in a post mortem brain tissue data set.

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Sep
2015

Altered resting-state (RS) brain activity, as a measure of functional connectivity (FC), is commonly observed in chronic pain. Identifying a reliable signature pattern of altered RS activity for chronic pain could provide strong mechanistic insights and serve as a highly beneficial neuroimaging-based diagnostic tool. We collected and analyzed RS functional magnetic resonance imaging data from female patients with urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome (N = 45) and matched healthy participants (N = 45) as part of an NIDDK-funded multicenter project (www.

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Aug
2015

Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) has become an increasingly important tool in mapping the functional networks of the brain. This tool has been used to examine network changes induced by cognitive and emotional states, neurological traits, and neuropsychiatric disorders. However, noise that remains in the rs-fMRI data after preprocessing has limited the reliability of individual-subject results, wherein scanner artifacts, subject movements, and other noise sources induce non-neural temporal correlations in the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) timeseries.

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Dec
1969

Sports-related concussions and repetitive subconcussive exposure are increasingly recognized as potential dangers to paediatric populations, but much remains unknown about the short-term and long-term consequences of these events, including potential cognitive impairment and risk of later-life dementia. This Expert Consensus Document is the result of a 1-day meeting convened by Safe Kids Worldwide, the Alzheimer's Drug Discovery Foundation, and the Andrews Institute for Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine. The goal is to highlight knowledge gaps and areas of critically needed research in the areas of concussion science, dementia, genetics, diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, neuroimaging, sports injury surveillance, and information sharing.

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May
2015

Recently, fMRI researchers have begun to realize that the brain's intrinsic network patterns may undergo substantial changes during a single resting state (RS) scan. However, despite the growing interest in brain dynamics, metrics that can quantify the variability of network patterns are still quite limited. Here, we first introduce various quantification metrics based on the extension of co-activation pattern (CAP) analysis, a recently proposed point-process analysis that tracks state alternations at each individual time frame and relies on very few assumptions; then apply these proposed metrics to quantify changes of brain dynamics during a sustained 2-back working memory (WM) task compared to rest.

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Dec
1969

We present a Riemannian approach for classifying fMRI connectivity patterns before and after intervention in longitudinal studies. A fundamental difficulty with using connectivity as features is that covariance matrices live on the positive semi-definite cone, which renders their elements inter-related. The implicit independent feature assumption in most classifier learning algorithms is thus violated.

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Mar
2016

Rumination, an internal cognitive state characterized by recursive thinking of current self-distress and past negative events, has been found to correlate with the development of depressive disorders. Here, we investigated the feasibility of using connectivity for distinguishing different emotional states induced by a novel free-streaming, subject-driven experimental paradigm. Connectivity between 78 functional regions of interest (ROIs) within 14 large-scale networks and 6 structural ROIs particularly relevant to emotional processing were used for classifying 4 mental states in 19 healthy controls.

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Dec
2014

Resting-state functional connectivity (FC) is highly variable across the duration of a scan. Groups of coevolving connections, or reproducible patterns of dynamic FC (dFC), have been revealed in fluctuating FC by applying unsupervised learning techniques. Based on results from k-means clustering and sliding-window correlations, it has recently been hypothesized that dFC may cycle through several discrete FC states.

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Apr
2014

The APOE4 allele is the strongest genetic risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer disease (AD). Case-control studies suggest the APOE4 link to AD is stronger in women. We examined the APOE4-by-sex interaction in conversion risk (from healthy aging to mild cognitive impairment (MCI)/AD or from MCI to AD) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker levels.

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Dec
2013

Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is known to be involved in functions such as emotion, pain, and cognitive control. While studies in humans and nonhuman mammals have advanced our understanding of ACC function, the subjective correlates of ACC activity have remained largely unexplored. In the current study, we show that electrical charge delivery in the anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC) elicits autonomic changes and the expectation of an imminent challenge coupled with a determined attitude to overcome it.

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Jun
2014

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an increasingly prevalent, fatal neurodegenerative disease that has proven resistant, thus far, to all attempts to prevent it, forestall it, or slow its progression. The ε4 allele of the Apolipoprotein E gene (APOE4) is a potent genetic risk factor for sporadic and late-onset familial AD. While the link between APOE4 and AD is strong, many expected effects, like increasing the risk of conversion from MCI to AD, have not been widely replicable.

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Nov
2013

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is an X-linked neurogenetic disorder characterized by a cognitive and behavioral phenotype resembling features of autism spectrum disorder. Until now, research has focused largely on identifying regional differences in brain structure and function between individuals with FXS and various control groups. Very little is known about the large-scale brain networks that may underlie the cognitive and behavioral symptoms of FXS.

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Jul
2013

Although previous studies have emphasized the vulnerability of the default mode network (DMN) in Alzheimer's disease (AD), little is known about the involvement of other functional networks and their relationship to clinical phenotype. To test whether clinicoanatomic heterogeneity in AD is driven by the involvement of specific networks, network connectivity was assessed in healthy subjects by seeding regions commonly and specifically atrophied in three clinical AD variants: early-onset AD (age at onset, <65 y; memory and executive deficits), logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia (language deficits), and posterior cortical atrophy (visuospatial deficits). Four-millimeter seed regions of interest were used to obtain intrinsic connectivity maps in 131 healthy controls (age, 65.

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Sep
2013

The neurobiology of Trichotillomania is poorly understood, although there is increasing evidence to suggest that TTM may involve alterations of reward processing. The current study represents the first exploration of reward processing in TTM and the first resting state fMRI study in TTM. We incorporate both event-related fMRI using a monetary incentive delay (MID) task, and resting state fMRI, using two complementary resting state analysis methodologies (functional connectivity to the nucleus accumbens and dual regression within a reward network) in a pilot study to investigate differences in reward processing between TTM and healthy controls (HC).

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Feb
2013

To report the clinical, neuropsychological, linguistic, imaging, and neuropathological features of a unique case of sporadic Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease in which the patient presented with a logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia.
Case report.
Large referral center for atypical memory and aging disorders, particularly Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease.

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Mar
2013

The factors driving clinical heterogeneity in Alzheimer's disease are not well understood. This study assessed the relationship between amyloid deposition, glucose metabolism and clinical phenotype in Alzheimer's disease, and investigated how these relate to the involvement of functional networks. The study included 17 patients with early-onset Alzheimer's disease (age at onset <65 years), 12 patients with logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia and 13 patients with posterior cortical atrophy [whole Alzheimer's disease group: age = 61.

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Dec
2012

Convergent evidence from a number of neuroscience disciplines supports the hypothesis that Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders progress along brain networks. This review considers the role of neuroimaging in strengthening the case for network-based neurodegeneration and elucidating potential mechanisms.
Advances in functional and structural MRI have recently enabled the delineation of multiple large-scale distributed brain networks.

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Jun
2012

We examined whether the effect of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype on functional brain connectivity is modulated by gender in healthy older human adults. Our results confirm significantly decreased connectivity in the default mode network in healthy older APOE ε4 carriers compared with ε3 homozygotes. More important, further testing revealed a significant interaction between APOE genotype and gender in the precuneus, a major default mode hub.

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Oct
2012

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is used clinically for the treatment of depression. However, the antidepressant mechanism remains unknown and its therapeutic efficacy remains limited. Recent data suggest that some left DLPFC targets are more effective than others; however, the reasons for this heterogeneity and how to capitalize on this information remain unclear.

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Apr
2012

While resting state functional connectivity has been shown to decrease in patients with mild and/or moderate Alzheimer's disease, it is not yet known how functional connectivity changes in patients as the disease progresses. Furthermore, it has been noted that the default mode network is not as homogenous as previously assumed and several fractionations of the network have been proposed. Here, we separately investigated the modulation of 3 default mode subnetworks, as identified with group independent component analysis, by comparing Alzheimer's disease patients to healthy controls and by assessing connectivity changes over time.

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Oct
2011

Although beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposition is a characteristic feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD), this pathology is commonly found in elderly normal controls (NC). The pattern of Aβ deposition as detected with Pittsburgh compound-B positron emission tomography (PIB-PET) imaging shows substantial spatial overlap with the default mode network (DMN), a group of brain regions that typically deactivates during externally driven cognitive tasks. In this study, we show that DMN functional connectivity (FC) during rest is altered with increasing levels of PIB uptake in NC.

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Feb
2011

The electrophysiological basis for higher brain activity during rest and internally directed cognition within the human default mode network (DMN) remains largely unknown. Here we use intracranial recordings in the human posteromedial cortex (PMC), a core node within the DMN, during conditions of cued rest, autobiographical judgments, and arithmetic processing. We found a heterogeneous profile of PMC responses in functional, spatial, and temporal domains.

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Nov
2010

Mechanisms of anesthesia-induced loss of consciousness remain poorly understood. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging allows investigating whole-brain connectivity changes during pharmacological modulation of the level of consciousness.
Low-frequency spontaneous blood oxygen level-dependent fluctuations were measured in 19 healthy volunteers during wakefulness, mild sedation, deep sedation with clinical unconsciousness, and subsequent recovery of consciousness.

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Dec
1969

During resting conditions the brain remains functionally and metabolically active. One manifestation of this activity that has become an important research tool is spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The identification of correlation patterns in these spontaneous fluctuations has been termed resting state functional connectivity (fcMRI) and has the potential to greatly increase the translation of fMRI into clinical care.

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May
2010

Resting-state or intrinsic connectivity network functional magnetic resonance imaging provides a new tool for mapping large-scale neural network function and dysfunction. Recently, we showed that behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer's disease cause atrophy within two major networks, an anterior 'Salience Network' (atrophied in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia) and a posterior 'Default Mode Network' (atrophied in Alzheimer's disease). These networks exhibit an anti-correlated relationship with each other in the healthy brain.

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Aug
2010

Functional and structural maturation of networks comprised of discrete regions is an important aspect of brain development. The default-mode network (DMN) is a prominent network which includes the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), medial temporal lobes (MTL), and angular gyrus (AG). Despite increasing interest in DMN function, little is known about its maturation from childhood to adulthood.

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Nov
2010

The inferior parietal lobule (IPL) of the human brain is a heterogeneous region involved in visuospatial attention, memory, and mathematical cognition. Detailed description of connectivity profiles of subdivisions within the IPL is critical for accurate interpretation of functional neuroimaging studies involving this region. We separately examined functional and structural connectivity of the angular gyrus (AG) and the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) using probabilistic cytoarchitectonic maps.

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Jan
2010

The 'default network' is defined as a set of areas, encompassing posterior-cingulate/precuneus, anterior cingulate/mesiofrontal cortex and temporo-parietal junctions, that show more activity at rest than during attention-demanding tasks. Recent studies have shown that it is possible to reliably identify this network in the absence of any task, by resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging connectivity analyses in healthy volunteers. However, the functional significance of these spontaneous brain activity fluctuations remains unclear.

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Dec
2009

Little is known about the neural abnormalities underlying generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Studies in other anxiety disorders have implicated the amygdala, but work in GAD has yielded conflicting results. The amygdala is composed of distinct subregions that interact with dissociable brain networks, which have been studied only in experimental animals.

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Jan
2010

Superficial siderosis (SS) of the central nervous system is a rare condition caused by chronic subarachnoid hemorrhage. Clinical manifestations typically include sensorineural hearing loss and cerebellar ataxia. Recurrent episodic encephalopathy in the setting of SS has not been reported.

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Jul
2009

Convergent data from various scientific approaches strongly implicate cerebellar systems in nonmotor functions. The functional anatomy of these systems has been pieced together from disparate sources, such as animal studies, lesion studies in humans, and structural and functional imaging studies in humans. To better define this distinct functional anatomy, in the current study we delineate the role of the cerebellum in several nonmotor systems simultaneously and in the same subjects using resting state functional connectivity MRI.

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Oct
2009

It is commonly assumed that functional brain connectivity reflects structural brain connectivity. The exact relationship between structure and function, however, might not be straightforward. In this review we aim to examine how our understanding of the relationship between structure and function in the 'resting' brain has advanced over the last several years.

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Apr
2009

During development, the healthy human brain constructs a host of large-scale, distributed, function-critical neural networks. Neurodegenerative diseases have been thought to target these systems, but this hypothesis has not been systematically tested in living humans. We used network-sensitive neuroimaging methods to show that five different neurodegenerative syndromes cause circumscribed atrophy within five distinct, healthy, human intrinsic functional connectivity networks.

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Aug
2008

This review considers recent advances in the application of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to the study of neuropsychiatric disorders.
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging is a relatively novel technique that has several potential advantages over task-activation functional magnetic resonance imaging in terms of its clinical applicability. A number of research groups have begun to investigate the use of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders including Alzheimer's disease, depression, and schizophrenia.

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Jun
2008

Functional brain networks detected in task-free ("resting-state") functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have a small-world architecture that reflects a robust functional organization of the brain. Here, we examined whether this functional organization is disrupted in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Task-free fMRI data from 21 AD subjects and 18 age-matched controls were obtained.

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