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Author: Michael K Schuhmann (43)


Jan
2018

In acute ischemic stroke (AIS), there is an alarming discrepancy between recanalization rates of up to 70% by combined recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) therapy and mechanical thrombectomy, and no clinical benefit in at least every second stroke patient. This is partly due to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. In a translational approach, we used mice lacking dense- (Unc13d) or α-granules (Nbeal2) and mice after blocking of platelet glycoprotein receptor (GP) Ib conferring protection from I/R injury.

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Dec
1969

While it has been shown that different T-cell subsets have a detrimental role in the acute phase of ischemic stroke, data on the impact of dendritic cells (DC) are missing. Classic DC can be characterized by the cluster of differentiation (CD)11c surface antigen.
In this study, we depleted CD11c+ cells by using a CD11c-diphtheria toxin (DTX) receptor mouse strain that allows selective depletion of CD11c+ cells by DTX injection.

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Nov
2017

One-third of all stroke survivors are unable to walk, even after intensive physiotherapy. Thus, other concepts to restore walking are needed. Because electrical stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) is known to elicit gait movements, this area might be a promising target for restorative neurostimulation in stroke patients with gait disability.

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Nov
2017

Commercial neurostimulators for clinical use are effective in patients; however they are too large and prohibitively expensive for preclinical studies. Thus, there is an urgent need of a small inexpensive and wireless microstimulator which is fully programmable in frequency, pulse width and amplitude for rodent experiments.
Rats were subjected to a photothrombotic stroke of the right sensorimotor cortex and a microelectrode was implanted in the right mesencephalic locomotor region.

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Aug
2017

Fullerenols, water-soluble C60-fullerene derivatives, have been shown to exert neuroprotective effects in vitro and in vivo, most likely due to their capability to scavenge free radicals. However, little is known about the effects of fullerenols on the blood-brain barrier (BBB), especially on cerebral endothelial cells under inflammatory conditions. Here, we investigated whether the treatment of primary mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells with fullerenols impacts basal and inflammatory blood-brain barrier (BBB) properties in vitro.

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Dec
1969

While hypercholesterolemia plays a causative role for the development of ischemic stroke in large vessels, its significance for cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) remains unclear. We thus aimed to understand the detailed relationship between hypercholesterolemia and CSVD using the well described Ldlr-/- mouse model.
We used Ldlr-/- mice (n = 16) and wild-type (WT) mice (n = 15) at the age of 6 and 12 months.

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Jun
2017

Lymphocytes have been shown to play an important role in the pathophysiology of acute ischemic stroke, but the properties of B cells remain controversial. The aim of this study was to unravel the role of B cells during acute cerebral ischemia using pharmacologic B cell depletion, B cell transgenic mice, and adoptive B cell transfer experiments.
Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (60 min) was induced in wild-type mice treated with an anti-CD20 antibody 24 h before stroke onset, JHDmice and Rag1mice 24 h after adoptive B cell transfer.

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Jan
2017

Ischemic stroke causes a strong inflammatory response that includes T cells, monocytes/macrophages, and neutrophils. Interaction of these immune cells with platelets and endothelial cells facilitates microvascular dysfunction and leads to secondary infarct growth. We recently showed that blocking of platelet glycoprotein (GP) receptor Ib improves stroke outcome without increasing the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage.

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Dec
1969

Platelets maintain hemostasis after injury, but also during inflammation. Recent studies have shown that platelets prevent inflammatory bleeding through (hem) immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-dependent mechanisms irrespective of aggregation during skin and lung inflammation. Although the exact mechanisms underlying this process remain unknown, it was speculated that mediators released from platelet granules might be involved.

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Nov
2016

It is known that both platelets and coagulation strongly influence infarct progression after ischemic stroke, but the mechanisms and their interplay are unknown. Our aim was to assess the contribution of the procoagulant platelet surface, and thus platelet-driven thrombin generation, to the progression of thromboinflammation in the ischemic brain.
We present the characterization of a novel platelet and megakaryocyte-specific TMEM16F (anoctamin 6) knockout mouse.

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Dec
1969

Fingolimod (FTY720) reduces infarct volume and improves neurological deficits in different rodent stroke models by modulating inflammatory and immune processes. However, studies on FTY720 regarding its non-immunological efficacy on ischemic cerebral tissue are sparse. Here we investigated whether FTY720 has cytoprotective and restorative properties following ischemic stroke in mice.

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Sep
2016

Promising results have been reported in preclinical stroke target validation for pharmacological principles that disrupt the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-post-synaptic density protein-95-neuronal nitric oxide synthase complex. However, post-synaptic density protein-95 is also coupled to potentially neuroprotective mechanisms. As post-synaptic density protein-95 inhibitors may interfere with potentially neuroprotective mechanisms and sufficient validation has often been an issue in translating basic stroke research, we wanted to close that gap by comparing post-synaptic density protein-95 inhibitors with NOS1(-/-) mice and a NOS inhibitor.

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May
2016

Aberrant immune responses represent the underlying cause of central nervous system (CNS) autoimmunity, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent evidence implicated the crosstalk between coagulation and immunity in CNS autoimmunity. Here we identify coagulation factor XII (FXII), the initiator of the intrinsic coagulation cascade and the kallikrein-kinin system, as a specific immune cell modulator.

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Dec
1969

Dabigatran etexilate (DE), a direct-acting, oral inhibitor of thrombin, significantly reduces the risk of stroke compared with traditional anticoagulants, without increasing the risk of major bleeding. However, studies on the fate of cerebral tissue after ischemic stroke in patients receiving DE are sparse and the role of dabigatran-mediated reduction of thrombin in this context has not yet been investigated. Here, we investigated whether pretreatment with DE reduces thrombin-mediated pro-inflammatory mechanisms and leakage of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) following ischemic stroke in rats.

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Jun
2016

Traumatic brain injury is a major global public health problem for which specific therapeutic interventions are lacking. There is, therefore, a pressing need to identify innovative pathomechanism-based effective therapies for this condition. Thrombus formation in the cerebral microcirculation has been proposed to contribute to secondary brain damage by causing pericontusional ischemia, but previous studies have failed to harness this finding for therapeutic use.

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Feb
2016

Mechanical thrombectomy is a novel treatment option for patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Only a few studies have previously suggested strategies to categorize retrieved clots according to their histologic composition. However, these reports did not analyze potential biomarkers that are of importance in stroke-related inflammation.

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Dec
1969

Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamin, 5-HT) is an indolamine platelet agonist, biochemically derived from tryptophan. 5-HT is secreted from the enterochromaffin cells into the gastrointestinal tract and blood. Blood 5-HT has been proposed to regulate hemostasis by acting as a vasoconstrictor and by triggering platelet signaling through 5-HT receptor 2A (5HTR2A).

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Dec
2015

Breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is an early hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS), a progressive inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. Cell adhesion in the BBB is modulated by sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a signaling protein, via S1P receptors (S1P₁). Fingolimod phosphate (FTY720-P) a functional S1P₁ antagonist has been shown to improve the relapse rate in relapsing-remitting MS by preventing the egress of lymphocytes from lymph nodes.

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Oct
2015

Immune cells (IC) play a crucial role in murine stroke pathophysiology. However, data are limited on the role of these cells in ischemic stroke in humans. We therefore aimed to characterize and compare peripheral IC subsets in patients with acute ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack (AIS/TIA), chronic cerebrovascular disease (CCD) and healthy volunteers (HV).

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Apr
2016

Stroke outcome is more favourable in patients receiving oral anticoagulants compared with non-anticoagulated patients. The reasons for this "stroke-attenuating" property of oral anticoagulants are largely unknown. This study examined whether prestroke anticoagulation with rivaroxaban, a novel direct factor Xa inhibitor, influences stroke severity, thrombin-mediated intracerebral thrombus formation and pro-inflammatory processes in a rat model of brain ischaemia/reperfusion injury.

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Dec
2015

Despite the medical and socioeconomic effect of ischemic stroke and extensive preclinical research, treatment options for ischemic stroke are limited. We recently identified and characterized essential steps of thrombus formation in stroke and demonstrated that inhibition of the platelet glycoprotein (GP) receptors Ib and VI, but not IIb/IIIa, protects young and healthy mice from ischemic neurodegeneration. Whether these findings translate to the clinic remains unclear.

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Jul
2015

Lymphocytes express potassium channels that regulate physiological cell functions, such as activation, proliferation and migration. Expression levels of K2P5.1 (TASK2; KCNK5) channels belonging to the family of two-pore domain potassium channels have previously been correlated to the activity of autoreactive T lymphocytes in patients with multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis.

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Dec
1969

This review outlines the most frequently used rodent stroke models and discusses their strengths and shortcomings. Mimicking all aspects of human stroke in one animal model is not feasible because ischemic stroke in humans is a heterogeneous disorder with a complex pathophysiology. The transient or permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) model is one of the models that most closely simulate human ischemic stroke.

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May
2015

Recent evidence suggests that ischemic stroke is a thromboinflammatory disease. Plasma kallikrein (PK) cleaves high-molecular-weight kininogen to release bradykinin (BK) and is a key constituent of the proinflammatory contact-kinin system. In addition, PK can activate coagulation factor XII, the origin of the intrinsic coagulation cascade.

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Jan
2015

While the detrimental role of non-regulatory T cells in ischemic stroke is meanwhile unequivocally recognized, there are controversies about the properties of regulatory T cells (Treg). The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of Treg by applying superagonistic anti-CD28 antibody expansion of Treg. Stroke outcome, thrombus formation, and brain-infiltrating cells were determined on day 1 after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion.

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Jan
2015

Glycoprotein VI and C-type lectin-like receptor 2 are essential platelet activating receptors in hemostasis and thrombo-inflammatory disease, which signal through a (hem)immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-dependent pathway. The adapter molecules Src-like adapter proteins (SLAP and SLAP2) are involved in the regulation of immune cell surface expression and signaling, but their function in platelets is unknown. In this study, we show that platelets expressed both SLAP isoforms and that overexpression of either protein in a heterologous cell line almost completely inhibited glycoprotein VI and C-type lectin-like receptor 2 signaling.

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Dec
1969

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces a strong inflammatory response which includes blood-brain barrier damage, edema formation and infiltration of different immune cell subsets. More recently, microvascular thrombosis has been identified as another pathophysiological feature of TBI. The contact-kinin system represents an interface between inflammatory and thrombotic circuits and is activated in different neurological diseases.

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Sep
2014

Inflammation is a pathological hallmark of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Recent evidence suggests that immune cells such as lymphocytes are of particular relevance for lesion development after TBI. FTY720, a sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulator, sequesters T lymphocytes in lymphoid organs and has been shown to improve outcome in a variety of neurological disease models.

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Aug
2014

Lymphocyte adhesion and subsequent trafficking across endothelial barriers are essential steps in various immune-mediated disorders of the CNS, including MS. The molecular mechanisms underlying these processes, however, are still unknown. Phospholipase D1 (PLD1), an enzyme that generates phosphatidic acid through hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine and additionally yields choline as a product, has been described as regulator of the cell mobility.

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Aug
2014

CD4(+) T cells expressing the immunotolerizing molecule HLA-G have been described as a unique human thymus-derived regulatory T (tTreg) cell subset involved in immunoregulation and parenchymal homeostasis during infectious and autoimmune inflammation. We compared properties and molecular characteristics of human CD4(+)HLA-G(+) with those of CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3-expressing tTreg cells using in vitro studies of T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling, single-cell electrophysiology, and functional in vivo studies. Both tTreg populations are characterized by alterations in proximal-signaling pathways on TCR stimulation and a hyperpolarization of the plasma membrane when compared to conventional CD4(+) T cells.

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Jun
2014

T lymphocytes have recently been identified as key mediators of tissue damage in ischemic stroke. The interaction between very late antigen-4 (VLA-4) and vascular adhesion molecule-1 is crucial for the transvascular egress of T lymphocytes, and inhibition of this interaction by specific antibodies is a powerful strategy to combat autoimmune neuroinflammation. However, whether pharmacological blocking of T-lymphocyte trafficking is also protective during brain ischemia is still unclear.

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Nov
2013

Lymphocytes are important players in the pathophysiology of acute ischemic stroke. The interaction of lymphocytes with endothelial cells and platelets, termed thrombo-inflammation, fosters microvascular dysfunction and secondary infarct growth. FTY720, a sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulator, blocks the egress of lymphocytes from lymphoid organs and has been shown to reduce ischemic neurodegeneration; however, the underlying mechanisms are unclear.

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Sep
2013

Disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a hallmark of acute inflammatory lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. This disruption may precede and facilitate the infiltration of encephalitogenic T cells. The signaling events that lead to this BBB disruption are incompletely understood but appear to involve dysregulation of tight-junction proteins such as claudins.

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Sep
2013

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is an integral part of the neurovascular unit (NVU). The NVU is comprised of endothelial cells that are interconnected by tight junctions resting on a parenchymal basement membrane ensheathed by pericytes, smooth muscle cells and a layer of astrocyte end feet. Circulating blood cells, such as leukocytes, complete the NVU.

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Jan
2013

We have recently identified T cells as important mediators of ischemic brain damage, but the contribution of the different T-cell subsets is unclear. Forkhead box P3 (FoxP3)-positive regulatory T cells (Tregs) are generally regarded as prototypic anti-inflammatory cells that maintain immune tolerance and counteract tissue damage in a variety of immune-mediated disorders. In the present study, we examined the role of Tregs after experimental brain ischemia/reperfusion injury.

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Feb
2012

CD4(+) CD25(+) forkhead box P3 (FoxP3)(+) regulatory T cells (T reg cells) are known to suppress adaptive immune responses, key control tolerance and autoimmunity.
We challenged the role of CD4(+) T reg cells in suppressing established CD8(+) T effector cell responses by using the OT-I/II system in vitro and an OT-I-mediated, oligodendrocyte directed ex vivo model (ODC-OVA model).
CD4(+) T reg cells dampened cytotoxicity of an ongoing CD8(+) T effector cell attack in vitro and within intact central nervous system tissue ex vivo.

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Mar
2011

Disruption of the blood brain barrier (BBB) and transendothelial trafficking of immune cells into the central nervous system (CNS) are pathophysiological hallmarks of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and its animal model, Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE). Kinins are proinflammatory peptides which are released during tissue injury including EAE. They increase vascular permeability and enhance inflammation by acting on distinct bradykinin receptors, B1R and B2R.

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Dec
2010

Glatiramer acetate (GA) is a synthetic, random, basic copolymer capable of modulating adaptive T cell responses. In animal models of various inflammatory and degenerative central nervous system disorders, GA-induced T cells cross the blood-brain barrier, secrete high levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines and neurotrophins, and thus both reduce neuronal damage and promote neurogenesis. Recently, it has been suggested that GA itself may permeate the (impaired) blood-brain-barrier and directly protect neurons under conditions of inflammation-mediated neurodegeneration.

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Sep
2010

Ischemic stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Only one moderately effective therapy exists, albeit with contraindications that exclude 90% of the patients. This medical need contrasts with a high failure rate of more than 1,000 pre-clinical drug candidates for stroke therapies.

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Feb
2010

Calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling in T lymphocytes is essential for a variety of functions, including the regulation of differentiation, gene transcription, and effector functions. A major Ca(2+) entry pathway in nonexcitable cells, including T cells, is store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE), wherein depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) stores upon receptor stimulation causes subsequent influx of extracellular Ca(2+) across the plasma membrane. Stromal interaction molecule (STIM) 1 is the Ca(2+) sensor in the endoplasmic reticulum, which controls this process, whereas the other STIM isoform, STIM2, coregulates SOCE.

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Oct
2009

Excessive cytosolic calcium ion (Ca(2+)) accumulation during cerebral ischemia triggers neuronal cell death, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Capacitive Ca(2+) entry (CCE) is a process whereby depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) stores causes the activation of plasma membrane Ca(2+) channels. In nonexcitable cells, CCE is controlled by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident Ca(2+) sensor STIM1, whereas the closely related protein STIM2 has been proposed to regulate basal cytosolic and ER Ca(2+) concentrations and make only a minor contribution to CCE.

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Mar
2010

Demyelination and death of oligodendrocytes accompanied by transection of neurites and neuronal apoptosis are pathological hallmarks of cortical and subcortical gray matter lesions in demyelinating viral and autoimmune inflammatory CNS disorders. In these disorders, leukocortical lesions, containing the perikarya of most efferent neurons, display pronounced infiltration by CD8(+) T cells of putative specificity for oligodendrocyte- and myelin-related antigens. Hence, neuronal apoptosis in gray matter lesions may be a collateral effect of an oligodendrocyte-directed attack by CD8(+) T cells.

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