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Author: Monique Lafon (34)


Dec
1969

Rabies is a fatal zoonotic disease and infections generally lead to a fatal encephalomyelitis in both humans and animals. In South Africa, domestic (dogs) and the wildlife (yellow mongoose) host species maintain the canid and mongoose rabies variants respectively. In this study, pathogenicity differences of South African canid and mongoose rabies viruses were investigated in a murine model, by assessing the progression of clinical signs and survivorship.

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Dec
1969

In the field of live viral vaccines production, there is an unmet need for in vitro tests complying a 3R approach (Refine, Replace and Reduce the use of animal experimentation) to replace the post-licensing safety tests currently assayed in animals. Here, we performed a pilot study evaluating whether virulence of rabies virus, RABV, can be forecast by an in vitro test of neurite outgrowth. The rationale to use neurite outgrowth as a read-out for this test is based on the salient property of the cytoplasmic domain of the G-protein (Cyto-G) of virulent RABV strains - not of attenuated RABV strains - to stimulate neurite outgrowth in vitro.

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Oct
2017

The biomedical applications of antibody engineering are developing rapidly and have been expanded to plant expression platforms. In this study, we have generated a novel antibody molecule in planta for targeted delivery across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Rabies virus (RABV) is a neurotropic virus for which there is no effective treatment after entry into the central nervous system.

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Nov
2016

RNA viruses present an extraordinary threat to human health, given their sudden and unpredictable appearance, the potential for rapid spread among the human population, and their ability to evolve resistance to antiviral therapies. The recent emergence of chikungunya virus, Zika virus, and Ebola virus highlights the struggles to contain outbreaks. A significant hurdle is the availability of antivirals to treat the infected or protect at-risk populations.

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Dec
1969

The human protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 4 (PTPN4) prevents cell death induction in neuroblastoma and glioblastoma cell lines in a PDZ·PDZ binding motifs-dependent manner, but the cellular partners of PTPN4 involved in cell protection are unknown. Here, we described the mitogen-activated protein kinase p38γ as a cellular partner of PTPN4. The main contribution to the p38γ·PTPN4 complex formation is the tight interaction between the C terminus of p38γ and the PDZ domain of PTPN4.

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Oct
2015

PDZ (PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1) domains play a major role in neuronal homeostasis in which they act as scaffold domains regulating cellular trafficking, self-association and catalytic activity of essential proteins such as kinases and phosphatases. Because of their central role in cell signaling, cellular PDZ-containing proteins are preferential targets of viruses to hijack cellular function to their advantage. Here, we describe how the viral G protein of the rabies virus specifically targets the PDZ domain of neuronal enzymes during viral infection.

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Jul
2014

Influenza A virus triggers a contagious respiratory disease that can cause considerable morbidity and mortality. Using an in vitro approach, we previously demonstrated that the pattern recognition receptor retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) plays a key role in influenza A virus-mediated immune response. However, the importance of RIG-I signaling in vivo has not been thoroughly examined, because of the lack of an appropriate mouse models.

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Dec
2012

PTEN phosphatase is a tumor suppressor controlling notably cell growth, proliferation and survival. The multisite phosphorylation of the PTEN C-terminal tail regulates PTEN activity and intracellular trafficking. The dynamical nature of such regulatory events represents a crucial dimension for timing cellular decisions.

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Aug
2012

PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) and MAST2 (microtubule-associated serine and threonine kinase 2) interact with each other through the PDZ domain of MAST2 (MAST2-PDZ) and the carboxyl-terminal (C-terminal) PDZ domain-binding site (PDZ-BS) of PTEN. These two proteins function as negative regulators of cell survival pathways, and silencing of either one promotes neuronal survival. In human neuroblastoma cells infected with rabies virus (RABV), the C-terminal PDZ domain of the viral glycoprotein (G protein) can target MAST2-PDZ, and RABV infection triggers neuronal survival in a PDZ-BS-dependent fashion.

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Oct
2011

PTPN4, a human tyrosine phosphatase, protects cells against apoptosis. This protection could be abrogated by targeting the PDZ domain of this phosphatase with a peptide mimicking the C-terminal sequence of the G protein of an attenuated rabies virus strain. Here, we demonstrate that glioblastoma death is triggered upon intracellular delivery of peptides, either from viral origin or from known endogenous ligands of PTPN4-PDZ, such as the C terminus sequence of the glutamate receptor subunit GluN2A.

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Aug
2011

Rabies virus (RABV) is a neurotropic virus transmitted by the bite of an infected animal that triggers a fatal encephalomyelitis. During its migration in the nervous system (NS), RABV triggers an innate immune response, including a type I IFN response well known to limit viral infections. We showed that although the neuroinvasive RABV strain CVS-NIV dampens type I IFN signaling by inhibiting IRF3 phosphorylation and STAT2 translocation, an early and transient type I IFN response is still triggered in the infected neuronal cells and NS.

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Dec
1969

Rabies virus (RABV) is a strictly neurotropic virus that slowly propagates in the nervous system (NS) of the infected host from the site of entry (usually due to a bite) up to the site of exit (salivary glands). Successful achievement of the virus cycle relies on the preservation of the neuronal network. Once RABV has entered the NS, its progression is not interrupted either by destruction of the infected neurons or by the immune response, which are major host mechanisms for combating viral infection.

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Jul
2011

The neurotropic rabies virus (RABV) has developed several evasive strategies, including immunoevasion, to successfully infect the nervous system (NS) and trigger a fatal encephalomyelitis. Here we show that expression of LGP2, a protein known as either a positive or negative regulator of the RIG-I-mediated innate immune response, is restricted in the NS. We used a new transgenic mouse model (LGP2 TG) overexpressing LGP2 to impair the innate immune response to RABV and thus revealed the role of the RIG-I-mediated innate immune response in RABV pathogenesis.

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Jan
2010

The capacity of a rabies virus to promote neuronal survival (a signature of virulence) or death (a marker of attenuation) depends on the cellular partners recruited by the PDZ-binding site (PDZ-BS) of its envelope glycoprotein (G). Neuronal survival requires the selective association of the PDZ-BS of G with the PDZ domains of two closely related serine-threonine kinases, MAST1 and MAST2. Here, we found that a single amino acid change in the PDZ-BS triggered the apoptotic death of infected neurons and enabled G to interact with additional PDZ partners, in particular the tyrosine phosphatase PTPN4.

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Jun
2009

Most of microbes hijack the cellular machinery to their advantage by interacting with specific target of the host cell. Glycoprotein of rabies virus is a key factor controlling the homeostasis of infected neuronal cells and proteins belonging to the human microtubule associated serine threonine kinase family have been identified as potential cellular partners. As a first step towards its structural study, we have assigned the backbone and side chain nuclei resonances of the PDZ domain (PSD-95, Discs Large, ZO-1) of MAST205 in complex with the C-terminal residues of the glycoprotein of rabies virus.

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Feb
2009

Human neurons express the innate immune response receptor, Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3). TLR3 levels are increased in pathological conditions such as brain virus infection. Here, we further investigated the production, cellular localisation, and function of neuronal TLR3 during neuronotropic rabies virus (RABV) infection in human neuronal cells.

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Jun
2008

Rabies virus is the etiological agent of an acute encephalitis, which in absence of post exposure treatment is fatal in almost all cases. Virus lethality rests on its ability to evade the immune response. In this study, we analyzed the role of the immuno-inhibitory molecule B7-H1 in this virus strategy.

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May
2008

West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging neurotropic flavivirus. We investigated the dynamics of immune cell recruitment in peripheral tissues and in the CNS during WNV encephalitis in an immunocompetent mouse model. In the periphery, immune cell expansion can successfully limit viremia and lymphoid tissue infection.

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Apr
2008

Furious and paralytic rabies differ in clinical manifestations and survival periods. The authors studied magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and cytokine and virus distribution in rabies-infected dogs of both clinical types. MRI examination of the brain and upper spinal cord was performed in two furious and two paralytic dogs during the early clinical stage.

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Apr
2007

Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-G and E are nonclassical human MHC class I molecules. They may promote tolerance leading to virus and tumor immune escape. We recently described that the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), a neurotropic virus inducing chronic infection and neuron latency, and rabies virus (RABV), a neuronotropic virus triggering acute neuron infection, up-regulate HLA-G expression in human neurons (NT2-N).

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Dec
1969

Inflammation is an important factor in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease or multiple sclerosis, and during microbial infections of the nervous system. Glial cells were thought to be the main contributor for cytokine and chemokine production and Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression in the brain. Here, we report that human neurons express TLR-3, a major receptor in virus-mediated innate immune response.

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Jun
2006

There is recent in vitro evidence that human neurons express the innate immune response receptor, Toll-like receptor-3 (TLR-3), and that expression is enhanced in viral infections. The authors examined the immunohistochemical expression of TLR-3 in the cerebellar cortex of postmortem human brains. Purkinje cells were found to express TLR-3 in all cases of rabies (4 of 4) and herpes simplex encephalitis (2 of 2) as well as in cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (1 of 2), stroke (1 of 2), and Alzheimer's disease (3 of 3).

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Dec
2005

HLA-G is a nonclassical human major histocompatibility complex class I molecule. It may promote tolerance, leading to acceptance of the semiallogeneic fetus and tumor immune escape. We show here that two viruses-herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), a neuronotropic virus inducing acute infection and neuron latency; and rabies virus (RABV), a neuronotropic virus triggering acute neuron infection-upregulate the neuronal expression of several HLA-G isoforms, including HLA-G1 and HLA-G5, the two main biologically active isoforms.

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Oct
2005

To study the capacity of human neurons to mount innate immunity responses to viral infections, we infected cells of a human postmitotic neuron-derivative cell line, NT2-N, with rabies virus (RABV) and herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1). Changes in neuronal gene expression were analyzed by use of Affymetrix microarrays. Applying a twofold cutoff, RABV increased the transcription of 228 genes, and HSV-1 increased the transcription of 263 genes.

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Aug
2005

Neurotrophin (NT)-induced modulation of rabies virus adsorption, transcription, and replication were analyzed in adult mouse dorsal root ganglia cultures. Different types of nerve growth factor and NT-3 treatment were tested before infection (pretreatment), during infection (transtreatment) and after withdrawing the viral inoculum (post-treatment). NT pretreatment for 4 days prior to infection produced a significant increase in the quantity of virus adsorbed into cultures and a concomitant increase in genomic viral RNA as measured by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

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Aug
2005


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Feb
2005

Rabies virus receptors.

J Neurovirol 2005 Feb;11(1):82-7
Monique Lafon
There is convincing in vitro evidence that the muscular form of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), the neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), and the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) bind rabies virus and/or facilitate rabies virus entry into cells. Other components of the cell membrane, such as gangliosides, may also participate in the entry of rabies virus. However, little is known of the role of these molecules in vivo.

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Dec
2004

Following its injection into the hindlimbs of mice, CVS, a highly pathogenic strain of rabies virus, invades the spinal cord and brain resulting in the death of the animal. In contrast, central nervous system (CNS) invasion by PV, a strain of attenuated pathogenicity, is restricted to the spinal cord and mice infected with this virus survive. Lymphocytes display transient migration into the infected CNS in fatal rabies and sustained migration in nonfatal rabies.

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Dec
2003

We report that non-neurotropic rabies virus (RV) strains, currently used to immunize wildlife against rabies, induces not only a caspase-dependent apoptosis in the human lymphoblastoid Jurkat T cell line (Jurkat-vect), but also a caspase-independent pathway. Cell redistribution of the apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) was observed in Jurkat-vect infected with RV vaccine strain. Bcl-2 overproduction in Jurkat T cells (Jurkat-Bcl-2) abolished both caspase activation and AIF distribution.

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Dec
2003

This study sought to identify the RV protein that causes apoptosis. For this purpose, we first compared the ability of G and N proteins of a pathogenic and a nonpathogenic strain to trigger apoptosis of Jurkat rtTA by using an inducible Tet-on expression system. Then we analyzed apoptosis induced by a reverse genetic-engineered recombinant rabies virus in which the G gene from a nonpathogenic strain was replaced by its pathogenic strain counterpart.

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Aug
2003

Rabies virus (RV) causes a non-lytic infection of neurons leading to a fatal myeloencephalitis in mammals including humans. By comparing the infection of the nervous system of mice by a highly pathogenic neuroinvasive strain of RV (CVS) and by a strain of attenuated pathogenicity (PV) with restricted brain invasion, we showed that RV neuroinvasiveness results of three factors: not only neurotropic RV avoids induced neuron cell death but also "protective" T cells that migrate into the infected nervous system are killed by apoptosis and finally inflammation of the infected nervous system is limited. Our data suggest that the preservation of the neuronal network, the limitation of the inflammation and the destruction of T cells that invade the CNS in response to the infection are crucial events for RV neuroinvasion and for transmission of RV to another animal.

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Sep
2003

We report here that rabies virus strains, currently used to immunize wildlife against rabies, induce not only caspase-dependent apoptosis in the human lymphoblastoid Jurkat T cell line (Jurkat-vect), but also a caspase-independent pathway involving the apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). In contrast, a strain of neurotropic RV that does not induce apoptosis did not activate caspases or induce AIF translocation. Bcl-2 overproduction in Jurkat T cells (Jurkat-Bcl-2) abolished both pathways.

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Oct
2003

We showed that, unlike pathogenic rabies virus (RV) strain CVS, attenuated RV strain ERA triggers the caspase-dependent apoptosis of human cells. Furthermore, we observed that the induction of apoptosis is correlated with a particular virus antigen distribution: the overexpression of the viral G protein on the cell surface, with continuous localization on the cytoplasmic membrane, and large cytoplasmic inclusions of the N protein. To determine whether one of these two major RV proteins (G and N proteins) triggers apoptosis, we constructed transgenic Jurkat T-cell lines that drive tetracycline-inducible gene expression to produce the G and N proteins of ERA and CVS individually.

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