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Author: Mukul Das (121)


Nov
2017

Benzanthrone (BNZ) is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in industrial effluent causing skin, respiratory, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, nervous and hemopoietic toxicity. While its toxicity has been well studied, its metabolism in humans has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to characterize species differences in the in vitro metabolism of BNZ in rat and human liver microsomes and to identify the CYP isoforms involved in its metabolism.

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Nov
2017

Glycation of food allergens may alter their immunological behaviour. We sought to investigate the impact of glycation on the allergenicity of a food protein. Herein, a chickpea protein (≈26kDa) was purified and characterized as lectin.

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Jul
2017

Our prior studies have reported that Benzanthrone (BA) manifests inflammatory responses in the spleen of Balb/c mice. The present investigation was carried out to study the impact of BA on macrophages, which are the primary scavenger cells in the body that act as a connecting link between innate and adaptive immunity. Parenteral administration of BA (daily for one week) to mice resulted in enhanced levels of nitric oxide (NO) and overexpression of inflammatory markers (COX-2, MMP-9 and PGE-2) in macrophages; however the level of MHC class-I and MHC class-II receptors were down regulated.

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Nov
2016

Epicutaneous (EC) sensitization to food allergens may occur when the skin has been lightly damaged. The study here tested whether cutaneous exposure to pigeon pea protein(s) may cause allergic sensitization. BALB/c mice were either orally gavaged or epicutaneously sensitized by repeated application of pigeon pea crude protein extract (CPE) on undamaged areas of skin without any adjuvant; afterwards, both groups were orally challenged with the pigeon pea CPE.

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Jan
2017

Chickpeas (CPs) are one of the most commonly consumed legumes, especially in the Mediterranean area as well as in the Western world. Being one of the most nutritional elements of the human diet, CP toxicity and allergy have raised health concerns. CPs may contain various antinutritional compounds, including protease inhibitors, phytic acid, lectins, oligosaccharides, and some phenolic compounds that may impair the utilization of the nutrients by people.

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Dec
1969

Among food contaminants, mycotoxins are toxic to both human and animal health. Our prior studies suggest that Deoxynivalenol (DON), a mycotoxin, behaves as a tumor promoter by inducing edema, hyperplasia, ODC activity and activation of MAPK's in mouse skin. In this study, topical application of DON, 336 and 672 nmol significantly enhanced ROS levels, DNA damage and apoptosis with concomitant downregulation of Ki-67, cyclin D, cyclin E, cyclin A and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK4 and CDK2) thereby resulting in tumor initiation in mouse skin.

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Apr
2016

The tranquillizing effects of quercetin on allergic asthma are promising, but its poor water solubility and bioavailability is still a bottleneck. In this study, an ovalbumin (OVA) sensitized BALB/c mice asthma model was used to investigate the potential of quercetin nanocrystals (nQ) on relieving asthma aggravation. The water soluble nQ was prepared by the homogenization using the high energy sonication method.

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Dec
1969

Chickpea (CP), a legume of the family Fabaceae, is an important nutrient-rich food providing protein, essential amino acids, vitamins, dietary fibre, and minerals. Unfortunately, several IgE-binding proteins in CP have been detected that are responsible for allergic manifestations in sensitized population. Therefore, the prevalence of CP induced allergy prompted us towards purification, characterization and allergenicity assessment of a major ∼26kDa protein from chickpea crude protein extract (CP-CPE).

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Mar
2016

Food allergens have a notable potential to induce various health concerns in susceptible individuals. The majority of allergenic foods are usually subjected to thermal processing prior to their consumption. However, during thermal processing and long storage of foods, Maillard reaction (MR) often takes place.

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Mar
2016

Rhein, the most toxic anthraquinone moiety in Cassia occidentalis seeds, has been associated with hepatomyoencephalopathy (HME) in children. Structural and functional alterations in the lymphoid organs have been reported both in HME patients and experimental animals indicating a possibility of the dysfunction of immune system following exposure to CO seeds or its toxic anthraquinones (Panigrahi et al., 2014a).

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Feb
2016

Sodium benzoate (SB) is a widely used food preservative due to its bacteriostatic and fungistatic properties. The acceptable daily intake of SB is 5 mg/kg-bw, however, it has been found to be used in the food commodities at relatively high levels (2119 mg/kg). Earlier studies on SB have shown its immunosuppressive properties, but comprehensive immunotoxicity data is lacking.

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Nov
2015

In this paper, we propose a new device architecture for an all-optical logic inverter (NOT gate), which is cascadable with a similar device. The inverter is based on stimulated Raman scattering in silicon nanocrystal waveguides, which are embedded in a silicon photonic crystal structure. The Raman response function of silicon nanocrystal is evaluated to explore the transfer characteristic of the inverter.

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Jun
2015

Past observational and toxicity studies have established an association between the deaths of children and consumption of Cassia occidentalis (CO) seeds. We recently reported chemical evidence of this association following the identification of toxic anthraquinones (AQs), viz. aloe-emodin, chrysophanol, emodin, physcion, and rhein, in CO seeds (Panigrahi, G.

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Jun
2015

Our prior studies have shown an association between the deaths of children and consumption of Cassia occidentalis (CO) seeds. However, the chemicals responsible for the CO poisoning are not known. Therefore, the present study was designed to identify the key moieties in CO seeds and their cytotoxicity in rat primary hepatocytes and HepG2 cells.

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Mar
2015

Benzanthrone (BA) is an important dye intermediate which is used in the manufacturing of several polycyclic vat and disperse dyes in textile industries. Several studies have indicated that the general population is also exposed to BA owing to its release from furnace effluents and automobile exhausts in the environment. In several clinical studies, it has been shown that workers exposed to BA developed itching, burning sensation, erythema and hyperpigmentation of the skin, which could be an outcome of the dysregulated immune response.

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Dec
1969

Epidemiological studies suggested that plant-based dietary supplements can reduce the risk of liver cancer. Nexrutine (NX), an herbal extract from Phellodendronamurense, has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and anti-tumor activities. In the present study, we have shown the anti-tumor potential of NX against Solt-Farber model with elimination of PH, rat liver tumor induced by diethylnitrosoamine (DEN) as carcinogen and 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) as co-carcinogen.

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Jun
2015

Color additives are used in pediatric syrup formulations as an excipient; though not pre-requisite, but pediatric syrup formulations are normally colored. An attempt has been made to measure simultaneously the single drug, acetaminophen (AT), along with the colors, carmoisine (CA), erythrosine (ET), and sunset yellow FCF (SSY) added in it by three derivative spectroscopy methods namely, 1st order, ratio, and differential derivative methods. Moreover, evaluation has been made for the exposure assessment of the colors added as excipient because some colors have been reported to cause allergic reactions and hypersensitivity in children.

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Feb
2015

The use of nanoscale materials is growing exponentially as concerns rise about the human hazards to it. It is assumed that living beings are coevolved with nanoparticles ever since the origin of life on earth and therefore, they must have developed the defense and toxicity mitigating mechanisms for nanoparticles. Although having peculiar properties these new materials also present new health risks upon interacting with biological systems.

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Nov
2014

The prevalence of black gram (Vigna mungo) induced allergic reactions are reported from several parts of the world including Asia and Australia. But, a thorough exploration of the allergic reactions induced by black gram proteins is still lacking. Therefore, efforts have been made to explore black gram allergy using in vivo and in vitro approaches.

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Nov
2014

Our previous studies indicated that zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have adjuvant properties to a known allergen ovalbumin (OVA) in Balb/c mice. Therefore, in this study, we focused on the mechanisms involved in adjuvant responses induced by ZnO NPs. The eosinophil counts in the Peyers' patches of intestine and ICAM-1, Cox2 protein expressions were enhanced in the ZnO NPs/OVA group.

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Sep
2014

It is mandatory to assess the allergenic potential of genetically modified (GM) crops before their commercialization. Recently, a transgene [Calcineurin B-like (CBL) protein] has been introduced into tobacco plant to make the crop salt resistance. Therefore, it was felt necessary to assess the allergenic potential of the cbl gene product, which was introduced and expressed in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) plant and compared the allergenic effects with the wild-type (WT) counterpart.

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Oct
2014

The present study investigates the process of internalization for bulk ZnO particles in macrophages, and further elucidates the underlying mechanism. Since macrophages are active phagocytes and phagocytosis is a size dependent phenomenon, therefore we hypothesized that bulk ZnO may internalize into macrophages by phagocytic pathways. Interestingly, the phagocytic activity got enhanced in bulk ZnO treated macrophages.

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Oct
2014

Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a Fusarium toxin that causes a variety of toxic effects with symptoms such as diarrhoea and low weight gain. To date, no review has addressed the toxicity of DON in relation to oxidative stress. The focus of this article is primarily intended to summarize the information associated with oxidative stress as a plausible mechanism for DON-induced toxicity.

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Oct
2014

Broad bean (Vicia faba L.), a common vegetable, belongs to the family Fabaceae and is consumed worldwide. Limited studies have been done on allergenicity of broad beans.

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Aug
2014

The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of Cassia occidentalis (CO) seeds on the transcriptional expression patterns of mRNAs in rat liver by microarray analysis. The results indicated that exposure of CO (0.5%) seeds in diet to rats differentially regulated 60 transcripts belonging to various metabolic pathways including, oxidative stress, xenobiotic metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, cell cycle, apoptosis etc.

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Sep
2014

Several toxicological manifestations of deoxynivalenol (DON), a mycotoxin, are well documented; however, dermal toxicity is not yet explored. The effect of topical application of DON to mice was studied using markers of skin proliferation, inflammation and tumor promotion. Single topical application of DON (84-672nmol/mouse) significantly enhanced dermal hyperplasia and skin edema.

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Jun
2014

An efficient regioselective synthesis of polycyclic diheteroaryl[b,d]pyrans and diheteroaryl[c,e][1,2]diazepines has been reported through ring transformation reactions of 2-oxo-2,5-dihydrothiochromeno[4,3-b]pyrans (3,4), 2-oxo-5,6-dihydro-2H-benzo[b]pyrano[2,3-d]oxepine/thiepine (8, 9) and 6-oxo-3,6-dihydro-2H-naphtho[1,2-b]pyrano[2,3-d]oxepine (15) by hydrazine, at ambient and reflux temperature. Nine compounds viz 5a,b; 10a,c,d; 12b; 13b; 16 and 1-methylthio-5,6-dihydrobenzo[f]quinoline (0.1-100 μM) were screened for their cytotoxicity in normal (IEC-6), carcinoma (Colo-205) and HepG2 cell lines.

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Jun
2014

Oxytocin (OT) injections have been indiscriminately used to milk cattle in dairy industries. There is no study available regarding surveillance of OT in market milk samples.
OT from milk samples was extracted by precipitation with trichloroacetic acid and passed through the solid phase extraction column.

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May
2014

Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) induced macrophage cell death and its mechanism remains to be solved. Herein, we report that ZnO NPs induced ROS generation by depleting antioxidant enzymes, increasing lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl contents in macrophages. The oxidative stress was induced by the inhibition of Nrf2 transcription factor release.

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May
2014

Recently, children with high mortality rate have been observed in northern parts of India, for which the etiology is still not established, although a case control study has been linked to the consumption of Cassia occidentalis (CO) seeds. In the present investigation toxicity of CO seeds (0.5, 1 and 2% w/w) in diet were carried out in wistar rats.

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Jul
2014

Macrophages are among the most sensitive immune cells because of their phagocytic activity and are prone to become dysfunctional or not able to perform properly if nanoparticle load increases. We have previously reported that zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZNPs) induce inflammatory responses in macrophages that contribute to their death. Recognition of ZNPs by pattern recognition receptors such as toll-like receptors (TLRs) might be a factor in the initiation of these responses in macrophages.

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Apr
2014

Red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is consumed worldwide as a vegetarian protein source. But, at the same time the allergenicity potential of red kidney bean is a matter of concern. This study is aimed towards purification, characterization, thermal stability, proteolytic digestion and allergenicity assessment of one of the clinically relevant allergens of red kidney bean.

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Apr
2014

Immunotherapies with T-cell epitope peptides have shown a promising impact over allergic diseases as a potential therapeutic tool in in vitro and in vivo conditions. It is recognized as an effective treatment with long lasting clinical effects and subsequent reduction of the allergic inflammatory reactions. In this review, we have summarized the role of peptide based immunotherapy and emphasis has been given to the recent advancement in pollen, cat, hymenoptera venom, and food allergy.

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Mar
2014

Red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), a protein rich legume, is consumed globally due to its delicacy. This study was aimed to purify, characterize and assess allergenicity of one of its clinically relevant allergens, later identified as phaseolin.

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Apr
2014

The inflammatory responses after exposure to zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZNPs) are known, however, the molecular mechanisms and direct consequences of particle uptake are still unclear. Dose and time-dependent increase in the uptake of ZNPs by macrophages has been observed by flow cytometry. Macrophages treated with ZNPs showed a significantly enhanced phagocytic activity.

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Apr
2014

The use of nanoscale materials is growing exponentially, but concerns rise about the human hazards cannot be ignored. Nanotechnology has penetrated deep into our lives in diversified areas as engineering, information technology and diagnostics. Nonetheless owing to their peculiar properties these new materials also present new health risks upon interacting with biological systems.

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Dec
2013

In this Letter, we propose an all-optical circuit for a cascadable and integrable logic inverter based on stimulated Raman scattering. A maximum product criteria for noise margin is taken to analyze the cascadability of the inverter. Variation of noise margin for different model parameters is also studied.

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Dec
1969

Deoxynivalenol (DON), a toxic fungal metabolite, is stable under different processing conditions; however, its stability in aqueous medium at different temperatures and low pH (1-2) (present in the gastrointestinal tract) has not been investigated. In the present study, DON standard was used to study the influence of temperature and pH on DON stability in aqueous medium, the characterisation of the degraded product, and the comparative toxicity profile of the degraded and the parent compound. The results suggest that standard DON was unstable at 125-250°C showing 16-100% degradation whereas DON at pH 1-3 had 30-66% degradation, with a concomitant increase in the formation of a degraded product.

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Mar
2014

Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZNPs) have been used in dietary supplements and may cause an immunomodulatory effect. The present study investigated the effect of ZNPs on antigen-specific immune responses in mice sensitized with the T-cell-dependent antigen ovalbumin (OVA). BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally administered ZNPs (0.

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Dec
2013

Food allergy is a health complication induced by certain food in the susceptible individuals. Due to lack of permanent cure and the global prevalence, the preventive approach is highly required for food allergy. Recently published patents have shown significant improvements in the food allergy research.

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Dec
2013

Red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one the most commonly consumed legumes that requires an in depth understanding of its allergenicity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the allergenicity of red kidney bean proteins following oral exposure in BALB/c mice and elucidate the levels of Th1/Th2 transcription factors induced by red kidney bean proteins in rat basophilic leukemia cells (RBL-2H3 cells) passively sensitized with the sera of red kidney bean sensitized mice.

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Dec
2013

Macrophages, the characteristic cell type in inflammatory reactions, participate in a variety of immunological events in humans and other mammals. They act as regulatory switches for both innate and acquired arms of immune system and play a vital role in tissue repair. Recent studies have shown the possible role of macrophages in food allergic reactions.

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Sep
2013

Benzanthrone (BA) exposed occupational workers have been found to exhibit toxicological manifestations in the skin, thus it is quite likely that long term exposure may lead to skin tumorigenicity. Thus, attempts were made to elucidate the tumor initiating and promoting potentials of pure (PBA) and commercial benzanthrone (CBA). Additionally, the preventive role of ascorbic acid (AsA) was also assessed.

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Dec
2014

Patulin (PAT), a present day major contaminant of commercial apple and apple products is reported to be carcinogenic, embryotoxic, and immunotoxic. While oral and inhalation are considered to be the most prevalent routes of exposure to this toxin, exposure through skin is now being extensively investigated. Our previous study showed that short-term dermal exposure to PAT resulted in toxicological injury to the skin, while long-term exposure induced skin tumorigenesis.

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Sep
2013

Ovarian anomalies following oral oxytocin (OT) (1 and 10 ng/100 μl) exposure of female Wistar rat pups (10-day old) for 25 days was undertaken as OT injections are illegally used for milk let down in cattle thereby causing oral exposure to human population from early age. OT exposure resulted in increased ovarian weight, γ globulin, total number of follicles, and number of corpus luteum (CLs); indicating higher ovulation. The mechanism may involve over-expression of pEGFR followed by downstream pERK1/2 and subsequently increased ovarian PGE-2 along with enhanced COX-2, HAS-2 & TSG-6 (matrix deposition proteins) and GDF-9 (oocyte factor) proteins, suggesting that oral exposure of OT may affect the physiology and function of the ovary.

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Dec
1969

Since bioantioxidants in plasma of Epidemic Dropsy patients [a condition caused by consumption of adulterated mustard oil with argemone oil (AO)] were found to be significantly decreased, the beneficial effect of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and α-tocopherol (TOCO) against AO- or sanguinarine (SANG)-induced tumorigenicity was undertaken in mice. Topical application of TOCO and NAC either alone or in combination showed significant protection against AO/TPA- and SANG/TPA-induced skin tumorigenicity. Histopathological findings suggest that papillomatous growth in AO/TPA- and SANG/TPA-treated animals were substantially protected following topical application of TOCO or NAC.

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Apr
2013

In the present study, an attempt has been made to understand the exposure assessment of food colors through 2 major groups, sweets and savories, at a national level so as to evolve a scientific yardstick to fix levels of colors in commodities based on technological and safety requirement. A vast majority of colored food commodities (83.6%) were found to employ permitted colors and confirmed a marked decline in the trend of use of nonpermitted colors (NPCs).

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Nov
2013

Red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), a commonly consumed bean has been reported to induce allergic reactions in susceptible individuals. Phytohemagglutinins (PHAs, mainly PHA-P) contribute a major proportion of red kidney bean seeds.

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