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Author: Nicolas A Crossley (12)


Oct
2017

Schizophrenia has a large genetic component, and the pathways from genes to illness manifestation are beginning to be identified. The Genetics of Endophenotypes of Neurofunction to Understand Schizophrenia (GENUS) Consortium aims to clarify the role of genetic variation in brain abnormalities underlying schizophrenia. This article describes the GENUS Consortium sample collection.

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Dec
1969

Connectomic approaches using diffusion tensor imaging have contributed to our understanding of brain changes in psychosis, and could provide further insights into the neural mechanisms underlying response to antipsychotic treatment. We here studied the brain network organization in patients at their first episode of psychosis, evaluating whether connectome-based descriptions of brain networks predict response to treatment, and whether they change after treatment. Seventy-six patients with a first episode of psychosis and 74 healthy controls were included.

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Dec
1969

The absence of markers for ante-mortem diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), results in this disorder being commonly mistaken for other conditions, such as idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). Such mistakes occur particularly in the initial stages, when "plus syndrome" has not yet clinically emerged.
To investigate the global brain volume and tissue loss in patients with PSP relative to patients with IPD and healthy controls and correlations between clinical parameters and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived brain volume estimates.

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Dec
1969

Previous network studies in chronic schizophrenia patients revealed impaired structural organization of the brain's rich-club members, a set of highly interconnected hub regions that play an important integrative role for global brain communication. Moreover, impaired rich-club connectivity has also been found in unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients, suggesting that abnormal rich-club connectivity is related to familiar, possibly reflecting genetic, vulnerability for schizophrenia. However, no study has yet investigated whether structural rich-club organization is also impaired in individuals with a clinical risk syndrome for psychosis.

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Mar
2016

Functional neuroimaging studies of schizophrenia have identified abnormal activations in many brain regions. In an effort to interpret these findings from a network perspective, we carried out a meta-analysis of this literature, mapping anatomical locations of under- and over-activation to the topology of a normative human functional connectome.
We included 314 task-based functional neuroimaging studies including more than 5000 patients with schizophrenia and over 5000 controls.

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Nov
2015

It is unclear to what extent the traditional distinction between neurological and psychiatric disorders reflects biological differences.
To examine neuroimaging evidence for the distinction between neurological and psychiatric disorders.
We performed an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis on voxel-based morphometry studies reporting decreased grey matter in 14 neurological and 10 psychiatric disorders, and compared the regional and network-level alterations for these two classes of disease.

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Aug
2014

Brain networks or 'connectomes' include a minority of highly connected hub nodes that are functionally valuable, because their topological centrality supports integrative processing and adaptive behaviours. Recent studies also suggest that hubs have higher metabolic demands and longer-distance connections than other brain regions, and therefore could be considered biologically costly. Assuming that hubs thus normally combine both high topological value and high biological cost, we predicted that pathological brain lesions would be concentrated in hub regions.

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Jul
2013

There is growing interest in the complex topology of human brain functional networks, often measured using resting-state functional MRI (fMRI). Here, we used a meta-analysis of the large primary literature that used fMRI or PET to measure task-related activation (>1,600 studies; 1985-2010). We estimated the similarity (Jaccard index) of the activation patterns across experimental tasks between each pair of 638 brain regions.

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Dec
1969

Electroencephalography and Magnetoencephalography have provided valuable information about the brain functioning in psychosis. In the last few years, authors have demonstrated that there are neurophysiological alterations already in the prodromal period, before the development of psychosis. This makes them promising tools for predicting a future transition to psychosis.

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Jun
2010

There is an ongoing debate about the use of atypical antipsychotics as a first-line treatment for first-episode psychosis.
To examine the evidence base for this recommendation.
Meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials in the early phase of psychosis, looking at long-term discontinuation rates, short-term symptom changes, weight gain and extrapyramidal side-effects.

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Dec
2009

Superior temporal lobe dysfunction is a robust finding in functional neuroimaging studies of schizophrenia and is thought to be related to a disruption of fronto-temporal functional connectivity. However, the stage of the disorder at which these functional alterations occur is unclear. We addressed this issue by using functional MRI (fMRI) to study subjects in the prodromal and first episode phases of schizophrenia.

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Mar
2008

At least part of the failure in the transition from experimental to clinical studies in stroke has been attributed to the imprecision introduced by problems in the design of experimental stroke studies. Using a metaepidemiologic approach, we addressed the effect of randomization, blinding, and use of comorbid animals on the estimate of how effectively therapeutic interventions reduce infarct size.
Electronic and manual searches were performed to identify meta-analyses that described interventions in experimental stroke.

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