Helping You Find Full Text Journal Articles

Search Results:

Author: Nicole J Rinehart (59)


Sep
2017

The temporoparietal junction (TPJ) is implicated in mental and emotional state attribution, processes associated with autism-relevant traits. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the TPJ can influence social-cognitive performance. However, associations with electrophysiology and autism-relevant traits remain relatively unexamined.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Autism Spectrum Disorder affects up to 2.5% of children and is associated with harmful health outcomes (e.g.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Oct
2016

Although there is little overlap in core diagnostic criteria for ADHD and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), ASD symptoms are estimated to co-occur in children with ADHD in 20-50% of cases. As motor control deficits are common to both disorders, we investigated the impact of ASD symptoms on ocular motor control in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder-Combined Type (ADHD-CT), using a cued saccade paradigm sensitive to cerebellar ocular motor impairment in ASD. Basic saccade metrics (latency, velocity and accuracy), trial-to-trial variability, and main sequences relationships (saccade velocity for a given amplitude) were assessed, for 14 males with ADHD-CT and 14 typically developing (TD) males (aged 8-14, IQ>80).

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Feb
2017

Although research has indicated that children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) display normative attachment behaviours, to date there has been limited qualitative research exploring these relationships. This study aimed to describe qualitative features of the child-caregiver attachment relationship in children with ASD. Primary caregivers to 26 children with ASD (aged 7-14 years) and 23 typically developing children (aged 7-13 years) were administered the Disturbances of Attachment Interview (Smyke & Zeanah, 1999) to elicit descriptions of children's attachment behaviours.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

There has been considerable focus placed on how individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) visually perceive and attend to social information, such as facial expressions or social gaze. The role of eye movements is inextricable from visual perception, however this aspect is often overlooked. We performed a series of meta-analyses based on data from 28 studies of eye movements in ASD to determine whether there is evidence for ocular motor dysfunction in ASD.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Oct
2016

Growing evidence suggests Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often co-occurs with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and a better understanding of the nature of their overlap, including at a neurobiological level, is needed. Research has implicated cerebellar-networks as part of the neural-circuitry disrupted in ASD, but little research has been carried out to investigate this in ADHD. We investigated cerebellar integrity using a double-step saccade adaptation paradigm in a group of male children age 8-15 (n=12) diagnosed with ADHD-Combined Type (-CT).

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

May
2017

The present study compared the course of parent-report and actigraphy-derived sleep profiles over a 1-year period, in school-age children with autism spectrum disorder and typically developing children. The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire and 14 nights of actigraphy were used to assess sleep profiles. Parents also completed the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale, the Social Worries Questionnaire and the Bedtime Routines Questionnaire.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

There has been limited study of the relationship between child attachment and caregiver wellbeing amongst children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined self-reported child attachment quality alongside caregivers' report of their own psychological distress, parenting stress and attachment style, amongst 24 children with high-functioning autism or Asperger's disorder (ASD; aged 7-14 years) and 24 typically developing children (aged 7-12 years), and their primary caregiver. Children with ASD were no less secure, but their caregivers were more stressed and reported more attachment-related anxiety, compared to typically developing dyads.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

The current study assessed the association between anxiety symptoms and sleep in 90 school-aged children, aged 6-12 years (M= 108 months, 52.2% male). The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and 14 nights of actigraphy were used to assess sleep.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Feb
2017

The cerebellum appears to play a key role in the development of internal rules that allow fast, predictive adjustments to novel stimuli. This is crucial for adaptive motor processes, such as those involved in walking, where cerebellar dysfunction has been found to increase variability in gait parameters. Motor adaptation is a process that results in a progressive reduction in errors as movements are adjusted to meet demands, and within the cerebellum, this seems to be localised primarily within the right hemisphere.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Mar
2016

We explored the relationship between accidental injuries, motor impairment, and co-occurring autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms in children with ADHD-combined type (ADHD-CT).
Participants were 32 male children diagnosed with ADHD-CT and 23 typically developing male children (7-12 years, full scale IQ [FSIQ] > 80). Parents completed a customized questionnaire on the occurrence of accidental injuries (e.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Aug
2015

Imaging and lesion studies have suggested numerous roles for the temporoparietal junction (TPJ), for example in attention and neglect, social cognition, and self/other processing. These studies cannot establish causal relationships, and the importance and relevance of (and interrelationships between) proposed roles remain controversial. This review examined studies that use noninvasive transcranial stimulation (NTS) to explore TPJ function.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Oct
2015

Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have high levels of anxiety. It is unclear whether they exhibit threat-related attentional biases commensurate with anxiety disorders as manifest in non-ASD populations, such as facilitated attention toward, and difficulties disengaging engaging from, threatening stimuli. Ninety children, 45 cognitively able with ASD and 45 age, perceptual-IQ, and gender matched typically developing children, aged 7-12 years, were administered a visual dot probe task using threatening facial pictures.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Apr
2015

There is increasing interest in oxytocin as a therapeutic to treat social deficits in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a course of oxytocin nasal spray to improve social behavior in youth with ASD.
In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial across two Australian university sites between February 2009 and January 2012, 50 male participants aged between 12 and 18 years, with Autistic or Asperger's Disorder, were randomized to receive either oxytocin (n = 26) or placebo (n = 24) nasal sprays (either 18 or 24 International Units), administered twice-daily for 8 weeks.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Nov
2014

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterised by a unique pattern of preserved abilities and deficits within and across cognitive domains. The Complex Information Processing Theory proposes this pattern reflects an altered capacity to respond to cognitive demands. This study compared how complexity induced by time constraints on processing affect cognitive function in individuals with ASD and typically-developing individuals.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Aug
2014

This study aimed to compare the gait of children with ADHD - Combined Type (ADHD-CT) to typically developing (TD) children. Children with ADHD-CT (n=14; mean age 10 years 4 months) and a TD group (n=13; mean age 10 years 9 months) walked at self-selected slow, preferred and fast speed on an electronic walkway system. Participants completed a total of 15 walking trials; 5 trials per walking condition.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

There is substantial evidence for facial emotion recognition (FER) deficits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The extent of this impairment, however, remains unclear, and there is some suggestion that clinical groups might benefit from the use of dynamic rather than static images. High-functioning individuals with ASD (n = 36) and typically developing controls (n = 36) completed a computerised FER task involving static and dynamic expressions of the six basic emotions.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Sleep disturbance is common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but longitudinal trajectories are poorly defined. This study measured sleep disturbance at baseline and 1 year later examining change over time and associated problem behaviors. Participants were 84 gender-matched children, aged between 7 and 12 years at baseline; 46 children were diagnosed with ASD, and 38 were typically developing (TYP) children.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Feb
2016

The aim of the study was to investigate motor performance in children with ADHD using a size-scaling handwriting task.
In all, 14 male children with ADHD and 14 typically developing (TD) children (age 7-15) wrote 10-mm and 40-mm cursive letter "l."
Children with ADHD were unable to maintain their writing accurately at 40 mm, falling short by several millimeters; this was not evident in the TD children.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Sep
2013

It has been consistently reported that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) show considerable handwriting difficulties, specifically relating to accurate and consistent letter formation, and maintaining appropriate letter size. The aim of this study was to investigate the underlying factors that contribute to these difficulties, specifically relating to motor control. We examined the integrity of fundamental handwriting movements and contributions of neuromotor noise in 26 children with ASD aged 8-13 years (IQ>75), and 17 typically developing controls.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

The mirror neuron hypothesis of autism is highly controversial, in part because there are conflicting reports as to whether putative indices of mirror system activity are actually deficient in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recent evidence suggests that a typical putative mirror system response may be seen in people with an ASD when there is a degree of social relevance to the visual stimuli used to elicit that response. Individuals with ASD (n = 32) and matched neurotypical controls (n = 32) completed a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) experiment in which the left primary motor cortex (M1) was stimulated during the observation of static hands, individual (i.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jul
2013

Research indicates that mirror neurons are important for social cognition, including emotion processing. Emerging evidence, however, also reveals that emotional stimuli might be capable of modulating human mirror neuron system (MNS) activity. The current study used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to assess putative mirror neuron function following emotionally evocative images in twenty healthy adults.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Motor impairments have been found to be a significant clinical feature associated with autism and Asperger's disorder (AD) in addition to core symptoms of communication and social cognition deficits. Motor deficits in high-functioning autism (HFA) and AD may differentiate these disorders, particularly with respect to the role of the cerebellum in motor functioning. Current neuroimaging and behavioral evidence suggests greater disruption of the cerebellum in HFA than AD.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Feb
2014

To determine the effect of parent education on adaptive behaviour, autism symptoms and cognitive/language skills of young children with autistic disorder.
A randomised group comparison design involving a parent education and counselling intervention and a parent education and behaviour management intervention to control for parent skills training and a control sample. Two rural and two metropolitan regions were randomly allocated to intervention groups (n = 70) or control (n = 35).

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

The attention profile of girls with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is unclear compared with boys with ASD and typical children. This study aimed to investigate parent-reported ASD and ADHD symptoms in a large sample of boys and girls with and without ASD.
A total of 124 normally intelligent children, half of them girls, 64 with autistic disorder or Asperger's disorder, and 60 age- and gender-matched typically developing, aged 7 to 12 years, were recruited.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jan
2015

This study investigated the relationship between motor performance and social-communicative impairment in children with ADHD-combined type (ADHD-CT).
An upper limb Fitts' aiming task was used as a measure of motor performance and the Social Responsiveness Scale as a measure of social-communicative/autistic impairment in the following groups: ADHD-CT (n = 11) and typically developing (TD) controls (n = 10).
Children with ADHD-CT displayed greater variability in their movements, reflected in increased error variance over repeated aiming trials compared with TD controls.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

May
2013

Mounting evidence suggests a possible role for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the neuropathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but the extent of this impairment is unclear. A non-invasive, in vivo measure of GABA involves transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the primary motor cortex to probe cortical inhibition. Individuals diagnosed with ASD (high-functioning autism or Asperger's disorder) (n = 36 [28 male]; mean age: 26.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Aug
2014

Children with ADHD-combined type (ADHD-CT) display fine and gross motor problems, often expressed as handwriting difficulties. This study aimed to kinematically characterize the handwriting of children with ADHD using a cursive letter l's task.
In all, 28 boys (7-12 years), 14 ADHD-CT and 14 typically developing (TD), without developmental coordination disorder (DCD) or comorbid autism, wrote a series of four cursive letter l's using a graphics tablet and stylus.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Nov
2012

This study investigated whether the novel Comic Strip Task (CST) could be used to detect Theory-of-Mind impairments (ToM) in 4- to 8-year-old children with high functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Twelve children with either high-functioning autism or Asperger's Disorder and 12 typically-developing children completed the 21-item measure. The overall CST demonstrated moderate internal consistency but the Belief-understanding subscale was excluded from the test due to poor reliability.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Aug
2012

This paper examines the upper-limb movement kinematics of young children (3-7 years) with high-functioning autism using a point-to-point movement paradigm. Consistent with prior findings in older children, a difference in movement preparation was found in the autism group (n = 11) relative to typically developing children. In contrast to typically developing children, the presence of a visual distractor in the movement task did not appear to impact on early movement planning or execution in children with autism, suggesting that this group were not considering all available environmental cues to modulate movement.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jan
2012

Motor impairments are common in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Electrophysiologic studies reveal abnormalities in the preparation of movement; repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to key motor cortical sites may therefore be a useful technique for improving motor function in ASD.
To examine whether rTMS can improve electrophysiologic and behavioral indices of motor activity.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Mar
2012

The neurobiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is not particularly well understood, and biomedical treatment approaches are therefore extremely limited. A prominent explanatory model suggests that social-relating symptoms may arise from dysfunction within the mirror neuron system, while a recent neuroimaging study suggests that these impairments in ASD might reduce with age.
Participants with autism spectrum disorder (i.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Gender is an important factor to consider in understanding the clinical presentation, management, and developmental trajectory of children with neuropsychiatric disorders. While much is known about the clinical and neurobehavioural profiles of boys with neuropsychiatric disorders, surprisingly little is known about girls. The aim of this chapter was to review our understanding of gender by considering the most prevalent childhood onset neuropsychiatric disorders, autism and Fragile X syndrome.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

May
2012

Autism and Asperger's disorder (AD) are characterised by impairments in social interaction, stereotypic behaviours or restricted interests. Although currently listed as distinct clinical disorders, the validity of their distinction remains controversial. This study examined gait in children with autism and AD.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

May
2011

The observation of other's behaviour results in increased corticospinal excitability (CSE) within the primary motor cortex, a phenomenon that has typically been interpreted in the context of motor resonance and human "mirror systems". Mirror systems are implicated in empathy, and may therefore show a preferential response to the observation of interactive behaviour. Participants were administered transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the primary motor cortex while viewing matched hand movements with or without (1) an interactive context and (2) an interactive context with an implied heightened emotional aspect.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Feb
2011

The effects of action observation on cortical processes have typically been interpreted in the context of so-called "mirror systems" (i.e., brain regions active during both the experience and observation of behaviour, emotion, or sensation), and viewed as subserving social cognition via a self-other matching mechanism.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Feb
2011

Previous studies have reported that people with the neurodevelopmental disorder Williams syndrome exhibit difficulties with visuomotor control. In the current study, we examined the extent to which visuomotor deficits were associated with movement planning or feedback-based on-line control. We used a variant of the Fitts' reciprocal aiming task on a computerized touchscreen in adults with WS, IQ-matched individuals with Down syndrome (DS), and typically developing controls.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Apr
2011

The potential for the coexistence of the developmental disorders autism and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in any one individual has for a long time been a contentious issue. While from a neurobiological perspective it is possible, and even highly likely, that ADHD and autism might clinically co-exist, our major diagnostic classification systems (DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10) currently preclude such a dual-diagnosis. The aim of the current review is to summarise current diagnostic criteria and treatment strategies for the two disorders, relevant theories of developmental dysfunction, and update the state of the debate regarding comorbidity.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jul
2011

Key theories of autism implicate orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) compromise, while olfactory identification (OI) deficits are associated with OFC dysfunction. This study aimed to complete a 5-year follow-up of children with high-functioning autism (HFA) who previously lacked the normal age-OI association; and compare unirhinal-OI in children with HFA, Asperger's disorder (ASP), and controls. While both HFA and controls had improved birhinal-OI at follow-up, reduced OI in some HFA participants suggested OFC deterioration and heterogeneous OFC development.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Mar
2011

Although autism spectrum disorders (ASD) affect more males than females, it is not clear whether neurobehavioural correlates of ASD are equivalent across genders. This study examined gender differences in neurobehavioural functioning in boys and girls with ASD. Participants were males with ASD (n = 10), females with ASD (n = 13), typically developing males (n = 8), and typically developing females (n = 14).

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jul
2010

Putative measures of mirror neuron activity suggest that mirror neurons respond preferentially to biological motion, but it remains unclear whether enhanced cortical activity occurs during the observation of any behaviour, or whether that behaviour needs to be associated with a particular object or goal. Forty-three healthy adults completed a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) experiment that assessed corticospinal excitability while viewing intransitive and transitive hand gestures (compared with the presentation of a static hand). Visual presentations were designed to control for motoric and stimulus properties.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Aug
2010

Controversy surrounds the distinction between high-functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger disorder, but motor abnormalities are associated features of both conditions. This study examined motor cortical inhibition and excitability in HFA and Asperger disorder using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS).
Participants were diagnosed by experienced clinicians strictly according to DSM-IV criteria.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Apr
2010

Williams syndrome (WS), a rare genetically based neurodevelopmental disorder, is characterized by gait abnormalities that resemble basal ganglia-parkinsonian deficits in the internal regulation of stride length. In the current study, we explored whether visual or attentional cues would improve gait function in adults with WS, when compared to adults with Down syndrome (DS) and neurologically normal controls. The spatiotemporal characteristics of gait were measured using the GAITRite walkway while participants walked with visual cues set at 20% greater than preferred stride length (externally cued), or with an attentional strategy of maintaining the stride length without the assistance of visual cues (internally cued).

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Apr
2010

A diagnostic hallmark of autism spectrum disorders is a qualitative impairment in social communication and interaction. Deficits in the ability to recognize the emotions of others are believed to contribute to this. There is currently no effective treatment for these problems.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Oct
2009

Motor dysfunction is common to both autism and Asperger syndrome, but the underlying neurophysiological impairments are unclear. Neurophysiological examinations of motor dysfunction can provide information about likely sites of functional impairment and can contribute to the debate about whether autism and Asperger syndrome are variants of the same disorder or fundamentally distinct neurodevelopmental conditions. We investigated the neurophysiology of internally determined motor activity in autism and Asperger syndrome via examination of movement-related potentials (MRPs).

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Feb
2009

Despite early neurological reports of gait abnormalities in Williams syndrome (WS), a rare genetically based neurodevelopmental disorder, there has not yet been any systematic investigation of gait dysfunction in this disorder. The current study examined the gait characteristics in adults with WS and a neurologically normal control group as they walked at self-selected slow, preferred and fast speeds using the GAITRite walkway. The WS group showed hypokinetic gait, which manifested as reduced gait speed and stride length, but with a disproportionate increase in cadence (stepping frequency) as speed was increased.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

May
2008

The aim of this study was to investigate whether the superior search abilities observed in autism/Asperger's disorder may in part be a consequence of a more pronounced inhibition of return (IOR). Contrary to our prediction, IOR in individuals with autism was comparable to the matched comparison group. However, the autism group committed more false alarm responses than the matched comparison group; this may reflect a possible inhibitory deficit, or suggest that individuals with autism rely more on probabilities to determine their behavioural responses.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Williams syndrome (WS) is a rare genetically based neurodevelopmental disorder which is associated with mental retardation and a distinctive cognitive and behavioural profile, including weaknesses in visuospatial processing but preserved language abilities and face recognition. Relative to the cognitive characteristics of WS, there is a dearth of research into the movement problems associated with this syndrome. This is despite the evidence from clinical and experimental studies that indicate disordered movement may be an important neuromotor characteristic of WS.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jun
2002

The repetitive, stereotyped, and obsessive behaviors that characterize autism may in part be attributable to disruption of the region of the fronto-striatal system, which mediates executive abilities. Neuropsychological testing has shown that children with autism exhibit set-shifting deficiencies on tests such as the Wisconsin Card Sorting task but show normal inhibitory ability on variants of the Stroop color-word test. According to Minshew and Goldstein's multiple primary deficit theory, the complexity of the executive functioning task is important in determining the performance of individuals with autism.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Back to top