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Author: Niki Karavitaki (74)



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Jan
2018

Non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFA) are benign pituitary neoplasms not associated with clinical evidence of hormonal hypersecretion. A substantial number of patients with NFA have morbidities related to the tumor and possible recurrence(s), as well as to the treatments offered. Studies assessing the long-term mortality of patients with NFA are limited.

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Jan
2018

To investigate whether the risk of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increased in patients with prolactinoma.
Population-based, retrospective, open-cohort study using The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database.
A total of 2233 patients with prolactinoma and 10 355 matched controls (1:5 ratio) from UK General Practices contributing to THIN were included.

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Dec
1969

Craniopharyngiomas are rare epithelial tumours arising along the path of the craniopharyngeal duct. Two major histological subtypes have been recognised, the papillary and the adamantinomatous. Craniopharyngiomas remain challenging tumours to manage and are associated with significant morbidities and mortality.

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Nov
2017

Most prolactinomas in females are diagnosed during the reproductive age, and the majority are microadenomas. Prolactinomas detected in the postmenopausal period are less common with limited published data on their presentation and prognosis. Our objective was to assess the presenting clinical, biochemical and imaging findings, as well as the outcomes of women diagnosed with a prolactinoma in the postmenopausal period.

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Jun
2017

Despite the major risk of regrowth of clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (CNFAs) after primary treatment, systematic data on the probability of further tumor progression and the effectiveness of management approaches are lacking.
To assess the probability of further regrowth(s), predictive factors, and outcomes of management approaches in patients with CNFA diagnosed with adenoma regrowth after primary treatment.
Retrospective cohort study of 237 patients with regrown CNFA managed in two UK centers.

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Dec
1969

Pituitary adenomas are a common intracranial neoplasm, usually demonstrating a benign phenotype. They can be classified according to pathological, radiological or clinical behaviour as typical, atypical or carcinomas, invasive or noninvasive, and aggressive or nonaggressive. Prolactinomas account for 40-60% of all pituitary adenomas, with dopamine agonists representing the first-line treatment and surgery/radiotherapy reserved for drug intolerance/resistance or in neuro-ophthalmological emergencies.

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Nov
2016

To formulate clinical practice guidelines for hormonal replacement in hypopituitarism in adults.
The participants include an Endocrine Society-appointed Task Force of six experts, a methodologist, and a medical writer. The American Association for Clinical Chemistry, the Pituitary Society, and the European Society of Endocrinology co-sponsored this guideline.

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Nov
2016

Uncertainty exists whether the long-term use of ergot-derived dopamine agonist (DA) drugs for the treatment of hyperprolactinemia may be associated with clinically significant valvular heart disease and whether current regulatory authority guidelines for echocardiographic screening are clinically appropriate.
Our objective was to provide follow-up echocardiographic data on a previously described cohort of patients treated with DA for lactotrope pituitary tumors and to explore possible associations between structural and functional valve abnormalities with the cumulative dose of drug used.
Follow-up echocardiographic data were collected from a proportion of our previously reported cohort of patients; all had received continuous DA therapy for at least 2 years in the intervening period.

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Feb
2017

Acromegaly is a rare condition necessitating large population studies for the generation of reliable epidemiological data. In this review, we systematically analysed the epidemiological profile of this condition based on recently published population studies from various geographical areas. The total prevalence ranges between 2.

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Jul
2016

No agreement has been reached on the long-term survival prospects for patients with Cushing's disease. We studied life expectancy in patients who had received curative treatment and whose hypercortisolism remained in remission for more than 10 years, and identified factors determining their survival.
We did a multicentre, multinational, retrospective cohort study using individual case records from specialist referral centres in the UK, Denmark, the Netherlands, and New Zealand.

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Sep
2016

Microprolactinomas are the most common pituitary adenomas. In symptomatic patients, dopamine agonists are the first-line treatment of choice; when cabergoline is used, biochemical control rates between 85 and 93% have been reported. Long-term treatment is needed in most of the cases with compliance, patient convenience, and potential adverse effects representing areas requiring attention.

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May
2016

Pheochromocytoma is associated with catecholamine-induced cardiac toxicity, but the extent and nature of cardiac involvement in clinical cohorts is not well-characterized.
This study characterized the cardiac phenotype in patients with pheochromocytoma using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR).
A total of 125 subjects were studied, including patients with newly diagnosed pheochromocytoma (n = 29), patients with previously surgically cured pheochromocytoma (n = 31), healthy control subjects (n = 51), and hypertensive control subjects (HTN) (n = 14), using CMR (1.

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Dec
1969

Acromegaly is a rare condition of GH excess associated with significant morbidities (e.g. hypertension, glucose intolerance or diabetes mellitus, cardiac, cerebrovascular, respiratory disease and arthritis) and, when uncontrolled, high mortality.

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Mar
2016

Long-acting somatostatin analogues delivered parenterally are the most widely used medical treatment in acromegaly. This patient-reported outcomes survey was designed to assess the impact of chronic injections on subjects with acromegaly.
The survey was conducted in nine pituitary centres in Germany, UK and The Netherlands.

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Feb
2016

Non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFAs) have a prevalence of 7-22/100,000 people. A significant number of patients suffer from morbidities related to the tumor, possible recurrence(s), and treatments utilized. Our aim was to assess mortality of patients with macroNFA and predictive factors.

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Nov
2015

Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a severe condition with excess mortality and significant morbidity necessitating control of hypercortisolemia. There are few data documenting use of the steroidogenesis inhibitor metyrapone for this purpose.
The objective was to assess the effectiveness of metyrapone in controlling cortisol excess in a contemporary series of patients with CS.

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Feb
2016

Dopamine agonists are the treatment of choice for all patients with prolactinomas. They are generally safe, effective, and well-tolerated. However, a link between their use and the development of impulse control disorders has been well recognized in the field of neurology for some time, and evidence for a similar effect in endocrine patients is emerging.

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Jul
2015

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in many age groups. Neuroendocrine dysfunction has been recognized as a consequence of TBI and consists of both anterior and posterior pituitary insufficiency; water and electrolyte abnormalities (diabetes insipidus (DI) and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH)) are amongst the most challenging sequelae. The acute head trauma can lead (directly or indirectly) to dysfunction of the hypothalamic neurons secreting antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or of the posterior pituitary gland causing post-traumatic DI (PTDI).

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Jul
2015

The pituitary gland is significantly affected during gestation in terms of both size and function. Due to this physiologic adaptation, endocrine evaluation and interpretation of imaging is far more complex than in the non-pregnant state. Pituitary disorders are rare in pregnancy, as they are usually associated with gonadal dysfunction, thereby posing difficulties with fertility.

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Mar
2015

Efficacy and complications of pituitary irradiation.

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2015 Mar 4;44(1):117-26. Epub 2014 Nov 4.
Georgia Ntali, Niki Karavitaki
Radiation therapy is widely used in the management of intracranial (including sellar and parasellar) and systemic disorders. Although in many cases the irradiation aims to prevent the growth or regrowth and to control the hormonal hypersecretion of a pituitary tumor, in many others it adversely affects the hypothalamo-pituitary function simply because this area receives significant doses of radiation delivered for non-hypothalamo-pituitary disorders. The main long-term complications include hypopituitarism, optic neuropathy, cerebrovascular morbidity, and second brain tumors.

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Apr
2015

Cushing's syndrome is associated with a number of clinical manifestations and co-morbidities which may not resolve even after long-term remission leading to excessive mortality.
This review summarizes the main manifestations of Cushing's syndrome (active or in remission) with particular focus on data from recently published literature.
Obesity and metabolic alterations, hypertension and cardio/cerebrovascular complications, hypercoagulability/thromboembolism, neuropsychiatric, muscle/skeletal and immune consequences remain the most challenging.

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May
2015

Pituitary tumour apoplexy (PA) is a rare clinical syndrome that occurs as a result of acute haemorrhage and/or infarction within a frequently undiagnosed pituitary tumour. The sudden enlargement of the pituitary mass undergoing PA is responsible for a wide range of acute symptoms/signs (severe headache, visual loss, diplopia, hypopituitarism, impaired consciousness) which, together with the radiological evidence of a pituitary lesion, establish the diagnosis. The optimal care of PA requires involvement of a multidisciplinary team including endocrinologist, neurosurgeon, neuroophthalmologist and the management strategy that depends on the clinical manifestations, as well as the presence of co-morbidities.

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Mar
2015

Craniopharyngiomas are epithelial, sellar tumours with adamantinomatous (aCP) and papillary (pCP) subtypes. The aCP type usually occurs during childhood and pCP in middle-aged adults; aCPs often contain mutations in CTNNB1, encoding β-catenin, a component of the adherens junction and a mediator of Wnt signalling. No such mutational event has been associated with pCPs, where the BRAF gene appears to be more important.

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Dec
1969

Rathke's cleft cyst.

Handb Clin Neurol 2014 ;124:255-69
Sarah Larkin, Niki Karavitaki, Olaf Ansorge
Rathke's cleft cysts are benign sellar and suprasellar lesions arising from epithelial remnants of Rathke's pouch with a peak incidence at 30-50 years of age. The majority are between 10 and 20mm in diameter and contain mucoid or gelatinous material encapsulated in a thin cyst wall of simple or pseudostratified cuboidal or columnar epithelium. Symptomatic cases are rare, but incidental lesions are found in 11% of unselected postmortem cases.

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Dec
2014

The pathogenetic mechanisms of sporadic somatotroph adenomas are not well understood, but derangements of the cAMP pathway have been implicated. Recent studies have identified L206R mutations in the alpha catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (PRKACA) in cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenomas and amplification of the beta catalytic subunit of protein kinase A PRKACB in acromegaly associated with Carney complex. Given that both adrenocortical adenomas and somatotroph adenomas are known to be reliant on the cAMP signalling pathway, we sought to determine the relevance of the L206R mutation in both PRKACA and PRKACB for the pathogenesis of sporadic somatotroph adenomas.

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Nov
2014

To study the prevalence of germline mutations of the aryl-hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene in a large cohort of patients seen in the Oxford Centre for Diabetes Endocrinology and Metabolism (OCDEM), UK, with apparently sporadic pituitary adenomas, who were either diagnosed or had relevant clinical manifestations by the age of 40 years.
We prospectively investigated all patients who were seen at Oxford University Hospital, OCDEM, and a tertiary referral centre, between 2012 and 2013, and presented with pituitary tumours under the age of 40 years and with no family history: a total of 127 patients were enrolled in the study.
Leukocyte-origin genomic DNA underwent sequence analysis of exons 1-6 and the flanking intronic regions of the AIP gene (NM_003977.

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Dec
2014

Functioning gonadotroph adenomas (FGAs) are pituitary tumors secreting biologically active gonadotropins. The published literature includes only small case series or individual case reports. This review summarizes the published data on this rare entity and, based on them, suggests guidance on the follow-up of these patients.

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Jul
2014

Hypercalcaemia is an important cause of increased morbidity and mortality in patients with parathyroid carcinoma. Surgical resection is the mainstay of treatment but, equally, managing hypercalcaemia is of paramount importance. At present, few therapies have been shown to be effective in the most severe cases.

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Dec
1969

Adrenal insufficiency in acute oral opiate therapy.

Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2014 1;2014:130071. Epub 2014 Jan 1.
Caterina Policola, Victoria Stokes, Niki Karavitaki, Ashley Grossman
Opiate drugs such as morphine are in extensive use for pain relief and palliation. It is well established that these drugs can cause changes in endocrine function, but such effects are not always sufficiently appreciated in clinical practice, especially in relation to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Herein, we report on an 18-year-old man who was diagnosed with a slipped left femoral epiphysis following a long history of pain in his leg.

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Apr
2014

Multiple endocrine neoplasia 2 (MEN2) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), pheochromocytoma, and hyperparathyroidism, with mutations at codon 634 in exon 11 of the RET (REarranged during Transfection) proto-oncogene identified as the most common genetic defect.
We present a patient diagnosed with a left adrenal pheochromocytoma at a young age in whom we identified a mutation at codon 635 of the RET gene. No MTC has been clinically detected during a 6-year follow-up.

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Oct
2014

With an increasingly ageing population, the number of elderly people diagnosed with pituitary tumours continues to rise. There is a concern that with increasing age and comorbidities, there is higher anaesthetic risk, as well as peri-operative morbidity and mortality from pituitary surgery. This study aimed to audit the benefits and complications of transsphenoidal surgery performed in a large pituitary centre in elderly patients.

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Oct
2013

The management of head-and-neck paragangliomas.

Endocr Relat Cancer 2013 Oct 23;20(5):R291-305. Epub 2013 Aug 23.
Cristina Capatina, Georgia Ntali, Niki Karavitaki, Ashley B Grossman
Paragangliomas (PGLs) are tumours originating from neural crest-derived cells situated in the region of the autonomic nervous system ganglia. Head-and-neck PGLs (HNPGLs) originate from the sympathetic and parasympathetic paraganglia, most frequently from the carotid bodies and jugular, tympanic and vagal paraganglia, and are usually non-catecholamine secreting. Familial PGLs are considered to be rare, but recently genetic syndromes including multiple PGLs and/or phaeochromocytomas have been more thoroughly characterised.

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Apr
2013

The tumorigenic role of genetic abnormalities in sporadic pituitary nonfunctioning adenomas (NFAs), which usually originate from gonadotroph cells, is unknown.
The objective of the study was to identify somatic genetic abnormalities in sporadic pituitary NFAs.
Whole-exome sequencing was performed using DNA from 7 pituitary NFAs and leukocyte samples obtained from the same patients.

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Apr
2013

Somatotroph adenomas causing acromegaly are histologically classified into densely granulated (DG) and sparsely granulated (SG) subtypes with different morphology, clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes. Granulation pattern has been reported to co-segregate with a recurrent mutation at codon 49 in growth hormone receptor (GHR) and GSP oncogene. This study examines response to the octreotide suppression test (OST) in relation to granulation pattern and mutation in GHR and GSP.

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Aug
2013

The frequency and the degree of recovery of anterior pituitary hormone deficits in patients with macroprolactinoma responsive to cabergoline are not clear. Our aim was to evaluate pituitary function in these patients with particular reference to an assessment of the possible restoration of pituitary deficits.
The records of all subjects prospectively presenting to our Department with macroprolactinomas treated with cabergoline over a 2-year period were reviewed.

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Jan
2013

Mitotane [1-(2-chlorophenyl)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethane] is the first-line treatment for metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) and is also regularly used in the adjuvant setting after presumed complete removal of the primary tumor. Mitotane is considered an adrenolytic substance, but there is limited information on distinct effects on steroidogenesis. However, adrenal insufficiency and male hypogonadism are widely recognized side effects of mitotane treatment.

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Aug
2012

Somatotroph adenomas harboring aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) mutations respond less well to somatostatin analogs, suggesting that the effects of somatostatin analogs may be mediated by AIP.
The objective of the investigation was to study the involvement of AIP in the mechanism of effect of somatostatin analogs.
In the human study, a 16-wk somatostatin analog pretreatment compared with no pretreatment.

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Aug
2012

C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP/Nppc) is expressed at high levels in the anterior pituitary of rats and mice and activates guanylyl cyclase B receptors (GC-B/Npr2) to regulate hormone secretion. Mutations in NPR2/Npr2 can cause achondroplasia, GH deficiency, and female infertility, yet the normal expression profile within the anterior pituitary remains to be established in humans. The current study examined the expression profile and transcriptional regulation of NPR2 and GC-B protein in normal human fetal pituitaries, normal adult pituitaries, and human pituitary adenomas using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry.

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Jan
2013

Non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFA) may be associated with significant morbidity. Published data on the quality of life (QoL) of patients with NFA are scarce and conflicting. In view of the discordant findings and the advances in the management of these subjects, we aimed to evaluate the QoL in patients with NFA followed up in a tertiary endocrine UK referral centre.

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Aug
2012

This review addresses the practical usage of intravenous etomidate as a medical therapy in Cushing's syndrome. We reviewed the relevant literature, using search terms 'etomidate', 'Cushing's syndrome', 'adrenocortical hyperfunction', 'drug therapy' and 'hypercortisolaemia' in a series of public databases. There is a paucity of large randomised controlled trials, and data on its use rely only on small series, case study reports and international consensus guideline recommendations.

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Apr
2012

Prevalence and incidence of pituitary adenomas.

Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 2012 Apr 20;73(2):79-80. Epub 2012 Apr 20.
Niki Karavitaki
Reliable epidemiological data on pituitary adenomas (PAs) are of major importance for estimating the burden on the Health Care System and for designing optimal resource distribution for clinical care and for research activities. Cross-sectional studies from Switzerland, Belgium and the UK have shown that PAs have a prevalence of 78 to 94 cases/100,000 inhabitants (three to five times higher than previously thought). Furthermore, data from Northern Finland show an overall standardized incidence rate of 4 per 100,000 with the incidentally discovered ones demonstrating an increase.

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Jul
2012

Ipilimumab (Yervoy; Medarex and Bristol-Myers Squibb) is a human MAB against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4, which enhances co-stimulation of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, resulting in their proliferation and an anti-tumour response. It is licensed for the treatment of unresectable or metastatic malignant melanoma, while multiple clinical trials using this medication in the treatment of other malignancies are ongoing. As a clinical response to ipilimumab results from immunostimulation, predictably it generates autoimmunity as well, causing immune-related adverse events in the majority of patients.

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Aug
2012

Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a condition associated with high cortisol levels and affects around 0.7-2.4 cases per million population per year [1-3].

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Feb
2012

Rathke's cleft cysts (RCCs) are benign, sellar and/or suprasellar lesions originating from the remnants of Rathke's pouch. Although a common finding in routine autopsies (12-33% of normal pituitary glands), symptomatic cases are rare and comprise 5-15% of all surgically resected sellar lesions. Small, asymptomatic RCC do not require surgical intervention, and their natural history is not clear.

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