Helping You Find Full Text Journal Articles

Search Results:

Author: Nils B Kroemer (17)



View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Aug
2017

Post-ingestive signals related to nutrient metabolism are thought to be the primary drivers of reinforcement potency of energy sources. Here, in a series of neuroimaging and indirect calorimetry human studies, we examine the relative roles of caloric load and perceived sweetness in driving metabolic, perceptual, and brain responses to sugared beverages. Whereas caloric load was manipulated using the tasteless carbohydrate maltodextrin, sweetness levels were manipulated using the non-nutritive sweetener sucralose.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jan
2018

Alcohol dependence is a mental disorder that has been associated with an imbalance in behavioral control favoring model-free habitual over model-based goal-directed strategies. It is as yet unknown, however, whether such an imbalance reflects a predisposing vulnerability or results as a consequence of repeated and/or excessive alcohol exposure. We, therefore, examined the association of alcohol consumption with model-based goal-directed and model-free habitual control in 188 18-year-old social drinkers in a two-step sequential decision-making task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging before prolonged alcohol misuse could have led to severe neurobiological adaptations.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Aug
2016

There is a well-established literature linking obesity to altered dopamine signaling and brain response to food-related stimuli. Neuroimaging studies frequently report enhanced responses in dopaminergic regions during food anticipation and decreased responses during reward receipt. This has been interpreted as reflecting anticipatory "reward surfeit", and consummatory "reward deficiency".

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jul
2016

Behavioral choice can be characterized along two axes. One axis distinguishes reflexive, model-free systems that slowly accumulate values through experience and a model-based system that uses knowledge to reason prospectively. The second axis distinguishes Pavlovian valuation of stimuli from instrumental valuation of actions or stimulus-action pairs.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Mar
2016

Variations in brain responses to sensory stimuli are typically considered to lack information content and treated as "noise". Alternatively, variable response patterns may reflect the adjustment of biological parameters to external factors. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy non-dieting individuals to test whether intra-individual variation in brain response to the receipt of milkshake is associated with a range of behavioral and metabolic parameters.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Nov
2015

The aim of the present longitudinal study was the psychometric evaluation of the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS).
We analyzed data from N = 2,022 adolescents aged 13 to 15 at baseline assessment and 2 years later (mean interval 2.11 years).

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Sep
2015

Individuals with anorexia nervosa are thought to exert excessive self-control to inhibit primary drives.
This study used functional MRI (fMRI) to interrogate interactions between the neural correlates of cognitive control and motivational processes in the brain reward system during the anticipation of monetary reward and reward-related feedback. In order to avoid confounding effects of undernutrition, we studied female participants recovered from anorexia nervosa and closely matched healthy female controls.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

May
2015

In rodents, food-predictive cues elicit eating in the absence of hunger (Weingarten, 1983). This behavior is disrupted by the disconnection of amygdala pathways to the lateral hypothalamus (Petrovich et al., 2002).

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Nov
2014

Complex decision-making involves anticipation of future rewards to bias effort for obtaining it. Using fMRI, we investigated 50 participants employing an instrumental-motivation task that cued reinforcement levels before the onset of the motor-response phase. We extracted timecourses from regions of interest (ROI) in the mesocorticolimbic system and used a three-level hierarchical model to separate anticipatory brain responses predicting value and subsequent effort on a trial-by-trial basis.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jul
2015

Endocrine signals such as ghrelin and leptin are known to modulate the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system and, consequently, show associations with food and drug reward. In animal models, nicotine was demonstrated to reduce body weight by attenuating food intake and effects of leptin and ghrelin are partly modulated by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors which hint at potential interactions. However, the neuropharmacological modulation of endocrine signals by nicotine in healthy humans remains to be tested experimentally.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

May
2014

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have identified increased amygdala responses to negative stimuli as a risk marker of depression in adults, and as a state marker of depression in adults and adolescents. Hyperreactivity of the amygdala has been linked to negatively biased emotional processing in depression. However, no study has elucidated whether similar amygdala perturbations can be found in healthy mid-adolescents with familial liability for depression.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Oct
2013

Obesity and smoking constitute two of the main causes of preventable deaths in the developed countries today. Many smokers motivate consumption as a means to control their body weight because smoking cessation increases the risk to gain weight. Although it is well established that nicotine reduces feeding in animals and that smoking is associated with reduced body weight in quasi-experimental studies of humans, acute nicotine effects are mixed and little is known about the brain networks supporting these effects.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Sep
2014

Previous studies demonstrated higher discount rates for delayed rewards in smokers than non-smokers. We performed this study to determine whether those differences in intertemporal choice are due to pharmacological effects of nicotine and to track related brain regions. Thirty-three non-smokers and 27 nicotine-dependent smokers underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing an intertemporal choice task consisting of 40 sets of monetary reward options that varied by delay to delivery.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jan
2013

Courses of Parkinson's disease (PD) that are complicated by weight loss result in poorer overall treatment outcome and lower quality of life. To determine the contribution of depression, which has not yet been specified in the etiology of weight loss in PD, symptomatology and anamnesis from 215 outpatients diagnosed with PD were assessed using a comprehensive battery of neuropsychiatric scales. A percentage of 31 comorbid depressed patients and a comparison with a control population allowed an accurate characterization of effect sizes, sex differences, and patterns of the contribution of comorbid depression to weight loss.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Sep
2013

Ghrelin figures prominently in the regulation of appetite in normal-weighed individuals. The apparent failure of this mechanism in eating disorders and the connection to addictive behavior in general demand a deeper understanding of the endogenous central-nervous processes related to ghrelin. Thus, we investigated processing of pictures showing palatable food after overnight fasting and following a standardized caloric intake (i.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Oct
2013

Overweight and obesity pose serious challenges to public health and are promoted by our food-rich environment. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate reactivity to food cues after overnight fasting and following a standardized caloric intake (i.e.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Back to top