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Author: Niranjan Khadka (9)


Jan
2018

Involuntary movements as seen in repetitive disorders such as Tourette Syndrome (TS) results from cortical hyperexcitability that arise due to striato-thalamo-cortical circuit (STC) imbalance. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a stimulation procedure that changes cortical excitability, yet its relevance in repetitive disorders such as TS remains largely unexplored. Here, we employed the dopamine transporter-overexpressing (DAT-tg) rat model to investigate behavioral and neurobiological effects of frontal tDCS.

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Aug
2017

This study examined the effects of bihemispheric and unihemispheric transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) over the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) on proactive control. Sixteen participants were randomized to receive (i) bihemispheric tDCS, with a 35cmanodal electrode of the right IFG and a 35cmcathode electrode of left IFG or (ii) unihemispheric tDCS, with a 35cmanodal electrode of the right IFG and a 100cmelectrode of the left IFG or (iii) sham tDCS, while performing a prepotent inhibition task. There were significant speed-accuracy tradeoff effects in terms of switch costs: unihemispheric tDCS significantly decreased the accuracy when compared to bihemispheric, and sham tDCS, while increased response time when comparing to bihemispheric and sham tDCS.

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Mar
2017

It is well established that electrical-stimulation frequency is crucial to determining the scale of induced neuromodulation, particularly when attempting to modulate corticospinal excitability. However, the modulatory effects of stimulation frequency are not only determined by its absolute value but also by other parameters such as power at harmonics. The stimulus pulse shape further influences parameters such as excitation threshold and fiber selectivity.

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Jan
2017

To assess if transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) produces a temperature change at the skin surface, if any change is stimulation polarity (anode or cathode) specific, and the contribution of passive heating (joule heat) or blood flow on such change.
Temperature differences (ΔTs) in an agar phantom study and an in vivo study (forearm stimulation) including 20 volunteers with both experimental measures and finite element method (FEM) multiphysics prediction (current flow and bioheat) models of skin comprising three tissue layers (epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous layer with blood perfusion) or of the phantom for active stimulation and control cases were compared. Temperature was measured during pre, post, and stimulation phases for both phantom and subject's forearms using thermocouples.

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Apr
2017

To evaluate whether and to which extent skin redness (erythema) affects investigator blinding in transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) trials.
Twenty-six volunteers received sham and active tDCS, which was applied with saline-soaked sponges of different thicknesses. High-resolution skin images, taken before and 5, 15, and 30 min after stimulation, were randomized and presented to experienced raters who evaluated erythema intensity and judged on the likelihood of stimulation condition (sham vs.

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Apr
2017

The safety and tolerability of limited output transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) in clinical populations support a non-significant risk designation. The tolerability of long-term use in a healthy population had remained untested.
We tested the tolerability and compliance of two tES waveforms, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and modulated high frequency transcranial pulsed current stimulation (MHF-tPCS) compared to sham-tDCS, applied to healthy subjects for three to five days (17-20 minutes per day) per week for up to six weeks in a communal setting.

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Jun
2016

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive neuromodulation technique that applies low amplitude current via electrodes placed on the scalp. Rather than directly eliciting a neuronal response, tDCS is believed to modulate excitability-enhancing or suppressing neuronal activity in regions of the brain depending on the polarity of stimulation. The specificity of tDCS to any therapeutic application derives in part from how electrode configuration determines the brain regions that are stimulated.

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Dec
1969

Computational neurostimulation aims to develop mathematical constructs that link the application of neuromodulation with changes in behavior and cognition. This process is critical but daunting for technical challenges and scientific unknowns. The overarching goal of this review is to address how this complex task can be made tractable.

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Dec
1969

Monitoring of electrode resistance during tDCS is considered important for tolerability and safety. Conventional resistance measurement methods do not isolate individual electrode resistance and for HD-tDCS devices, cross talk across electrodes makes concurrent resistance monitoring unreliable.
We propose a novel method to monitor individual electrode resistance during tDCS, using a super-position of direct current with a test-signal (low intensity and low frequency sinusoids with electrode-specific frequencies) and a sentinel electrode (not used for DC).

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