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Author: Patrick J Johnston (13)


Aug
2017

Schizophrenia is characterised by significant episodic memory impairment that is thought to be related to problems with encoding, however the neuro-functional mechanisms underlying these deficits are not well understood. The present study used a subsequent recognition memory paradigm and event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate temporal aspects of episodic memory encoding deficits in schizophrenia.
Electroencephalographic data was recorded in 24 patients and 19 healthy controls whilst participants categorised single words as pleasant/unpleasant.

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Nov
2015

An unresolved goal in face perception is to identify brain areas involved in face processing and simultaneously understand the timing of their involvement. Currently, high spatial resolution imaging techniques identify the fusiform gyrus as subserving processing of invariant face features relating to identity. High temporal resolution imaging techniques localize an early latency evoked component-the N/M170-as having a major generator in the fusiform region; however, this evoked component is not believed to be associated with the processing of identity.

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Dec
1969

Mismatch negativity (MMN) is a component of the event-related potential elicited by deviant auditory stimuli. It is presumed to index pre-attentive monitoring of changes in the auditory environment. MMN amplitude is smaller in groups of individuals with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls.

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Dec
1969

We employed a novel cuing paradigm to assess whether dynamically versus statically presented facial expressions differentially engaged predictive visual mechanisms. Participants were presented with a cueing stimulus that was either the static depiction of a low intensity expressed emotion; or a dynamic sequence evolving from a neutral expression to the low intensity expressed emotion. Following this cue and a backwards mask, participants were presented with a probe face that displayed either the same emotion (congruent) or a different emotion (incongruent) with respect to that displayed by the cue although expressed at a high intensity.

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Dec
1969

There is substantial evidence for facial emotion recognition (FER) deficits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The extent of this impairment, however, remains unclear, and there is some suggestion that clinical groups might benefit from the use of dynamic rather than static images. High-functioning individuals with ASD (n = 36) and typically developing controls (n = 36) completed a computerised FER task involving static and dynamic expressions of the six basic emotions.

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Dec
1969

Most developmental studies of emotional face processing to date have focused on infants and very young children. Additionally, studies that examine emotional face processing in older children do not distinguish development in emotion and identity face processing from more generic age-related cognitive improvement. In this study, we developed a paradigm that measures processing of facial expression in comparison to facial identity and complex visual stimuli.

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Jul
2010

Schizophrenia patients have been shown to be compromised in their ability to recognize facial emotion. This deficit has been shown to be related to negative symptoms severity. However, to date, most studies have used static rather than dynamic depictions of faces.

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Sep
2008

Theoretical accounts suggest that mirror neurons play a crucial role in social cognition. The current study used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate the association between mirror neuron activation and facial emotion processing, a fundamental aspect of social cognition, among healthy adults (n=20). Facial emotion processing of static (but not dynamic) images correlated significantly with an enhanced motor response, proposed to reflect mirror neuron activation.

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Jul
2008

Impairments in social cognitive functioning are well documented in schizophrenia, however the neural basis of these deficits is unclear. A recent explanatory model of social cognition centers upon the activity of mirror neurons, which are cortical brain cells that become active during both the performance and observation of behavior. Here, we test for the first time whether mirror neuron functioning is reduced in schizophrenia.

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Jun
2006

People with schizophrenia perform poorly when recognising facial expressions of emotion, particularly negative emotions such as fear. This finding has been taken as evidence of a "negative emotion specific deficit", putatively associated with a dysfunction in the limbic system, particularly the amygdala. An alternative explanation is that greater difficulty in recognising negative emotions may reflect a priori differences in task difficulty.

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Sep
2005

Empirical evidence suggests impaired facial emotion recognition in schizophrenia. However, the nature of this deficit is the subject of ongoing research. The current study tested the hypothesis that a generalized deficit at an early stage of face-specific processing (i.

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Apr
2003

Patients with a number of psychiatric and neuropathological conditions demonstrate problems in recognising facial expressions of emotion. Research indicating that patients with schizophrenia perform more poorly in the recognition of negative valence facial stimuli than positive valence stimuli has been interpreted as evidence of a negative emotion specific deficit. An alternate explanation rests in the psychometric properties of the stimulus materials.

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Feb
2003

This study assessed 12-month service use patterns among people with psychotic disorders and sought to identify determinants of service use.
As part of a large two-phase Australian study of psychotic disorders, structured interviews were conducted with a stratified random sample of adults who screened positive for psychosis. Demographic characteristics, social functioning, symptoms, mental health diagnoses, and use of psychiatric and nonpsychiatric services were assessed.

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