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Author: Paul Cumming (156)


Feb
2018

The first phase of molecular brain imaging of microglial activation in neuroinflammatory conditions began some 20 years ago with the introduction of [C]-( R)-PK11195, the prototype isoquinoline ligand for translocator protein (18 kDa) (TSPO). Investigations by positron emission tomography (PET) revealed microgliosis in numerous brain diseases, despite the rather low specific binding signal imparted by [C]-( R)-PK11195. There has since been enormous expansion of the repertoire of TSPO tracers, many with higher specific binding, albeit complicated by allelic dependence of the affinity.

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Sep
2017

The success of positron emission tomography (PET) for observing molecular processes underlying brain function and disease is underpinned by radiotracer chemistry. From the earliest applications of PET to measure dopamine synthesis capacity and the abundance of neuroreceptors and transporters, to the more recent topic of dynamic neurochemical imaging, interrogation of brain dopamine in conditions such as neurodegenerative diseases, schizophrenia, mood disorders, and addictions has been a driving force that challenges the ingenuity of radiopharmaceutical scientists. In fact, the pursuit of new ligands and reaction methods to address longstanding challenges has often been pioneered in the context of dopamine imaging.

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Jul
2017

Brain electrical activity recordings by electroencephalography (EEG) are often contaminated with signal artifacts. Procedures for automated removal of EEG artifacts are frequently sought for clinical diagnostics and brain computer interface (BCI) applications. In recent years, a combination of independent component analysis (ICA) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) has been introduced as standard technique for EEG artifact removal.

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Dec
1969

Read the highlighted article 'Mapping the alterations in glutamate with GluCEST MRI in a mouse model of dopamine deficiency' on page 432.

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Dec
2016

Radiation-induced nephropathy is still dose limiting in radionuclide therapy of neuroendocrine tumors. We investigated the nephroprotective potential of the angiotensine converting enzyme inhibiting drug enalpril after [177Lu]-DOTATATE therapy in a murine model of radiation-induced nephropathy by renal scintigraphy. At first, the appropriate therapy activity to induce nephropathy was identified.

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Dec
1969

Various peak models have been introduced to detect and analyze peaks in the time domain analysis of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. In general, peak model in the time domain analysis consists of a set of signal parameters, such as amplitude, width, and slope. Models including those proposed by Dumpala, Acir, Liu, and Dingle are routinely used to detect peaks in EEG signals acquired in clinical studies of epilepsy or eye blink.

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Dec
1969

Whereas positron emission tomography (PET) with the antagonist ligand [(18)F]fallypride reveals the composite of dopamine D2 and D3 receptors in brain, treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with the D3-prefering agonist pramipexole should result in preferential occupancy in the nucleus accumbens, where the D3-subtype is most abundant. To test this prediction we obtained pairs of [(18)F]fallypride PET recordings in a group of nine PD patients, first in a condition of treatment as usual with pramipexole (ON-Sifrol; 3 × 0.7 mg p.

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Dec
1969

The gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor (GnRH-R) has a well-described neuroendocrine function in the anterior pituitary. However, little is known about its function in the central nervous system (CNS), where it is most abundantly expressed in hippocampus and amygdala. Since peptide ligands based upon the endogenous decapetide GnRH do not pass the blood-brain-barrier, we are seeking a high-affinity small molecule GnRH-R ligand suitable for brain imaging by positron emission tomography.

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Aug
2016

There is evidence of abnormal cerebral dopamine transmission in nicotine-dependent smokers, but it is unclear whether dopaminergic abnormalities are due to acute nicotine abuse or whether they persist with abstinence. We addressed this question by conducting longitudinal positron emission tomography (PET) examination of smokers before and after 3 months of abstinence.
We obtained baseline 6-[(18)F]fluoro-L-DOPA (FDOPA)-PET scans in 15 nonsmokers and 30 nicotine-dependent smokers, who either smoked as per their usual habit or were in acute withdrawal.

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Jan
2016

A recent [(18)F]FDOPA-PET study reports negative correlations between dopamine synthesis rates and aggressive behavior. Since dopamine is among the substrates for monoamine oxidase A (MAOA), this investigation examines whether functional allelic variants of the MAOA tandem repeat (VNTR) promotor polymorphism, which is known to modulate aggressive behavior, influences dopamine release and aggression in response to violent visual stimuli. We selected from a genetic prescreening sample, strictly case-matched groups of 2×12 healthy male subjects with VNTRs predictive of high (MAOA-High) and low (MAOA-Low) MAOA expression.

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Dec
2015

We investigated [(18)F]fluoroethyl-harmol ([(18)F]FEH) as a reversible and selective ligand for positron emission tomography (PET) studies of monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A). Binding of [(18)F]FEH in rat brain cryostat sections indicated high affinity (KD = 3 nM), and density (Bmax; 600 pmol/g). The plasma free fraction was 45%, and untransformed parent constituted only 13% of plasma radioactivity at 10 min after injection.

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Oct
2015

Aim of this study was to quantify the binding of [(123) I]FP-CIT in striatum of healthy tree shrews. [(123) I]FP-CIT is widely used in clinical SPECT imaging to reveal nigrostriatal degeneration in aid of the diagnosis of clinically uncertain parkinsonian syndromes. Despite its wide clinical use, the saturation binding parameters of [(123) I]FP-CIT for the dopamine transporter (DAT) have not yet been determined in any mammalian brain.

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Dec
1969

We aimed to compare [18F]-florbetaben PET imaging in four transgenic mouse strains modelling Alzheimer's disease (AD), with the main focus on APPswe/PS2 mice and C57Bl/6 mice serving as controls (WT). A consistent PET protocol (N = 82 PET scans) was used, with cortical standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) relative to cerebellum as the endpoint. We correlated methoxy-X04 staining of β-amyloid with PET results, and undertook ex vivo autoradiography for further validation of a partial volume effect correction (PVEC) of PET data.

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Mar
2015

Acute nicotine administration stimulates [(14)C]deoxyglucose trapping in thalamus and other regions of rat brain, but acute effects of nicotine and smoking on energy metabolism have rarely been investigated in human brain by positron emission tomography (PET). We obtained quantitative PET measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) in 12 smokers who had refrained from smoking overnight, and in a historical group of nonsmokers, testing the prediction that overnight abstinence results in widespread, coupled reductions of CBF and CMRO2. At the end of the abstention period, global grey-matter CBF and CMRO2 were both reduced by 17% relative to nonsmokers.

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Dec
1969

Absence of peripheral vestibular input in bilateral vestibular failure (BVF) has been suggested to induce plastic reorganization in various brain regions. Among several neurotransmitters, dopamine is known to play a key role in cortico-striatal-sensorimotor processing. However, the role of dopamine in vestibular plasticity is scantly documented.

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Feb
2015

Drugs of abuse elicit dopamine release in the ventral striatum, possibly biasing dopamine-driven reinforcement learning towards drug-related reward at the expense of non-drug-related reward. Indeed, in alcohol-dependent patients, reactivity in dopaminergic target areas is shifted from non-drug-related stimuli towards drug-related stimuli. Such 'hijacked' dopamine signals may impair flexible learning from non-drug-related rewards, and thus promote craving for the drug of abuse.

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Aug
2015

Post-synaptic dopamine D2/3 receptors are reduced in animal models of obesity, and in obese humans, concordant with similar findings in habitual drug users. However, corresponding pre-synaptic changes in brain dopamine are less documented in obesity models. Therefore, we used positron emission tomography (PET) with the dopamine transporter (DAT) ligand N-(3-[(18)F]fluoropropyl)-2-β-carbomethoxy-3-β-(4'-methylphenyl) tropane ([(18)F]FP-CMT) to test the hypothesis that DAT availability is attenuated in adult fatty Zucker (FZ) rats versus lean littermates (LZ).

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May
2015

Many aspects of the neurobiology of schizophrenia, especially the physiological basis of the negative symptoms and associated cognitive deficits, remain inadequately understood. Tandon and Greden (1989) postulated a central role of dopaminergic/cholinergic imbalance in schizophrenia.
In light of this hypothesis, we elected to investigate the effects of anticholinergic challenge on psychopathology, cognition and attention in 12 unmedicated patients with schizophrenia and 12 healthy controls.

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Oct
2014

Methylphenidate (MPH) inhibits the reuptake of dopamine and noradrenaline. PET studies with MPH challenge show increased competition at postsynaptic D2/3-receptors, thus indirectly revealing presynaptic dopamine release. We used [(18)F]fluorodopamine ([(18)F]FDOPA)-PET in conjunction with the inlet-outlet model (IOM) of Kumakura et al.

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Dec
1969

[68Ga]Annexin A5 positron emission tomography (PET) reveals the externalization of phosphatidylserine as a surrogate marker for apoptosis. We tested this technique for therapy monitoring in a murine model of myocardial infarction (MI) including parathyroid hormone (PTH) treatment. MI was induced in mice, and they were assigned to the saline or the PTH group.

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Jan
2015

The efficient radiosynthesis for the MAO-A ligand [(18) F]fluoroethyl-harmol is reported. Initial PET examinations reveal the ligand to be retained throughout rat brain during 90 min, whereas pretreatment with pargyline results in substantially increased washout, from which binding potentials in the range of 1.4-2.

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Dec
1969

The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is an important molecular target in neuropsychiatry and oncology. Development of applicable highly specific radiotracers has been challenging due to comparably low protein expression. To identify novel ligands as candidates for positron emission tomography (PET), a library of diazabicyclononane compounds was screened regarding affinity and specificity towards α7 nAChRs.

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Jul
2014

The success of serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors has lent support to the monoamine theory of major depressive disorder (MDD). This issue has been addressed in a number of molecular imaging studies by positron emission tomography or single-photon emission computed tomography of serotonin reuptake sites (5-HTT) in the brain of patients with MDD, with strikingly disparate conclusions. Our meta-analysis of the 18 such studies, totaling 364 MDD patients free from significant comorbidities or medication and 372 control subjects, revealed reductions in midbrain 5-HTT (Hedges' g=-0.

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Jul
2014

To date there is no validated, (18)F-labeled dopamine transporter (DAT) radiotracer with a rapid kinetic profile suitable for preclinical small-animal positron emission tomography (PET) studies in rodent models of human basal ganglia disease. Herein we report radiosynthesis and validation of the phenyltropane (18)F-FP-CMT. Dynamic PET recordings were obtained for (18)F-FP-CMT in six untreated rats, and six rats pretreated with the high-affinity DAT ligand GBR 12909; mean parametric maps of binding potential (BPND) relative to the cerebellum reference region, and maps of total distribution volume (VT) relative to the metabolite-corrected arterial input were produced.

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Jul
2014

Not shooting an elephant.

Neuroimage 2014 Jul 18;94:411-412. Epub 2014 Feb 18.
Paul Cumming

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Mar
2014

Dopamine D3 receptors are implicated in various neuropsychiatric diseases, drug abuse and alcoholism, but specific agents for D3 molecular imaging are lacking. We evaluated two in vitro selective fluorine-18-labeled radioligand candidates ([(18)F]5 and [(18)F]6) for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of D3 receptor availability in the brain.
Biodistribution was evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats using ex vivo autoradiography and small-animal PET.

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Mar
2014

Several double blind, prospective trials have demonstrated an antidepressant augmentation efficacy of aripiprazole in depressed patients unresponsive to standard antidepressant therapy. Although aripiprazole is now widely used for this indication, and much is known about its receptor-binding properties, the mechanism of its antidepressant augmentation remains ill-defined. In vivo animal studies and in vitro human studies using cloned dopamine dopamine D2 receptors suggest aripiprazole is a partial dopamine agonist; in this preliminary neuroimaging trial, we hypothesized that aripiprazole's antidepressant augmentation efficacy arises from dopamine partial agonist activity.

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Jan
2014

Both enantiomers of the epibatidine analogue flubatine display high affinity towards the α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) in vitro, accompanied by negligible interactions with diverse off-target proteins. Extended single dose toxicity studies in rodent indicated a NOEL (No Observed Effect Level) of 6.2μg/kg for (-)-flubatine and 1.

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Oct
2013

Cerebral dopamine (DA) transmission is thought to be an important modulator for the development and occurrence of aggressive behavior. However, the link between aggression and DA transmission in humans has not been investigated using molecular imaging and standardized behavioral tasks. We investigated aggression as a function of DA transmission in a group of (N = 21) healthy male volunteers undergoing 6-[18F]-fluoro-L-DOPA (FDOPA)-positron emission tomography (PET) and a modified version of the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP).

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Dec
2013

Molecular imaging studies with positron emission tomography have revealed that the availability of serotonin transporter (5-HTT) in the human brain fluctuates over the course of the year. This effect is most pronounced in carriers of the short allele of the 5-HTT promoter region (5-HTTLPR), which has in several previous studies been linked to an increased risk to develop mood disorders. We argue that long-lasting fluctuations in the cerebral serotonin transmission, which is regulated via the 5-HTT, are responsible for mediating responses to environmental changes based on an assessment of the expected "safety" of the environment; this response is obtained in part through serotonergic modulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis.

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Jan
2014

We previously investigated the progression of β-amyloid deposition in brain of mice over-expressing amyloid-precursor protein (APP-Swe), a model of Alzheimer's disease (AD), in a longitudinal PET study with the novel β-amyloid tracer [(18)F]-florbetaben. There were certain discrepancies between PET and autoradiographic findings, which seemed to arise from partial volume effects (PVE). Since this phenomenon can lead to bias, most especially in the quantitation of brain microPET studies of mice, we aimed in the present study to investigate the magnitude of PVE on [(18)F]-florbetaben quantitation in murine brain, and to establish and validate a useful correction method (PVEC).

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Dec
1969

A previous study of the DOPA decarboxylase substrate 6-[(18)F]fluoro-L-DOPA (FDOPA) with positron emission tomography (PET) detected no difference of the net blood-brain transfer rate (Kin(app)) between detoxified alcoholic patients and healthy controls. Instead, the study revealed an inverse correlation between Kin (app) in left ventral striatum and alcohol craving scores. To resolve the influx and efflux phases of radiolabeled molecules, we independently estimated the unidirectional blood-brain FDOPA clearance rate (K) and the washout rate of [(18)F]fluorodopamine and its deaminated metabolites (k(loss)), and we also calculated the total distribution volume of decarboxylated metabolites and unmetabolized FDOPA as a steady-state index of the dopamine storage capacity (V(d)) in brain.

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Jan
2014

PET neuroimaging: the white elephant packs his trunk?

Neuroimage 2014 Jan 16;84:1094-100. Epub 2013 Aug 16.
Paul Cumming

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Oct
2013

To evaluate the prognostic significance of combined myocardial perfusion SPECT and [18F]FDG PET viability scanning for the prediction of survival in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (iCMP) and left ventricular dysfunction. 244 patients (64.0 ± 10.

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Jul
2013

The progression of β-amyloid deposition in the brains of mice overexpressing Swedish mutant β-amyloid precursor protein (APP-Swe), a model of Alzheimer disease (AD), was investigated in a longitudinal PET study using the novel β-amyloid tracer (18)F-florbetaben.
Groups of APP-Swe and age-matched wild-type (WT) mice (age range, 10-20 mo) were investigated. Dynamic emission recordings were acquired with a small-animal PET scanner during 90 min after the administration of (18)F-florbetaben (9 MBq, intravenously).

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Dec
1969

PET radiopharmaceuticals for probing enzymes in the brain.

Am J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2013 9;3(3):194-216. Epub 2013 Apr 9.
Jason P Holland, Paul Cumming, Neil Vasdev
Biologically important processes in normal brain function and brain disease involve the action of various protein-based receptors, ion channels, transporters and enzymes. The ability to interrogate the location, abundance and activity of these entities in vivo using non-invasive molecular imaging can provide unprecedented information about the spatio-temporal dynamics of brain function. Indeed, positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is transforming our understanding of the central nervous system and brain disease.

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Nov
2013

We carried out dynamic [(18)F]fallypride PET scans to measure cerebral dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in a 23-year old patient experiencing a severe withdrawal syndrome upon voluntary abstinence from "Spice", a pre-packaged herbal smoking thought to contain synthetic cannabinoids. Upon admission to the clinic, the patient experienced craving, affective symptoms and a range of somatic complaints, which resolved after several days' monitored abstinence. PET scans were performed on the day of admission, and one week later.

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Apr
2013

(-)-[(18)F]flubatine is a promising agent for visualization by PET of cerebral α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), which are implicated in psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we describe a substantially improved two-step radiosynthesis strategy for (-)-[(18)F]flubatine, based on the nucleophilic radiofluorination of an enantiomerically pure precursor followed by deprotection of the intermediate. An extensive leaving group/protecting group library of precursors was tested.

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Aug
2013

The purpose of this study is to evaluate left ventricular functional parameters in healthy mice and in different murine models of cardiomyopathy with the novel blood pool (BP) positron emission tomography (PET) tracer [68Ga]-albumin.
ECG-gated microPET examinations were obtained in healthy mice, and mice with dilative (DCM) and ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) using the novel BP tracer [68Ga]-albumin (AlbBP), as well as [18F]-FDG microPET. Cine-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination performed on a clinical 1.

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May
2013

Accumulating evidence indicates that impulsivity, in its multiple forms, involves cortical and subcortical mechanisms and abnormal dopamine (DA) transmission. Although decreased DA D2/D3 receptor availability in the nucleus accumbens (NAcb) predicts trait-like impulsivity in rats it is unclear whether this neurochemical marker extends to both the NAcb core (NAcbC) and shell (NAcbS) and whether markers for other neurotransmitter systems implicated in impulsivity such as serotonin (5-HT), endogenous opioids and γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA) are likewise altered in impulsive rats. We therefore used autoradiography to investigate DA transporter (DAT), 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) and D1, D2/D3, μ-opioid and GABA(A) receptor binding in selected regions of the prefrontal cortex and striatum in rats expressing low and high impulsive behaviour on the five-choice serial reaction-time task.

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Apr
2013

To identify predictors of left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony (LVMD) in patients with known left bundle branch block (LBBB) using gated single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) phase analysis.
81 patients (74% male, 70 ± 10 years) with LBBB and suspected or known coronary artery disease underwent ECG-gated myocardial perfusion SPECT. LV perfusion and functional parameters were measured, and phase analysis was performed to quantify LV-dyssynchrony.

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May
2013

The transition from mild sedation to deep anaesthesia is marked by the phenomenon of burst suppression (BS). FDG-PET studies show that the cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRglc) declines dramatically with onset of BS in the adult brain. Global CMRglc increases substantially in the post-natal period and achieves its maximum in preadolescence.

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Apr
2013

To measure left ventricular (LV) function parameters in heart of healthy rats by three different positron emission tomography (PET) imaging techniques and by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
ECG-gated microPET examinations were obtained in seven healthy rats with 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) for calculation of LV-function from the blood-pool phase of the dynamic recording (FDGBP), and also from the later myocardial uptake (FDGMyo). On subsequent days, we re-measured LV-function using the novel blood-pool tracer (68)Ga-albumin (AlbBP) and again by FDG (FDGMyo2) in one setting.

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Apr
2013

Positron emission tomography (PET) with the high affinity dopamine D(2/3) receptor ligand [¹⁸F]-fallypride affords estimates of the binding potential (BP(ND) ) in extra-striatal regions of low receptor abundance, but the sufficient recording time for accurate measurements in striatum has been called into question. We have earlier argued that transient equilibrium measurements are obtained in striatum with [¹⁸F]-fallypride PET recordings of 3 h duration, which may be the practical limit for clinical investigations without interrupted scanning. However, the high extraction fraction of [¹⁸F]-fallypride predicts flow-dependence of tracer delivery to brain, which may be a source of variance of the apparent BP(ND) in regions of high binding.

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Dec
2012

Absolute quantitation of the cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRglc) can be obtained in positron emission tomography (PET) studies when serial measurements of the arterial [(18)F]-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) input are available. Since this is not always practical in PET studies of rodents, there has been considerable interest in defining an image-derived input function (IDIF) by placing a volume of interest (VOI) within the left ventricle of the heart. However, spill-in arising from trapping of FDG in the myocardium often leads to progressive contamination of the IDIF, which propagates to underestimation of the magnitude of CMRglc.

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Dec
2012

Oligodendroglial components (OC) and loss of heterozygosity on chromosomes 1p and 19q (LOH 1p/19q) are associated with better outcome in patients with glioma. We aimed to assess the fitness of [(18)F]fluoroethyltyrosine positron-emission-tomography (FET-PET) for noninvasively identifying these important prognostic/predictive factors. One hundred forty-four patients with MRI-suspected WHO grade II and III glioma underwent FET-PET scans prior to histological diagnosis.

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