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Author: Pedro J Aphalo (18)



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May
2015

We hypothesized that solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation would protect silver birch seedlings from the detrimental effects of water stress through a coordinated suite of trait responses, including morphological acclimation, improved control of water loss through gas exchange and hydraulic sufficiency. To better understand how this synergetic interaction works, plants were grown in an experiment under nine treatment combinations attenuating ultraviolet-A and ultraviolet-B (UVB) from solar radiation together with differential watering to create water-deficit conditions. In seedlings under water deficit, UV attenuation reduced height growth, leaf production and leaf length compared with seedlings receiving the full spectrum of solar radiation, whereas the growth and morphology of well-watered seedlings was largely unaffected by UV attenuation.

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May
2015

Plants synthesize phenolic compounds in response to certain environmental signals or stresses. One large group of phenolics, flavonoids, is considered particularly responsive to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. However, here we demonstrate that solar blue light stimulates flavonoid biosynthesis in the absence of UV-A and UV-B radiation.

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May
2014

Plant defence theories have recently evolved in such a way that not only the quantity but also the quality of mineral nutrients is expected to influence plant constitutive defence. Recently, an extended prediction derived from the protein competition model (PCM) suggested that nitrogen (N) limitation is more important for the production of phenolic compounds than phosphorus (P). We aimed at studying sexual differences in the patterns of carbon allocation to growth and constitutive defence in relation to N and P availability in Populus tremula L.

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May
2015

Wavelengths in the ultraviolet (UV) region of the solar spectrum, UV-B (280-315 nm) and UV-A (315-400 nm), are key environmental signals modifying several aspects of plant physiology. Despite significant advances in the understanding of plant responses to UV-B and the identification of signalling components involved, there is limited information on the molecular mechanisms that control UV-B signalling in plants under natural sunlight. Here, we aimed to corroborate the previous suggested role for RADICAL-INDUCED CELL DEATH1 (RCD1) in UV-B signalling under full spectrum sunlight.

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Feb
2013

Photomorphogenic responses triggered by low fluence rates of ultraviolet B radiation (UV-B; 280-315 nm) are mediated by the UV-B photoreceptor UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8). Beyond our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of UV-B perception by UVR8, there is still limited information on how the UVR8 pathway functions under natural sunlight. Here, wild-type Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and the uvr8-2 mutant were used in an experiment outdoors where UV-A (315-400 nm) and UV-B irradiances were attenuated using plastic films.

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Nov
2011

The physiological mechanisms controlling plant responses to dynamic changes in ambient solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation are not fully understood: this information is important to further comprehend plant adaptation to their natural habitats. We used the fluorimeter Dualex to estimate in vivo the epidermal flavonoid contents by measuring epidermal UV absorbance (A(375) ) in Betula pendula Roth (silver birch) leaves of different ages under altered UV. Seedlings were grown in a greenhouse for 15 days without UV and transferred outdoors under three UV treatments (UV-0, UV-A and UV-A+B) created by three types of plastic film.

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Nov
2011

Limitations in the realism of currently available lamps mean that enhancement errors in outdoor experiments simulating UV-B radiation effects of stratospheric ozone depletion can be large. Here, we assess the magnitude of such errors at two Finnish locations, during May and June, under three cloud conditions. First we simulated solar radiation spectra for normal, compared with 10% and 20% ozone depletion, and convoluted the daily integrated solar spectra with eight biological spectral weighting functions (BSWFs) of relevance to effects of UV on plants.

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Nov
2010

Seasonal variation in leaf phenolic composition may be important for acclimation of plants to seasonal changes in their biotic and abiotic environment. For a realistic assessment of how plants respond to solar UV-B (280-315 nm) and UV-A (315-400 nm) radiation, seasonal variation in both environment and plant responses needs to be taken into account. This also has implications for studies concerning stratospheric ozone depletion and resulting increased UV-B radiation, as other environmental variables and/or plant phenology could interact with UV radiation.

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Apr
2011

Fungi are usually thought not to have a boron (B) requirement. It is not known if mycorrhizas take up B from low concentrations that are common in forest soils, as fungi might also immobilise B. Here, we studied the B concentrations in sporophores of 49 ectomycorrhizal and 10 saprotrophic fungi to assess whether B is translocated in mycelium or not.

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Jul
2010

Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an important environmental factor for plant communities; however, plant responses to solar UV are not fully understood. Here, we report differential effects of solar UV-A and UV-B radiation on the expression of flavonoid pathway genes and phenolic accumulation in leaves of Betula pendula Roth (silver birch) seedlings grown outdoors. Plants were exposed for 30 days to six UV treatments created using three types of plastic film.

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Mar
2010

In research concerning stratospheric ozone depletion, action spectra are used as biological spectral weighting functions (BSWFs) for describing the effects of UV radiation on plant responses. Our aim was to evaluate the appropriateness of six frequently used BSWFs that differ in effectiveness with increasing wavelength. The evaluation of action spectra was based on calculating the effective UV radiation doses according to 1-2) two formulations of the generalized plant action spectrum, 3) a spectrum for ultraviolet induced erythema in human skin, 4) a spectrum for the accumulation of a flavonol in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, 5) a spectrum for DNA damage in alfalfa seedlings and 6) the plant growth action spectrum.

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Sep
2006

Silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) seedlings were grown individually in containers arranged in rows radiating from a central point (Nelder plot) at densities spanning the range from 207 to 891 plants m(-2). Height of one set of seedlings was measured at weekly intervals and additional seedlings were harvested each week for dry mass and leaf area measurements. Height and shoot:root dry mass ratio increased with plant density.

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Oct
2005

Reflection by waxy or resinous surface structures and hairs, repair reactions of biomolecules and induction of different sheltering components provide the means of plant protection from harmful solar UV-B radiation. Secondary products, especially flavonoids and phenolic acids as defense components are also important in plant tolerance to UV-B, fulfilling the dual role as screens that reduce UV-B penetration in plant tissues, and as antioxidants protecting from damage by reactive oxidant species. Plants are sensitive to UV-B radiation, and this sensitivity can be even more clone-specific than species-specific.

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Sep
2004

We previously traced 10B-enriched boric acid from shoots to roots to demonstrate the translocation of boron (B) in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.

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Mar
2004

We examined the effects of solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation on plant-insect interactions in Tierra del Fuego (55 degrees S), Argentina, an area strongly affected by ozone depletion because of its proximity to Antarctica. Solar UV-B under Nothofagus antarctica branches was manipulated using a polyester plastic film to attenuate UV-B (uvb-) and an Aclar film to provide near-ambient UV-B (uvb+). The plastic films were placed on both north-facing (i.

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Dec
2002

Long-term outdoor experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of elevated ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280-320 nm) radiation on secondary metabolites (phenolics and terpenoids) and the main soluble sugars (sucrose, raffinose and glucose) in the bark of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) saplings. Saplings were exposed to a constant 50% increase in erythemal UV irradiance (UV-B(CIE); based on the CIE (International Commission on Illumination) erythemal action spectrum) and a small increase in UV-A radiation (320-400 nm) for three growing seasons in an irradiation field in central Finland. Two control groups were used: saplings exposed to ambient radiation and saplings exposed to slightly increased UV-A radiation.

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