Helping You Find Full Text Journal Articles

Search Results:

Author: Peter Gass (158)


Dec
2017

To explore the domain-general risk factor of early-life social stress in mental illness, rearing rodents in persistent postweaning social isolation has been established as a widely used animal model with translational relevance for neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. Although changes in resting-state brain connectivity are a transdiagnostic key finding in neurodevelopmental diseases, a characterization of imaging correlates elicited by early-life social stress is lacking.
We performed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging of postweaning social isolation rats (N = 23) 9 weeks after isolation.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jan
2018

Evidence indicates that ketamine's rapid antidepressant efficacy likely results from its antagonism of NR2B-subunit-containing NMDA receptors (NMDAR). Since ketamine equally blocks NR2A- and NR2B-containing NMDAR, and has affinity to other receptors, NR2B-selective drugs might have improved therapeutic efficiency and side effect profile.
We aimed to compare the effects of (S)-ketamine and two different types of NR2B-selective antagonists on functional brain networks in rats, in order to find common circuits, where their effects intersect, and that might explain their antidepressant action.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Feb
2018

The dysfunction of parvalbumin-positive (PV+) interneurons, the most abundant type of hippocampal GABAergic inhibitory interneuron, has been implicated in mood disorders. We recently reported that adult male Wistar rats exposed to three weeks of social isolation show depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors and a reduced number of PV+ interneurons in all hippocampal subregions. As GABA neurotransmission has been proposed as a potential therapeutic target of antidepressant and antipsychotic medications, we examined whether treatment with the antidepressant fluoxetine (Flx) (15 mg/kg/day) or the antipsychotic clozapine (Clz) (20 mg/kg/day) during three weeks of social isolation in rats offered protection from the isolation stress-induced reduction in the number of PV+ interneurons in hippocampal subregions.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jan
2018

A growing body of evidence supports the idea that drugs targeting the glutamate system may represent a valuable therapeutic alternative in major depressive disorders (MDD). The rapid and prolonged mood elevating effect of the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonist ketamine has been studied intensely. However, its clinical use is hampered by deleterious side-effects, such as psychosis.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Sep
2017

Genetically altered mice are available on different background strains. While respective backcrosses are often performed for pragmatic reasons, e.g.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jun
2017

Behavioral experiments are usually designed to tap into a specific cognitive function, but animals may solve a given task through a variety of different and individual behavioral strategies, some of them not foreseen by the experimenter. Animal learning may therefore be seen more as the process of selecting among, and adapting, potential behavioral policies, rather than mere strengthening of associative links. Calcium influx through high-voltage-gated Ca2+ channels is central to synaptic plasticity, and altered expression of Cav1.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
2017

Exposure of an organism to chronic social isolation (CSIS) has been shown to have an important role in depression. Fluoxetine (Flx) is a first-line treatment for depression; however, its downstream mechanisms of action beyond serotonergic signaling remain ill-defined. We investigated the effect of 3 weeks of Flx (15 mg/kg/day) treatment on behavioral changes and protein expression/activity of the GSH-dependent defense system, including reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GLR), and glutathione S-transferase (GST), as well as catalase (CAT), in the hippocampus of rats exposed to 6 weeks of CSIS.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Classical monoaminergic antidepressants show several disadvantages, such as protracted onset of therapeutic action. Conversely, the fast and sustained antidepressant effect of the-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist ketamine raises vast interest in understanding the role of the glutamate system in mood disorders. Indeed, numerous data support the existence of glutamatergic dysfunction in major depressive disorder (MDD).

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

May
2017

The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) is a low-affinity receptor that is capable of binding neurotrophins. Two different p75NTR knockout mouse lines are available either with a deletion in Exon III (p75NTR) or in Exon IV (p75NTR). In p75NTRknockout mice, only the full-length p75NTR is deleted, whereas in p75NTRknockout mice, the full-length as well as the truncated isoform of the receptor is deleted.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Apr
2017

It has previously been shown that the inhibition of L-type calcium channels (LTCCs) decreases alcohol consumption, although the contribution of the central LTCC subtypes Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 remains unknown.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jan
2017

Stress during the prenatal period has various effects on social and sexual behavior in both human and animal offspring. The present study examines the effects of chronic restraint stress in the second vs third trimester in pregnancy and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) heterozygous mutation on C57BL/6N male offspring's vocal courtship behavior in adulthood by applying a novel analyzing method. Finally, corticosterone and testosterone levels as well as bone mineral density were measured.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Nov
2016

Beneficial effects of voluntary wheel running on hippocampal neurogenesis, morphology and hippocampal-dependent behavior have widely been studied in rodents, but also serious side effects and similarities to stereotypy have been reported. Some mouse strains run excessively when equipped with running wheels, complicating the comparability to human exercise regimes. Here, we investigated how exercise restriction to 6h/day affects hippocampal morphology and metabolism, stereotypic and basal behaviors, as well as the endocannabinoid system in wheel running C57BL/6 mice; the strain most commonly used for behavioral analyses and psychiatric disease models.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jan
2017

Non-selective and subunit (GluN2B)-specific N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists represent promising alternative antidepressant drugs with fast onset of the therapeutic action. The neuronal activation pattern induced by NMDAR antagonists is well characterized by c-Fos expression analysis only in the adult rodent brain. In contrast, there is little information available regarding their effects during postnatal development.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Oct
2017

Excessive intake of high-caloric diets as well as subsequent development of obesity and diabetes mellitus may exert a wide range of unfavorable effects on the central nervous system (CNS) in the long-term. The potentially harmful effects of such diets were suggested to be mitigated by physical exercise. Here, we conducted a study investigating early effects of a cafeteria-diet on gray and white brain matter volume by means of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and region-of-interest (ROI) analysis.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Microbiologic standardization plays a key role in the management of animal facilities because contamination of stock could affect the health status and wellbeing of animals and thereby induce artifacts in biomedical research. One common method to avoid the dissemination of pathogens is embryo transfer (ET). Although disturbances in the perinatal environment may cause long-lasting effects on the behavior and physiology of mouse offspring, the influences of ET during this sensitive phase have not yet been addressed.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Feb
2018

The evidence underlying the so-called glutamatergic hypothesis ranges from NMDA receptor hypofunction to an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory circuits in specific brain structures. Among all glutamatergic system components, metabotropic receptors play a main role in regulating neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity. Here, we investigated, using qRT-PCR and western blot, consequences in the hippocampus and prefrontal/frontal cortex (PFC/FC) of mice with a genetic deletion of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5), addressing key components of the GABAergic and glutamatergic systems.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969


View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Oct
2016

A chromosomal microdeletion at the 22q11.2 locus is associated with extensive cognitive impairments, schizophrenia and other psychopathology in humans. Previous reports indicate that mouse models of the 22q11.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

May
2017

The implication of neuroinflammation in schizophrenia, sustained by recent genetic evidence, represents one of the most exciting topics in schizophrenia research. Drugs which inhibit microglia activation, especially the classical tetracycline antibiotic minocycline are currently under investigation as alternative antipsychotics. However, recent studies demonstrated that microglia activation is not only a hallmark of neuroinflammation, but plays important roles during brain development.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

May
2016

The translational assessment of mechanisms underlying cognitive functions using touchscreen-based approaches for rodents is growing in popularity. In these paradigms, daily training is usually accompanied by extended food restriction to maintain animals' motivation to respond for rewards. Here, we show a transient elevation in stress hormone levels due to food restriction and touchscreen training, with subsequent adaptation effects, in fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations, indicating effective coping in response to physical and psychological stressors.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Various stressors may disrupt the redox homeostasis of an organism by causing oxidative and nitrosative stress that may activate stressor-specific pathways and provoke specific responses. Chronic social isolation (CSIS) represents a mild chronic stress that evokes a variety of neurobehavioral changes in rats similar to those observed in people with psychiatric disorders, including depression. Most rodent studies have focused on the effect of social isolation during weaning or adolescence, while its effect in adult rats has not been extensively examined.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

May
2016

Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) is an abundant growth factor in the brain and exerts multiple functions on neural cells ranging from cell division, cell fate determination to differentiation. However, many details of the molecular mechanisms underlying the diverse functions of FGF-2 are poorly understood. In a comparative microarray analysis of motor sensory cortex (MSC) tissue of adult knockout (FGF-2(-/-)) and control (FGF-2(+/+)) mice, we found a substantial number of regulated genes, which are implicated in cytoskeletal machinery dynamics.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Oct
2016

The recently identified Cystine-knot containing AMPAR-associated protein (Ckamp44) represents a novel AMPAR-related protein that critically controls AMPAR-mediated currents and short-term plasticity. However, the effects of the lack of this protein at network level are not entirely understood. Here we used c-Fos brain mapping to analyse whether the excitatory/inhibitory balance is altered in the absence of the Ckamp44.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Oct
2016

NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonists induce in perinatal rodent cortical apoptosis and protracted schizophrenia-like alterations ameliorated by antipsychotic treatment. The broad-spectrum antibiotic minocycline elicits antipsychotic and neuroprotective effects. Here we tested, if minocycline protects also against apoptosis triggered by the NMDAR antagonist MK-801 at postnatal day 7.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jan
2016

Olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic, is efficient in stress associated psychiatric diseases, but its effect on the liver, a primary organ for drug activation and detoxification, still remains unclear. The effect of olanzapine administration (7.5mg/kg/day), on rat hepatic glutathione (GSH)-dependent defense and proinflammatory cytokines following 6weeks of chronic social isolation (CSIS), which causes depressive- and anxiety-like behavior in adult male Wistar rats, was investigated.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Oct
2015

Exercise is rewarding, and long-distance runners have described a runner's high as a sudden pleasant feeling of euphoria, anxiolysis, sedation, and analgesia. A popular belief has been that endogenous endorphins mediate these beneficial effects. However, running exercise increases blood levels of both β-endorphin (an opioid) and anandamide (an endocannabinoid).

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Sep
2015

New neurons in the adult striatum: from rodents to humans.

Trends Neurosci 2015 Sep 20;38(9):517-23. Epub 2015 Aug 20.
Dragos Inta, Heather A Cameron, Peter Gass
Most neurons are generated during development and are not replaced during adulthood, even if they are lost to injury or disease. However, it is firmly established that new neurons are generated in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus of almost all adult mammals, including humans. Nevertheless, many questions remain regarding adult neurogenesis in other brain regions and particularly in humans, where standard birth-dating methods are not generally feasible.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Oct
2015


View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Oct
2015

Ketamine may represent an efficient alternative antidepressant with rapid therapeutic onset; however, the clinical use of ketamine is hampered by psychosis-like side-effects. Recent studies suggest that the nitric oxide (NO) donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) prevents psychosis-like abnormalities triggered by ketamine or another NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, phencyclidine (PCP) in rats. SNP was shown to elicit antipsychotic effects also in humans.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jul
2015

Is forebrain neurogenesis a potential repair mechanism after stroke?

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2015 Jul 13;35(7):1220-1. Epub 2015 May 13.
Dragos Inta, Peter Gass
The use of adult subventricular zone (SVZ) neurogenesis as brain repair strategy after stroke represents a hot topic in neurologic research. Recent radiocarbon-14 dating has revealed a lack of poststroke neurogenesis in the adult human neocortex; however, adult neurogenesis has been shown to occur, even under physiologic conditions, in the human striatum. Here, these results are contrasted with experimental poststroke neurogenesis in the murine brain.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Aug
2015

Increasing paternal age is known to be associated with a great variety of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia or autism. Hence the factor "age" may be taken as strategic tool to analyse specific scientific hypotheses. Additionally, this finding also needs to be addressed in rather pragmatically performed breeding protocols of model organisms, since otherwise artefacts may challenge the validity of the results.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jun
2015

ECT seizure quality and serum BDNF, revisited.

Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2015 Jun 5;265(4):359-60. Epub 2015 Feb 5.
Alexander Sartorius, Jan Malte Bumb, Suna Su Aksay, Peter Gass, Rainer Hellweg, Laura Kranaster

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Cytokines are key regulatory mediators involved in the host response to immunological challenges, but also play a critical role in the communication between the immune and the central nervous system. For this, their expression in both systems is under a tight regulatory control. However, pathological conditions may lead to an overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines that may have a detrimental impact on central nervous system.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Mar
2015

Excessive intake of high-caloric diets as well as subsequent development of obesity and diabetes mellitus may exert a wide range of unfavorable effects on the central nervous system (CNS). It has been suggested that one mechanism in this context is the promotion of neuroinflammation. The potentially harmful effects of such diets were suggested to be mitigated by physical exercise.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Apr
2016

Growing evidence indicates that physical exercise increases hippocampal volume. This has consistently been shown in mice and men using magnetic resonance imaging. On the other hand, histological studies have reported profound alterations on a cellular level including increased adult hippocampal neurogenesis after exercise.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

May
2015

Both the glutamatergic and serotonergic (5-HT) systems are implicated in the modulation of mood and anxiety. Descending cortical glutamatergic neurons regulate 5-HT neuronal activity in the midbrain raphe nuclei through α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. To analyze the functional role of GLUA1-containing AMPA receptors in serotonergic neurons, we used the Cre-ERT2/loxP-system for the conditional inactivation of the GLUA1-encoding Gria1 gene selectively in 5-HT neurons of adult mice.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

The cyclic AMP (cAMP)-response element binding protein (CREB) is an activity-dependent transcription factor playing a role in synaptic plasticity, learning and memory, and emotional behavior. However, the impact of Creb ablation on rodent behavior is vague as e.g.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Quetiapine extended release (XR) and lithium are treatments with proven efficacy in acute mania. This randomized study evaluated the efficacy and safety of lithium or placebo as add-on to quetiapine XR in adult patients with manic or mixed symptoms of bipolar I disorder. In this 6-week, double-blind study (Trial D144AC00003), adult patients with DSM-IV-TR-diagnosed bipolar I disorder (current episode manic or mixed), a Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) total score ≥20, and score ≥4 on two of four core YMRS items were administered quetiapine XR (400 to 800 mg/day) and randomly assigned to receive add-on lithium (600 to 1,800 mg/day) or placebo.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

ECT and striatal plasticity.

Brain Stimul 2015 Jan-Feb;8(1):166-7. Epub 2014 Nov 18.
Dragos Inta, Peter Gass

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Feb
2015

Working with mice represents a smart method to study pathophysiological mechanisms in vivo. However, using animals as model organisms also bears immense caveats. While many aspects in animal research are meanwhile standardized (e.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Few studies that examine the neurogenesis-behaviour relationship formally establish covariation between neurogenesis and behaviour or rule out competing explanations. The behavioural relevance of neurogenesis might therefore be overestimated if other mechanisms account for some, or even all, of the experimental effects. A systematic review of the literature was conducted and the data reanalysed using causal mediation analysis, which can estimate the behavioural contribution of new hippocampal neurons separately from other mechanisms that might be operating.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Nov
2014

Learned helplessness has excellent validity as an animal model for depression, but problems in reproducibility limit its use and the high degree of stress involved in the paradigm raises ethical concerns. We therefore aimed to identify which and how many trials of the learned helplessness paradigm are necessary to distinguish between helpless and non-helpless rats.
A trial-by-trial reanalysis of tests from 163 rats with congenital learned helplessness or congenital non-learned helplessness and comparison of 82 rats exposed to inescapable shock with 38 shock-controls revealed that neither the first test trials, when rats showed unspecific hyperlocomotion, nor trials of the last third of the test, when almost all animals responded quickly to the stressor, contributed to sensitivity and specificity of the test.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Nov
2014

Carrying out invasive procedures in animals requires the administration of anesthesia. Xenon gas offers advantages as an anesthetic agent compared with other agents, such as its protection of the brain and heart from hypoxia-induced damage. The high cost of xenon gas has limited its use as an anesthetic in animal experiments, however.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

The proteins Foxa1 and Foxa2 belong to the forkhead family of transcription factors and are involved in the development of several tissues, including liver, pancreas, lung, prostate, and the neural system. Both Foxa1 and Foxa2 are also crucial for the specification and differentiation of dopamine (DA) neurons during embryonic development, while about 30% of mice with an embryonic deletion of a single allele of the Foxa2 gene exhibit an age-related asymmetric loss of DA neurons and develop locomotor symptoms resembling Parkinson's disease (PD). Notably, both Foxa1 and Foxa2 factors continue to be expressed in the adult dopamine system.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Apr
2015

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a well-established, safe and effective treatment in severest or drug-resistant affective disorders. The potential relation between any peripheral biological marker and the seizure quality as a surrogate for treatment efficacy has not been investigated so far. We prospectively examined serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in 20 patients with major depression before and after electroconvulsive therapy.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Nov
2014

Currently, the mouse represents the preferred model organism among mammals used for animal studies. Due to a great availability of mutant strains it represents a standard method to analyze in vivo the effects of targeted gene manipulations. While this - at least in theory - represents a valuable tool to elucidate the pathophysiology of certain human diseases, there are several caveats which need to be considered working with animals.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Aug
2014

Several prospective studies indicated perinatal hypoxia as risk factor for psychiatric disorders like schizophrenia. It is thought that hypoxia prior to or during birth may contribute to alterations leading to the protracted clinical manifestation during young adulthood. However, only a small fraction of children with a history of perinatal hypoxia develop later psychotic symptoms, therefore it is not known if hypoxia alone is sufficient to trigger long-term behavioral changes.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Oct
2014

Glutamatergic dysfunctions have recently been postulated to play a considerable role in mood disorders. However, molecular mechanisms underlying these effects have been poorly deciphered. Previous work demonstrated the contribution of GluA1-containing AMPA receptors (AMPAR) to a depression-like and anxiety-like phenotype.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

The abilities to either flexibly adjust behavior according to changing demands (cognitive flexibility) or to maintain it in the face of potential distractors (cognitive stability) are critical for adaptive behavior in many situations. Recently, a novel human paradigm has found individual differences of cognitive flexibility and stability to be related to common prefrontal networks. The aims of the present study were, first, to translate this paradigm from humans to mice and, second, to test conceptual predictions of a computational model of prefrontal working memory mechanisms, the Dual State Theory, which assumes an antagonistic relation between cognitive flexibility and stability.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Aug
2014

Since the early 1930s, deep hypothermia (cryoanaesthesia) has been a useful anaesthetic in several types of surgery on neonatal rodents. Especially against the background of modern techniques in systems neuroscience, the method enjoys again increasing popularity. However, little is known about its effects on the subsequent adult behavioural and physiological profile.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Back to top