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Author: Peter Neu (22)


Nov
2017

Cognitive deficits are clinically relevant features in schizophrenia and depression, yet little comparative data on changes in both disorders is available. This study compares cognitive performance of inpatients with schizophrenia (N = 52) and unipolar major depression (N = 67) during psychiatric treatment, assessing performance twice: after admission to hospital (acute) and prior to discharge (postacute) on average seven weeks later. A group of healthy controls was tested at comparable intervals.

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Dec
2017

Addiction is supposedly characterized by a shift from goal-directed to habitual decision making, thus facilitating automatic drug intake. The two-step task allows distinguishing between these mechanisms by computationally modeling goal-directed and habitual behavior as model-based and model-free control. In addicted patients, decision making may also strongly depend upon drug-associated expectations.

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Dec
1969

. This prospective study aims to identify patient characteristics as predictors for treatment outcome during inpatient detoxification treatment for drug and alcohol dependent patients..

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Dec
1969

No previous studies have evaluated the influence of significant international sports events on qualified detoxification treatment outcome. This prospective study examines the impact of the 2012 UEFA European Football Championship on inpatient treatment outcome of alcohol dependent patients. Hospital admission and premature drop-out rates of consecutively admitted alcohol dependent patients were determined before, during and immediately after the UEFA Championship in the year 2012.

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Dec
2013

Even though cognitive deficits are well recognised in schizophrenia and depression, direct comparisons between the disorders are scarce in literature. This study aims to assess specificity and degree of cognitive deficits in inpatients with acute schizophrenia and unipolar major depression.
A neuropsychological test battery was administered to 76 schizophrenic patients, 102 patients with unipolar major depression and 85 healthy controls (HCs), assessing verbal learning [Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT)], processing speed (Trail Making Test), verbal fluency and visual memory (Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised test).

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Nov
2011

The German Algorithm Project, Phase 2 (GAP2) revealed that a standardized stepwise treatment regimen (SSTR) results in better treatment outcomes than treatment as usual (TAU) in depressed inpatients. The objective of this study was a health economic evaluation of SSTR based on a cost effectiveness analysis (CEA).
GAP2 was a randomized controlled study with 148 patients.

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Feb
2010

Depression is a prospective risk factor for stroke. Little is known, however, about the pathophysiologic links leading to this association. Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) reflects the compensatory dilatory capacity of cerebral arterioles to a dilatory stimulus and is an important mechanism to provide constant cerebral blood flow.

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Aug
2009

Medication algorithms have been proposed as effective means to offer optimal treatment and improved outcome for patients with severe mental illness. This single-center prospective study compared the efficacy and effects on treatment prescriptions of an algorithm-guided treatment regimen with treatment as usual (TAU) in depressed inpatients.
Depressed inpatient participants were randomized to an algorithm-guided standardized stepwise drug treatment regimen (SSTR, n = 74) or TAU (n = 74).

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Apr
2007

Recent data suggest that inhibitory pathways may be involved in the pathophysiology of depression and in the mode of action of some antidepressant interventions. The aim of the present study was to test whether vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) can affect motor cortex excitability. Measures of motor cortical excitability were probed by using single-pulse and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation at baseline, after 10 weeks of left VNS, and additionally, in an on-off paradigm in 10 patients with treatment-resistant unipolar depression.

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Jan
2007

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a chronic stress disease with permanent physical tension and cognitive strain. Raised nerve growth factor (NGF) serum levels were reported as an acute stress reaction in soldiers before their first parachute jump even before the rise in cortisol. Taking GAD as a clinical model of chronic stress, we measured NGF in the serum of 22 patients with GAD before and after cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and compared them to those of healthy normal controls.

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Jun
2006

Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) reflects the compensatory dilatory capacity of cerebral arterioles to a dilatory stimulus and is important for maintaining constant cerebral blood flow. A reduced CVR increases the risk of stroke. We recently found that CVR was reduced in patients with depression.

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Mar
2006

Several lines of evidence suggest that central cortical inhibitory mechanisms, especially associated with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission, may play a role in the pathophysiology of major depression. Transcranial magnetic stimulation is a useful tool for investigating central cortical inhibitory mechanisms associated with GABAergic neurotransmission in psychiatric and neurological disorders.
By means of transcranial magnetic stimulation, different parameters of cortical excitability, including motor threshold, the cortical silent period, and intracortical inhibition/facilitation, were investigated in 20 medication-free depressed patients and 20 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers.

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Dec
2005

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is a relatively non-invasive technique with putative therapeutic effects in major depression. However, the exact neurophysiological basis of these effects needs further clarification. Therefore, we studied the impact of ten daily sessions of left, dorsolateral prefrontal rTMS on motor cortical excitability, as revealed by transcranial magnetic stimulation-elicited motor-evoked potentials in 30 patients.

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Jun
2006

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a widely acknowledged effective treatment for severe major depression. ECT produces considerable anticonvulsant effects that may be related to an increased GABA-ergic neurotransmission. We aimed to explore whether motor cortical excitability as assessed with single and paired pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) could be used to investigate these anticonvulsant effects.

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Dec
1969

Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an approved treatment of partial onset seizures and has recently shown antidepressant effects in patients with treatment-resistant depression. This study was conducted to investigate whether acute VNS has an influence on cerebral blood flow (CBF) in humans.
This investigation was designed as an add-on study.

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Mar
2005

It has been proposed that the often found hyperintensities on MRI representing vascular changes might be correlated with a worse outcome of cognitive malfunction in depression. The purpose of this study was to evaluate neuropsychological status in the acute depressed state and following remission and to investigate the potential relationship between MRI hyperintensities and neuropsychological functioning through the treatment course in a group of middle-aged depressed patients.
Twenty-seven depressed patients were assessed by a series of neuropsychological tests at the beginning of the depressive episode and again after an euthymic phase of 6 months following treatment.

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Mar
2005

Vertigo is one of the most frequent complaints in general medical practice and is often linked to psychiatric disorders. A longitudinal study of 67 patients with an acute vestibular disorder was undertaken to clarify if, after experiencing acute vestibular vertigo, certain patients have a higher likelihood of developing chronic, debilitating dizziness despite no evidence of a damaged peripheral vestibular system.
The severity of dizziness was determined in 67 patients with vestibular neuronitis, 6 months after their release from hospital, using the Vertigo Symptom Scale from Yardley et al.

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Mar
2004

Critical life events trigger intense emotions. Anxiety is one of the most frequent of these emotions. It is unclear which factors determine the intensity and course of anxiety after a critical life event.

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Mar
2004

There are a growing number of reports that depression may increase the risk of stroke. Little is known, however, about the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying this association. Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) reflects the compensatory dilatory capacity of cerebral arterioles to a dilatory stimulus and is an important mechanism to provide constant cerebral blood flow.

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Jan
2002

A patient suffering from a rare enzyme deficiency developed a malignant neuroleptic syndrome after having been treated with one single dose of haloperidol. We investigated the patient's serum for all frequent polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 2D6, assuming him to be a poor neuroleptic metabolizer. We will also discuss other potential mechanisms inducing this disturbance and its differential diagnoses.

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