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Author: Rafael Carmena (66)


Dec
1969

The potential impact of targeting different components of an adverse lipid profile in populations with multiple cardiovascular risk factors is not completely clear. This study aims to assess the association between different components of the standard lipid profile with all-cause mortality and hospitalization due to cardiovascular events in a high-risk population.
This prospective registry included high risk adults over 30 years old free of cardiovascular disease (2008-2012).

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Jan
2018

Familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH) is a primary atherogenic dyslipidemia with insulin resistance and increased cardiovascular risk. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity are associated with proinflammatory and atherothrombotic risk. Our aim was to study the role played by PAI-1 and MPO activity in the carotid atherosclerosis prevalence in FCH subjects.

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Dec
1969

To evaluate the changes in glycemia, insulinemia, and oxidative stress markers during an oral fat load test in nondiabetic subjects with abdominal obesity and to analyze the association between postprandial oxidative stress markers and postprandial glucose and insulin responses.
We included 20 subjects with abdominal obesity (waist circumference > 102 cm for men and > 88 cm for women) and 20 healthy lean controls (waist circumference < 102 cm for men and < 88 cm for women). After 12 hours of fasting we performed a standardized fat load test (0-8 hours) with supracal® (50 g/m2).

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Dec
1969

Low physical activity (PA), or sedentary lifestyle, is associated with the development of several chronic diseases. We aimed to investigate current prevalence of sedentariness and its association with diabetes and other cardiovascular risk factors. PA was evaluated in a population-based, cross-sectional, randomly sampled study conducted in 2009-2010 in Spain.

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Jul
2016

Thioredoxins (TRX) are major cellular protein disulphide reductases that are critical for redox regulation. Oxidative stress and inflammation play promoting roles in the genesis and progression of atherosclerosis, but until now scarce data are available considering the influence of TRX activity in familial combined hyperlipidaemia (FCH). Since FCH is associated with high risk of cardiovascular disease, the objective of the present study was to assess oxidative stress status in FCH patients, and evaluate the influence of insulin resistance (IR).

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Jun
2016

Di@bet.es is a national study designed to estimate the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and other cardiovascular risk factors in the Spanish adult population. The prevalence of hypertension and the degree to which it is recognized, treated, and controlled are described.

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Feb
2016

Treatment with statins has transformed primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD), including thrombotic stroke. Evidence-based data demonstrate the benefits and safety of statin therapy and help to guide clinicians in the management of populations at high risk of CVD. Nevertheless, clinical trials, meta-analyses and observational studies highlight a 10-12% increase in new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM) among patients receiving statins.

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Feb
2016

[Importance of dyslipidaemia in cardiovascular disease: a point of view].

Clin Investig Arterioscler 2015 Nov-Dec;27(6):301-8. Epub 2015 Sep 9.
Juan F Ascaso, Rafael Carmena
The authors present their view on the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, accepting the European ESC/EAS guidelines. They consider that the aim of the lipid control, based on LDL-C goals, is essential for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In subjects with metabolic syndrome (mainly, abdominal obesity, pre-diabetes and diabetes), the primary objective should be apoB or Non-HDL-C, which are better associated with cardiovascular risk.

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Feb
2016

Clinical guidelines should be based on the best available evidence and are of great importance for patient care and disease prevention. In this respect, the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association report is highly appreciated and well-recognized. The report included critical questions concerning hypercholesterolaemia, but its translation into a clinical guideline initiated intense debate worldwide because of the recommendation to switch from a treat-to-target approach for low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol to a statin dose-based strategy.

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Dec
2014

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is characterized by increased oxidative stress (OS) levels. In the postprandial state, lipids and lipoproteins modulate OS status through their impact on pro-oxidant and antioxidant mechanisms. The objective of this study was to evaluate in patients with FH the response to an unsaturated oral fat load test (OFLT) by analyzing the mRNA levels of genes involved in the glutathione and thioredoxin antioxidant systems.

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Nov
2014

The aim of this study was to examine possible associations between ambient temperature and obesity in the Spanish population using an ecological focus.
The Di@bet.es study is a national, cross-sectional, population-based survey of cardiometabolic risk factors and their association with lifestyle.

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Sep
2014

Prevalence rates of "metabolically healthy obese" (MHO) subjects vary depending on the criteria used. This study examined the prevalence and characteristics of MHO subjects and metabolically abnormal normal-weight subjects and compared the findings with the NHANES 1999-2004 study. The aims of the present study were, first, to determine the prevalence rates of MHO and MNHNO subjects using the same criteria as those of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (1999-2004) study, and second to compare the prevalence and correlates of obese subjects who are resistant to the development of adiposity-associated cardiometabolic abnormalities (CA) and normal-weight individuals who display cardiometabolic risk factor clustering between the Spanish and the US populations.

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Jun
2014

Reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels using statins is associated with significant reductions in cardiovascular (CV) events in a wide range of patient populations. Although statins are generally considered to be safe, recent studies suggest they are associated with an increased risk of developing Type 2 diabetes (T2D). This led the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to change their labelling requirements for statins to include a warning about the possibility of increased blood sugar and HbA1c levels and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) to issue guidance on a small increased risk of T2D with the statin class.

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Nov
2013

To assess the patterns of use of 8 therapeutic drug groups for the treatment of diabetes mellitus and other cardiovascular risk factors, and to identify sociodemographic and health determinants of their use in the overall Spanish population.
A representative sample of the Spanish population within the Di@bet.es study, a cross-sectional population-based survey, was included.

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Nov
2013

Dyslipidemia is a significant contributor to the elevated CVD risk observed in type 2 diabetes mellitus. We assessed the prevalence of dyslipidemia and its association with glucose metabolism status in a representative sample of the adult population in Spain and the percentage of subjects at guideline-recommended LDL-C goals.
The di@bet.

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Jul
2013

This study sought to determine whether high intestinal cholesterol absorption represents a cardiovascular risk factor and to link ABCG8 and ABO variants to cardiovascular disease (CVD).
Plant sterol-enriched functional foods are widely used for cholesterol lowering. Their regular intake yields a 2-fold increase in circulating plant sterol levels that equally represent markers of cholesterol absorption.

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Feb
2013

The risk for cardiovascular (CV) events has been shown to be considerably higher among schizophrenia patients than the general population.
The aim of this study was to describe a general stochastic simulation model for the treatment of schizophrenia related to CV-associated risks of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs).
A model to simulate the expected 10-year incidence of all types of coronary heart disease (CHD) events in patients treated with SGAs was developed from the Cardiovascular, Lipid and Metabolic Outcomes Research in Schizophrenia (CLAMORS) study to reproduce baseline conditions.

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Jan
2013

Oxidative stress (OS) has been observed in conditions affecting the cardiovascular system. Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is associated with an increased risk of premature coronary heart disease. In the postprandial state, circulating lipids and lipoproteins can modulate OS status.

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Feb
2013

The present study was undertaken to examine the prevalence of urinary ACR (albumin/creatinine ratio) >30 mg/g and the associated clinical and environmental factors in a representative sample of the population of Spain. Di@bet.es study is a national, cross-sectional population-based survey conducted in 2009-2010.

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Jun
2012

Peripheral polyneuropathy (PN) is a frequent complication of diabetes. However, mechanisms underlying the development of PN are multifactorial and not well understood. Our aim was to examine the association of plasma homocysteine (Hcy) with the prevalence and grade of peripheral PN in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM).

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Feb
2012

The impact of increased serum concentrations of plant sterols on cardiovascular risk is unclear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate whether there is an association between serum concentrations of two common plant sterols (sitosterol, campesterol) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We systematically searched the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, and COCHRANE for studies published between January 1950 and April 2010 that reported either risk ratios (RR) of CVD in relation to serum sterol concentrations (either absolute or expressed as ratios relative to total cholesterol) or serum sterol concentrations in CVD cases and controls separately.

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Dec
1969

The objective of the study was to evaluate oxidative stress (OS) status in subjects with different cardiovascular risk factors. With this in mind, we have studied three models of high cardiovascular risk: hypertension (HT) with and without metabolic syndrome, familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH) with and without insulin resistance. Oxidative stress markers (oxidized/reduced glutathione ratio, 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine and malondialdehide) together with the activity of antioxidant enzyme triad (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase) and activation of both pro-oxidant enzyme (NAPDH oxidase components) and AGTR1 genes, as well as antioxidant enzyme genes (CuZn-SOD, CAT, GPX1, GSR, GSS and TXN) were measured in mononuclear cells of controls (n = 20) and patients (n = 90) by assessing mRNA levels.

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Dec
2011

ABCG1 mediates cellular cholesterol transport, but there is very little known about the influence of ABCG1 polymorphisms on human plasma lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations or on the interactions of these polymorphisms with diet.
Our objective was to investigate whether interactions between PUFA intake and ABCG1 polymorphisms modulate associations with plasma total cholesterol (TC), LDL- and HDL-cholesterol in two Spanish populations.
We grounded our investigation on two general population-based studies: the Hortega study (population A) and the Pizarra study (population B).

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Oct
2011

Autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemias (ADHs) are characterised by increased plasma levels of total and LDL cholesterol, predisposing to premature atherosclerosis. ADHs comprise several diseases with undistinguishable phenotype, caused by mutations in different genes: LDLR, APOB and PCSK9. Genetic studies are usually performed in patients with altered cholesterol levels.

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May
2011

Different methods are available for assessing insulin sensitivity in the fasting state. However, insulin resistance (IR) is initially a postprandial disturbance; and usually, when basal (fasting) disturbance appears, the process has been in progress for some time. Our aim was to investigate if a postprandial measurement, performing an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), is more sensitive than fasting values.

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Jul
2010

The aim of the study was to determine the influence of twenty single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the ABCA1, ABCG1, ABCG5 and ABCG8 genes on the plasmatic concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), HDL and LDL cholesterol (HDLc, LDLc) in the postprandial state with a representative Spanish Caucasian population (1473 individuals, 50.0% women, ages ranging 21-85 years). In men, subjects with the AA genotype of the ABCA1 rs2230806 (R219K) polymorphism were associated with increased plasma LDLc levels, while the ABCA1 haplotype, which included the rs2230806 A allele, was associated with higher TC and LDLc plasma concentrations.

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Dec
1969

to investigate the association of C677T polymorphism in the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, homocysteine plasma values (Hcy), and plasma HDL cholesterol in heterozy-gous familial hypercholesterolemia (hFH).
One hundred and twenty-five hFH subjects were studied. Plasma lipid, lipoprotein, vitamin B12, folic acid and Hcy values were determined.

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Apr
2010

Diabetic dyslipidemia, characterized by the lipid triad (elevated plasma triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol and predominance of small, dense LDL particles), is a significant contributor to the elevated cardiovascular risk of type 2 diabetic patients. Statin monotherapy has shown, in different prospective trials, significant reductions in cardiovascular events and mortality. However, the residual risk in these subjects remains elevated, probably due to the incomplete control of diabetic dyslipidemia.

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Feb
2010

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a clinical condition with high risk for developing atherosclerosis. Increased oxidative stress (OS) and FH have been related to atherosclerosis, but no data are available on levels of OS and antioxidant enzyme activity in circulating mononuclear cells (CMCs) from FH patients. Circulating mononuclear cells are important mediators in atherosclerosis development, and chronically increased blood OS present in FH can induce modification in CMC activity.

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Dec
1969

The increasing awareness of cost issues in health care has led to the increasing use of policy-driven substitution of branded for generic medications, particularly relative to statin treatment for cardiovascular diseases. While there are potential short-term health care savings, the consequences for primary care are under-researched. Our objective was to review data on intensive statin therapy and generic substitution in patients at high cardiovascular risk.

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Jul
2009

The Treating to New Targets (TNT) clinical trial found that intensive 80 mg atorvastatin (A80) treatment reduced cardiovascular events by 22% when compared to 10 mg atorvastatin (A10) treatment. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of intensive A80 vs A10 treatment in the United Kingdom (UK), Spain, and Germany. A lifetime Markov model was developed to predict cardiovascular disease-related events, costs, survival, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs).

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Aug
2008

To investigate the effect of intensive lipid lowering with high-dose atorvastatin on the incidence of major cardiovascular events compared with low-dose atorvastatin in patients with coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes, with and without chronic kidney disease (CKD).
Following 8 weeks' open-label therapy with atorvastatin (10 mg/d), 10,001 patients with coronary artery disease were randomized to receive double-blind therapy with either 80 mg/d or 10 mg/d of atorvastatin between July 1, 1998, and December 31, 1999. Of 1501 patients with diabetes, renal data were available for 1431.

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Sep
2008

To compare clinical, laboratory, lifestyle, and sociodemographic parameters and cardiac risk in antipsychotic-treated patients with and without metabolic syndrome (MS).
A multicenter cross-sectional study in which 117 psychiatrists recruited antipsychotic-treated outpatients meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia, schizophreniform or schizoaffective disorder. MS was diagnosed when 3 or more of the following criteria were met: waist circumference > 102 cm (men)/> 88 cm (women); serum triglycerides > or = 150 mg/dl; HDL cholesterol < 40 mg/dl (men)/< 50 mg/dl (women); blood pressure > or = 130/85 mmHg; fasting blood glucose > or = 110 mg/dl.

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Sep
2008

Autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia (ADH) is a genetic disorder characterized by increased low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol levels, leading to high risk of premature cardiovascular disease. More than 900 mutations in LDL receptor, six in APOB and 10 in PCSK9 have been identified as a cause of the disease in different populations. All known mutations in PCSK9 causing hypercholesterolemia produce an increase in the enzymatic activity of this protease.

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May
2008

To compare the prevalence of classical cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in our population according to fasting plasma glucose levels (FPG).
We have studied 344 subjects between 20-70 years of age, recruited in a Primary Care Clinic. Subjects were divided into four groups according to their fasting plasma glucose (FPG) values: normal plasma glucose (NG) when FPG < 5.

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Mar
2008

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and familial defective apoB 100 (FDB) are characterized by increased plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) levels and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). FDB is clinically indistinguishable from FH. The aims of this study were to evaluate clinical diagnosis criteria for FDB and to compare the lipoprotein phenotype between carriers of LDL receptor (LDLR) gene mutations that affect the ligand-binding domain and subjects with the R3500Q mutation in apoB gene.

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Aug
2008

Oxidative stress is associated with atherosclerosis. Familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH) is considered as a human model of primary dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis frequently associated with insulin resistance (IR), but there are few data on its possible relation to oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to evaluate oxidative stress status using different markers in subjects with FCH assessing its possible correlation with anthropometric parameters and IR.

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Feb
2008

To analyze the concordance between standard and modified NCEP-ATP-III criteria for identification of metabolic syndrome (MS) in outpatients with schizophrenia.
We used the sample from a cross-sectional study carried out to ascertain the prevalence of MS in schizophrenia. Kappa agreement and the symmetry Kendall's tau-b coefficients were calculated in a post-hoc analysis, a long with McNemar test and logistic regression models.

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Nov
2006

Our aim was to investigate the relationship between metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease (i.e., survivors of myocardial infarction) in patients with familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH).

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Feb
2007

To assess the prevalence of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) and Metabolic Syndrome (MS) in patients treated with antipsychotics.
Retrospective, cross-sectional, multicenter study in which 117 Spanish psychiatrists (the CLAMORS Study Collaborative Group) recruited consecutive outpatients meeting DSM-IV criteria for Schizophrenia, Schizophreniform or Schizoaffective Disorder, receiving antipsychotic treatment for at least 12 weeks. CHD risk was assessed by SCORE (10-year CV death) and Framingham (10-year all CHD events) function.

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Sep
2006

Our goal was to know if the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome (MS) as defined by International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria 2005 identifies more subjects with atherogenic dyslipidemia and high cardiovascular risk than the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP-III) criteria.
Cross-sectional study in an adult population (20-70 years) of 344 subjects (158 males and 186 females), who visited an out-patient clinic in the metropolitan area of Valencia over a period of one year. Opportunistic search method was used.

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Sep
2006

Despite the prognostic value of metabolic syndrome for predicting cardiovascular events, few trials have investigated the effects of statin therapy on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with the metabolic syndrome. Our post hoc analysis of the Treating to New Targets (TNT) study assessed whether intensive lowering of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with high-dose atorvastatin therapy results in cardiovascular benefits for patients with both coronary heart disease and the metabolic syndrome.
The TNT study was a prospective, double blind, parallel-group trial done at 256 sites in 14 countries between April, 1998, and August, 2004, with a median follow-up of 4.

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Aug
2006

Methods presently employed for detection of large rearrangements have several drawbacks, such as the amount of sample and time required, technical difficulty, or the probability of false-negative carriers. Using the low-density-lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene, whose mutations are responsible for familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), we have developed a procedure to detect large rearrangements in this gene based on semiquantitative PCR, with important improvements as compared to previous methods. Our method covers the complete LDLR gene and introduces an internal control in the reaction.

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Jun
2006

The Treating to New Targets study showed that intensive lipid-lowering therapy with atorvastatin 80 mg/day provides significant clinical benefit beyond that afforded by atorvastatin 10 mg/day in patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD). The objective of our study was to investigate whether similar benefits of high-dose intensive atorvastatin therapy can be achieved in patients with CHD and diabetes.
A total of 1,501 patients with diabetes and CHD, with LDL cholesterol levels of <130 mg/dl, were randomized to double-blind therapy with either atorvastatin 10 (n = 753) or 80 (n = 748) mg/day.

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