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Author: Ralph Buchert (103)


Dec
1969

The aim of this study was to evaluate the incremental benefit of biomarkers for prediction of Alzheimer's disease dementia (ADD) in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) when added stepwise in the order of their collection in clinical routine. The model started with cognitive status characterized by the ADAS-13 score. Hippocampus volume (HV), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) phospho-tau (pTau), and the FDG t-sum score in an AD meta-region-of-interest were compared as neurodegeneration markers.

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Dec
1969

MRI-based hippocampus volume is a core clinical biomarker for identification of Alzheimer's disease (AD).
To assess robustness of automatic hippocampus volumetry with the freely available FSL-FIRST software with respect to short-term repeat and across field strength imaging. FSL-FIRST hippocampus volume (FIRST-HV) was also evaluated as enrichment biomarker for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) trials.

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Jul
2017

We report the case of a 36-year-old woman with a subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) caused by a rupture of a right-sided middle cerebral artery aneurysm and subsequent malignant infarction of the right hemisphere leading to a persistent vegetative state and severe spastic tetraparesis with recurrent myocloni. Nine months after disease onset, the patient was transferred to our department for diagnostic and therapeutic re-evaluation. The poor clinical condition could not be explained by the brain lesion caused by the SAH or infarction.

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Feb
2018

Cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CVRC) is an important parameter for treatment decisions in chronic cerebrovascular diseases. It can be assessed by measuring the acetazolamide-induced change in regional cerebral blood flow using SPECT withTc-labeled hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (Tc-HMPAO) or PET withO-water.Our database was searched for patients with moyamoya vasculopathy or atherosclerotic cerebrovascular disease who had undergoneO-water PET after normalTc-HMPAO SPECT results with respect to CVRC.

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Jun
2017

Parkinson's disease (PD) patients show cognitive deficits that are relevant in terms of prognosis and quality of life. Degeneration of striatal dopaminergic afferents proceeds from dorsal/caudal to anterior/ventral and is discussed to account for some of these symptoms. Treatment with dopamine (DA) has differential effects on cognitive dysfunctions, improving some and worsening others.

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Aug
2017

Dopamine transporter SPECT with I-FP-CIT is registered for detection (or exclusion) of nigrostriatal degeneration to support the etiologic classification of parkinsonian syndromes. In case of uncertainty in the interpretation of SPECT findings or unexpected clinical course, follow-up SPECT might be useful. However, the utility of follow-up FP-CIT SPECT has not yet been clarified.

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Oct
2017

To determine the diagnostic accuracy of susceptibility-weighted MRI (SW-MRI) for the detection of intracranial meningioma-associated calcifications compared with standard MR sequences, using computed tomography (CT) as a reference standard.
354 patients, who had received both a CT and a 1.5 Tesla clinical brain MRI with SW-MRI sequences between January 2014 and July 2016, were retrospectively evaluated and 316 patients were included.

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Feb
2017

Positron emission tomography (PET) allows detecting molecular brain changes in vivo. However, the accuracy of PET is limited by partial volume effects (PVE) that affects quantitative analysis and visual interpretation of the images. Although PVE-correction methods have been shown to effectively increase the correspondence of the measured signal with the true regional tracer uptake, these procedures are still not commonly applied, neither in clinical nor in research settings.

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Dec
1969

Neuroimaging-based biomarkers have the potential to improve etiological diagnosis of cognitive impairment in elderly inpatients. However, there is a relative lack of studies on neuroimaging-based biomarkers in hospitalized geriatric patients, as the vast majority of neuroimaging studies in dementia have focused on memory clinic outpatients. An important aspect of study planning is a priori estimation of the rate of screen failures.

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Dec
2016

Asphericity (ASP) is a tumour shape descriptor based on the PET image. It quantitates the deviation from spherical of the shape of the metabolic tumour volume (MTV). In order to identify its biological correlates, we investigated the relationship between ASP and clinically relevant histopathological and molecular signatures in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

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Dec
2017

Brain MRI white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are common in elderly subjects. Their impact on cognition, however, appears highly variable. Complementing conventional scoring of WMH load (volume and location) by quantitative characterization of the shape irregularity of WMHs might improve the understanding of the relationship between WMH load and cognitive performance.

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Dec
1969

The cause of cognitive impairment in acutely hospitalized geriatric patients is often unclear. The diagnostic process is challenging but important in order to treat potentially life-threatening etiologies or identify underlying neurodegenerative disease.
To evaluate the add-on diagnostic value of structural and metabolic neuroimaging in newly manifested cognitive impairment in elderly geriatric inpatients.

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Jul
2016

To explore plasticity in patients scheduled for extra-intracranial bypass surgery due to unilateral symptomatic occlusive cerebrovascular disease via navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation.
In this observational study, patients were allocated to different substudies and examined before and 3 months after operation. (1) Corticospinal excitability was determined via identification of the resting motor threshold.

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Jun
2015

This study investigates the prediction of mild cognitive impairment-to-Alzheimer's disease (MCI-to-AD) conversion based on extensive multimodal data with varying degrees of missing values.
Based on Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative data from MCI-patients including all available modalities, we predicted the conversion to AD within 3 years. Different ways of replacing missing data in combination with different classification algorithms are compared.

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Sep
2016

Loss of brain tissue becomes notable to cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at age 30 years, and progresses more rapidly from mid 60s. The incidence of dementia increases exponentially with age, and is all too frequent in the oldest old (≥ 90 years of age), the fastest growing age group in many countries. However, brain pathology and cognitive decline are not inevitable, even at extremely old age (den Dunnen et al.

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Aug
2016

Recently, a number of positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers have been approved for clinical use. These tracers target cerebral beta-amyloid (Aβ) plaques, a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. Increasing use of this method implies the need for respective standards.

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Jan
2017

The number of people with dementia is continuously rising, in hospitals as well. For the diagnostics novel methods are available but the attitude of the patients to these methods is yet unknown.
The aim of the study was to evaluatethe opinion of geriatric hospital patients with suspected dementia on the various possible methods of diagnosing dementia, especially fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET).

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Dec
1969

MRI-based hippocampus volume, a core feasible biomarker of Alzheimer's disease (AD), is not yet widely used in clinical patient care, partly due to lack of validation of software tools for hippocampal volumetry that are compatible with routine workflow. Here, we evaluate fully-automated and computationally efficient hippocampal volumetry with FSL-FIRST for prediction of AD dementia (ADD) in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) from phase 1 of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Receiver operating characteristic analysis of FSL-FIRST hippocampal volume (corrected for head size and age) revealed an area under the curve of 0.

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Jul
2016

Quantitative estimates of dopamine transporter availability, determined with [(123)I]FP-CIT SPECT, depend on the SPECT equipment, including both hardware and (reconstruction) software, which limits their use in multicentre research and clinical routine. This study tested a dedicated reconstruction algorithm for its ability to reduce camera-specific intersubject variability in [(123)I]FP-CIT SPECT. The secondary aim was to evaluate binding in whole brain (excluding striatum) as a reference for quantitative analysis.

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May
2016

Dopamine transporter single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with I-FP-CIT is used widely in the diagnosis of clinically uncertain parkinsonian syndromes. In terms of the evaluation of FP-CIT SPECT, some practice guidelines state that visual interpretation alone is generally sufficient in clinical patient care, whereas other guidelines consider semiquantitative analysis of striatal dopamine transporter availability mandatory. This discrepancy might be because of a relative lack of widely available display tools for FP-CIT SPECT.

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Dec
1969

Positron emission tomography (PET) with the glucose analog F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is widely used in the diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases. Guidelines recommend voxel-based statistical testing to support visual evaluation of the PET images. However, the performance of voxel-based testing strongly depends on each single preprocessing step involved.

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Nov
2015

Previous studies with positron emission tomography (PET) and the glucose analog F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) suggest reduced cerebral glucose metabolism in NF1 specifically in the thalamus. The latter is distinguished by extensive neural circuitry connections which makes thalamic hypoactivity in NF1 an interesting finding. Yet it is not very well confirmed, since previous studies were limited by small sample size and/or poorly matched control groups.

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Sep
2015

To characterize pathogenic effects of antibodies to dipeptidyl-peptidase-like protein 6 (DPPX), a subunit of Kv4.2 potassium channels, on gut and brain neurons.
We identified a new patient with anti-DPPX encephalitis and analyzed the effects of the patient's serum and purified immunoglobulin G (IgG), and of serum of a previous patient with anti-DPPX encephalitis, on the activity of enteric neurons by voltage-sensitive dye imaging in guinea pig myenteric and human submucous plexus preparations.

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Oct
2015

Clinical Alzheimer's disease affects both cerebral hemispheres to a similar degree in clinically typical cases. However, in atypical variants like logopenic progressive aphasia, neurodegeneration often presents asymmetrically. Yet, no in vivo imaging study has investigated whether lateralized neurodegeneration corresponds to lateralized amyloid-β burden.

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Oct
2015

Early prognostic stratification is desirable in patients with suspected atypical parkinsonian syndromes (APSs) for optimal treatment and counseling. We investigated the prognostic value of imaging disease-specific metabolism patterns with 18F-FDG PET compared with that of clinical diagnosis.
Seventy-eight patients with suspected APS at study inclusion underwent a follow-up of up to 5.

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Jul
2015

The striatum is known to play a key role in reinforcement learning, specifically in the encoding of teaching signals such as reward prediction errors (RPEs). It has been proposed that aberrant salience attribution is associated with impaired coding of RPE and heightened dopamine turnover in the striatum, and might be linked to the development of psychotic symptoms. However, the relationship of aberrant salience attribution, RPE coding, and dopamine synthesis capacity has not been directly investigated.

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Oct
2015

Response inhibition is a basic mechanism in cognitive control and dysfunctional in major psychiatric disorders. The neuronal mechanisms are in part driven by dopamine in the striatum. Animal data suggest a regulatory role of glutamate on the level of the striatum.

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Jul
2015

Theoretical and animal work has proposed that prefrontal cortex (PFC) glutamate inhibits dopaminergic inputs to the ventral striatum (VS) indirectly, whereas direct VS glutamatergic afferents have been suggested to enhance dopaminergic inputs to the VS. In the present study, we aimed to investigate relationships of glutamate and dopamine measures in prefrontostriatal circuitries of healthy humans. We hypothesized that PFC and VS glutamate, as well as their balance, are differently associated with VS dopamine.

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Oct
2015

Aim of this study was to quantify the binding of [(123) I]FP-CIT in striatum of healthy tree shrews. [(123) I]FP-CIT is widely used in clinical SPECT imaging to reveal nigrostriatal degeneration in aid of the diagnosis of clinically uncertain parkinsonian syndromes. Despite its wide clinical use, the saturation binding parameters of [(123) I]FP-CIT for the dopamine transporter (DAT) have not yet been determined in any mammalian brain.

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Aug
2015

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a single-gene disorder affecting neurologic function in humans. The NF1+/- mouse model with germline mutation of the NF1 gene presents with deficits in learning, attention, and motor coordination, very similar to NF1 patients. The present study performed brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in NF1+/- mice to identify possible perfusion differences as surrogate marker for altered cerebral activity in NF1.

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Apr
2015

To describe a patient with life-threatening brainstem neurohistiocytosis who recovered completely upon targeted treatment with the V600E mutation-specific BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib.
We report clinical, histiologic, genetic, and sequential imaging findings, including fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET, over a follow-up period of 11 months.
The patient presented with central hyperventilation, skeletal and perirenal Erdheim-Chester disease, and cutaneous Langerhans cell histiocytosis.

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Dec
1969

Hippocampus volumetry based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has not yet been translated into everyday clinical diagnostic patient care, at least in part due to limited availability of appropriate software tools. In the present study, we evaluate a fully-automated and computationally efficient processing pipeline for atlas based hippocampal volumetry using freely available Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) software in 198 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI1). Subjects were grouped into MCI stable and MCI to probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) converters according to follow-up diagnoses at 12, 24, and 36 months.

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Sep
2015

Chang's method, the most widely used attenuation correction (AC) in brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), requires delineation of the outer contour of the head. Manual and automatic threshold-based methods are prone to errors due to variability of tracer uptake in the scalp. The present study proposes a new method for fully automated delineation of the head based on stereotactical normalization.

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Feb
2015

Dual system theories suggest that behavioral control is parsed between a deliberative "model-based" and a more reflexive "model-free" system. A balance of control exerted by these systems is thought to be related to dopamine neurotransmission. However, in the absence of direct measures of human dopamine, it remains unknown whether this reflects a quantitative relation with dopamine either in the striatum or other brain areas.

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Feb
2015

Drugs of abuse elicit dopamine release in the ventral striatum, possibly biasing dopamine-driven reinforcement learning towards drug-related reward at the expense of non-drug-related reward. Indeed, in alcohol-dependent patients, reactivity in dopaminergic target areas is shifted from non-drug-related stimuli towards drug-related stimuli. Such 'hijacked' dopamine signals may impair flexible learning from non-drug-related rewards, and thus promote craving for the drug of abuse.

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Oct
2014

To retrospectively determine the frequency of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor (NMDAR) autoantibodies in patients with different forms of dementia.
Clinical characterization of 660 patients with dementia, neurodegenerative disease without dementia, other neurological disorders and age-matched healthy controls combined with retrospective analysis of serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for the presence of NMDAR antibodies. Antibody binding to receptor mutants and the effect of immunotherapy were determined in a subgroup of patients.

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Dec
2014

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the predictive value of a novel quantitative measure for the spatial heterogeneity of FDG uptake, the asphericity (ASP) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
FDG-PET/CT had been performed in 60 patients (15 women, 45 men; median age, 65.5 years) with newly diagnosed NSCLC prior to therapy.

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Mar
2015

In a previous study, we demonstrated the first evidence that the asphericity (ASP) of pretherapeutic FDG uptake in the primary tumor provides independent prognostic information in patients with head and neck cancer. The aim of this work was to confirm these results in an independent patient group examined at a different site.
FDG-PET/CT was performed in 37 patients.

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Feb
2015

The aim of the present study was to characterize the kinetics of two nanoparticle-based contrast agents for preclinical imaging, Exitron nano 6000 and Exitron nano 12000, and the iodinated agent eXIA 160 in both healthy mice and in a mouse model of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Semiautomatic segmentation of liver lesions for estimation of total tumor load of the liver was evaluated in HCC mice.
The normal time course of contrast enhancement was assessed in 15 healthy C57BL/6 mice.

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Dec
1969

Attenuation correction (AC) based on low-dose computed tomography (CT) could be more accurate in brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) than the widely used Chang method, and, therefore, has the potential to improve both semi-quantitative analysis and visual image interpretation. The present study evaluated CT-based AC for dopamine transporter SPECT with I-123-ioflupane.
Sixty-two consecutive patients in whom I-123-ioflupane SPECT including low-dose CT had been performed were recruited retrospectively at 3 centres.

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Dec
1969

Hippocampal volume is a promising biomarker to enhance the accuracy of the diagnosis of dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, whereas hippocampal volume is well studied in patient samples from clinical trials, its value in clinical routine patient care is still rather unclear. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to evaluate fully automated atlas-based hippocampal volumetry for detection of AD in the setting of a secondary care expert memory clinic for outpatients.

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Sep
2014

To propose a novel measure, namely the 'asphericity' (ASP), of spatial irregularity of FDG uptake in the primary tumour as a prognostic marker in head-and-neck cancer.
PET/CT was performed in 52 patients (first presentation, n = 36; recurrence, n = 16). The primary tumour was segmented based on thresholding at the volume-reproducible intensity threshold after subtraction of the local background.

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May
2014

A new tridentate bifunctional chelator, N-(-2-picolyl)(-4-hydroxy)(-3-amino)benzoic acid (PHAB), was designed to efficiently coordinate the [(99m)Tc(CO)3](+) core and facilitate coupling reactions to biomolecules. The chelator can be procured in the form of the corresponding benzotriazole ester (PHAB-OBT), which can be stored and used as a bioconjugation kit. PHAB-OBT reacts with modified carbohydrates with high selectivity and efficiency in a single step in both aqueous and organic media.

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Dec
2013

A novel method is presented for fully automatic detection of candidate white matter (WM) T1 hypointense lesions in three-dimensional high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. By definition, T1 hypointense lesions have similar intensity as gray matter (GM) and thus appear darker than surrounding normal WM in T1-weighted images. The novel method uses a standard classification algorithm to partition T1-weighted images into GM, WM and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

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Jun
2014

Step-and-shoot mode with many angular steps results in long frame duration limiting the capability of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for fast dynamic scans. The present study evaluates acquisition with reduced angular sampling for fast imaging in preclinical research with the nanoSPECT/CTplus four-head multi-pinhole system.
Measurements with line sources, homogeneity phantoms and a Jaszczak phantom filled with (99m)Tc or (123)I were performed to evaluate the 'stationary' and 'semi-stationary' acquisition mode (one or two detector positions, respectively) with respect to spatial resolution, quantification, noise properties and image artefacts.

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Dec
1969

Patients with chronic atherosclerotic vessel occlusion and cerebrovascular hemodynamic insufficiency may benefit from extra-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery. Due to demographic changes, an increasing number of elderly patients presents with cerebrovascular hemodynamic insufficiency. So far, little data for EC-IC bypass surgery in elderly patients suffering occlusive cerebrovascular disease are available.

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Jun
2013

Positron emission tomography (PET) with F-18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) provides remarkable accuracy in detection, treatment monitoring and follow-up of systemic malignant lymphoma. Its value in the management of patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is less clear.
In a prospective trial, 42 FDG-PET examinations were performed in ten immunocompetent patients with newly diagnosed or recurrent PCNSL before and repeatedly during and after the treatment.

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Aug
2013

Total mechanical unloading of the heart in classical models of heterotopic heart transplantation leads to cardiac atrophy and functional deterioration. In contrast, partial unloading of failing human hearts with left ventricular (LV) assist devices (LVADs) can in some patients ameliorate heart failure symptoms. Here we tested in heterotopic rat heart transplant models whether partial volume-loading (VL; anastomoses: aorta of donor to aorta of recipient, pulmonary artery of donor to left atrium of donor, superior vena cava of donor to inferior vena cava of recipient; n = 27) is superior to the classical model of myocardial unloading (UL; anastomoses: aorta of donor to aorta of recipient, pulmonary artery of donor to inferior vena cava of recipient; n = 14) with respect to preservation of ventricular morphology and function.

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