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Author: Robert Fisher (495)


Dec
1969

Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a serious complication that accounts for up to 20% of malignancies after solid organ transplantation. We describe a rare case of isolated PTLD in the adrenal gland occurring 7 months after liver transplant in a patient who developed a primary Epstein-Barr virus infection. He was treated with rituximab and his immunosuppression regimen was minimized.

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Feb
2018

Post-translational modifications of the transcription elongation complex provide mechanisms to fine-tune gene expression, yet their specific impacts on RNA polymerase II regulation remain difficult to ascertain. Here, in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we examine the role of Cdk9, and related Mcs6/Cdk7 and Lsk1/Cdk12 kinases, on transcription at base-pair resolution with Precision Run-On sequencing (PRO-seq). Within a minute of Cdk9 inhibition, phosphorylation of Pol II-associated factor, Spt5 is undetectable.

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Mar
2018

In a previous single center study we found that a standardized drug treatment algorithm (ALGO) was more cost effective than treatment as usual (TAU) for inpatients with major depression. This report aimed to determine whether this promising initial finding could be replicated in a multicenter study.
Treatment costs were calculated for two time periods: the study period (from enrolment to exit from study) and time in hospital (from enrolment to hospital discharge) based on daily hospital charges.

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Feb
2018

To explore whether or not there are temporal changes in the abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and intraluminal thrombus (ILT) volumes between planning and implantation of the endovascular aneurysm sealing (EVAS) device and how these changes influence lumen volume.
A retrospective review was conducted of 51 AAA patients (mean age 76±7.1 years; 36 men) in whom 2 serial preoperative computed tomography angiograms (CTAs) had been performed within 1 to 18 months before fenestrated endovascular repair.

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Jan
2018

This review discusses the updated classifications of seizures and the epilepsies, which were recently published by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). While it is always a challenge to learn a new classification system, particularly one that has remained essentially unchanged for over three decades, these new classifications allow for the inclusion of some previously unclassifiable seizure types and utilize more intuitive terminology. In this review, we specifically discuss the use of these new classifications for patients, clinicians, and researchers.

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Nov
2017

Life history adaptations and spatial configuration of metapopulation networks allow certain species to persist in extreme fluctuating environments, yet long-term stability within these systems relies on the maintenance of linkage habitat. Degradation of such linkages in urban riverscapes can disrupt this dynamic in aquatic species, leading to increased extinction debt in local populations experiencing environment-related demographic flux. We used microsatellites and mtDNA to examine the effects of collapsed network structure in the endemic Santa Ana sucker Catostomus santaanae of southern California, a threatened species affected by natural flood-drought cycles, "boom-and-bust" demography, hybridization and presumed artificial transplantation.

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Nov
2017

The glucocorticoid (GC) receptor (GR) suppresses inflammation by activating anti-inflammatory and repressing pro-inflammatory genes. GR-interacting protein-1 (GRIP1) is a GR corepressor in macrophages, however, whether GRIP1 mediates GR-activated transcription, and what dictates its coactivator versus corepressor properties is unknown. Here we report that GRIP1 loss in macrophages attenuates glucocorticoid induction of several anti-inflammatory targets, and that GC treatment of quiescent macrophages globally directs GRIP1 toward GR binding sites dominated by palindromic GC response elements (GRE), suggesting a non-redundant GRIP1 function as a GR coactivator.

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Nov
2017

In 1980, smallpox disease was eradicated from nature and Variola virus, the etiological agent of smallpox, was confined to two laboratories, one located in Russia (Moscow) later moved to VECTOR (Novosibirsk, Siberia) and one in the United States (CDC Atlanta). Vaccinations among the general public ceased shortly after the successful eradication campaign, resulting in an increasingly immunologically susceptible population. Because of the possibility of intentional reintroduction of Variola virus and the emergence of other pathogenic poxviruses, there is a great need for the development of medical countermeasures to treat poxvirus disease.

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Oct
2017

Cdk7, the CDK-activating kinase and transcription factor IIH component, is a target of inhibitors that kill cancer cells by exploiting tumor-specific transcriptional dependencies. However, whereas selective inhibition of analog-sensitive (AS) Cdk7 in colon cancer-derived cells arrests division and disrupts transcription, it does not by itself trigger apoptosis efficiently. Here, we show that p53 activation by 5-fluorouracil or nutlin-3 synergizes with a reversible Cdk7inhibitor to induce cell death.

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Nov
2017

Cell motility is required for diverse processes during immunity and inflammation. Classically, leukocyte motility is defined as an amoeboid type of migration, however some leukocytes, like macrophages, also employ a more mesenchymal mode of migration. Here, we sought to characterize the mechanisms that regulate neutrophil and macrophage migrationby using real-time imaging of leukocyte motility within interstitial tissues in zebrafish larvae.

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Dec
2017

To determine how many endovascular aneurysm sealing (EVAS) procedures with/without off-label use of chimneys (ChEVAS) could have been performed in a cohort of patients who had undergone fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair (FEVAR).
Sixty patients (median age 76.3 years; 54 men) who underwent FEVAR in our institution between 2013 and 2015 were selected for the study.

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Jan
2018

Prospective and longitudinal studies have examined liver donors' medical outcomes beyond the first 1 to 2 years postdonation. There is no analogous longitudinal evidence on long-term psychosocial outcomes, including patient-reported clinically significant mental health problems and perceptions of physical well-being. We examined prevalence, descriptive characteristics, and predictors of diagnosable mental health conditions and self-reported physical health problems, including fatigue and pain, in the long-term years after liver donation.

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Oct
2017

Development of perigraft hygromas following repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms is extremely rare. A case is presented of a patient who was found to have a large hygroma despite two re-interventions on a previous EVAR.

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Dec
1969

To assess if simple cholecystectomy with adjuvant therapy could provide outcomes comparable to extended cholecystectomy.
Current guidelines recommend extended/radical cholecystectomy for T2/T3 gallbladder cancer; however, many tumors are discovered incidentally at laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
The national Cancer Data Base 2004 to 2014 was queried for patients with pT2/T3 gallbladder adenocarcinoma who underwent resection.

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Sep
2017

Treatment algorithms are considered as key to improve outcomes by enhancing the quality of care. This is the first randomized controlled study to evaluate the clinical effect of algorithm-guided treatment in inpatients with major depressive disorder.
Inpatients, aged 18 to 70 years with major depressive disorder from 10 German psychiatric departments were randomized to 5 different treatment arms (from 2000 to 2005), 3 of which were standardized stepwise drug treatment algorithms (ALGO).

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Jun
2017

The south Pacific iguanas (Brachylophus) currently have three recognized living species in Fiji.  Recent surveys have uncovered more specific variation (morphological and genetic) within the genus and have better defined the geographic ranges of the named species.  One of these recent discoveries is a strikingly different iguana from all other island populations in Fiji which is restricted to Gau Island of the Lomaiviti Province.

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Aug
2017

Persistent bacterial infections and persister cells.

Nat Rev Microbiol 2017 Aug 22;15(8):453-464. Epub 2017 May 22.
Robert A Fisher, Bridget Gollan, Sophie Helaine
Many bacteria can infect and persist inside their hosts for long periods of time. This can be due to immunosuppression of the host, immune evasion by the pathogen and/or ineffective killing by antibiotics. Bacteria can survive antibiotic treatment if they are resistant or tolerant to a drug.

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Dec
1969

A principal aim of the Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort Study was to study hepatic blood flow and effect of portal flow modulation on graft outcomes in the setting of increasing use of smaller and left lobe grafts.
Recipients of 274 living donor liver transplant were enrolled in the Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort Study, including 233 (85.0%) right lobes, 40 (14.

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Jun
2017

Hematopoietic transitions that accompany fetal development, such as erythroid globin chain switching, play important roles in normal physiology and disease development. In the megakaryocyte lineage, human fetal progenitors do not execute the adult morphogenesis program of enlargement, polyploidization, and proplatelet formation. Although these defects decline with gestational stage, they remain sufficiently severe at birth to predispose newborns to thrombocytopenia.

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Jun
2017

This review presents the newly developed International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) 2017 classification of seizure types.
The fundamental distinction is between seizures that begin focally in one hemisphere of the brain, generalized onset seizures that apparently originate in both hemispheres, and seizures of unknown onset. Focal seizures optionally can be subclassified according to whether awareness (a surrogate marker for consciousness) is intact or impaired.

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May
2017

An overview of the 2017 ILAE operational classification of seizure types.

Epilepsy Behav 2017 May 10;70(Pt A):271-273. Epub 2017 Apr 10.
Robert S Fisher

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Jul
2017

Genomic responses to habitat conversion can be rapid, providing wildlife managers with time-limited opportunities to enact recovery efforts that use population connectivity information that reflects predisturbance landscapes. Despite near-complete biome conversion, such opportunities may still exist for the endemic fauna and flora of California's San Joaquin Desert, but comprehensive genetic data sets are lacking for nearly all species in the region. To fill this knowledge gap, we studied the rangewide population structure of the endangered blunt-nosed leopard lizard Gambelia sila, a San Joaquin Desert endemic, using restriction site-associated DNA (RAD), microsatellite and mtDNA data to test whether admixture patterns and estimates of effective migration surfaces (EEMS) can identify land areas with high population connectivity prior to the conversion of native xeric habitats.

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Dec
1969

This companion paper to the introduction of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) 2017 classification of seizure types provides guidance on how to employ the classification. Illustration of the classification is enacted by tables, a glossary of relevant terms, mapping of old to new terms, suggested abbreviations, and examples. Basic and extended versions of the classification are available, depending on the desired degree of detail.

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Dec
1969

The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) presents a revised operational classification of seizure types. The purpose of such a revision is to recognize that some seizure types can have either a focal or generalized onset, to allow classification when the onset is unobserved, to include some missing seizure types, and to adopt more transparent names. Because current knowledge is insufficient to form a scientifically based classification, the 2017 Classification is operational (practical) and based on the 1981 Classification, extended in 2010.

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Jun
2017

Living donor liver transplantation: eliminating the wait for death in end-stage liver disease?

Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2017 Jun 15;14(6):373-382. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
Robert A Fisher
Adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation (A2ALDLT), outside of Asia, remains an important yet underutilized gift of life. For patients with end-stage liver disease, A2ALDLT is a proven transplantation option, with lower waiting list mortality and suffering, and equivalent or better allograft and patient survival than deceased-donor liver transplantation (DDLT). The risks to living donors and the benefit to their recipients have been carefully defined with long-term level 1 and 2 evidence-based study.

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Feb
2017

Bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT) reduces seizures and is relatively safe but may be accompanied by complaints of memory problems and depression. This study examined incidence of memory and depression adverse events (AE) in the SANTE study blinded phase and their relationship to objective neurobehavioral measures, baseline characteristics, quality of life and long-term neurobehavioral outcome.
The neurobehavioral AE and neuropsychological data from a previously reported prospective randomized trial (SANTE) were analyzed.

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Feb
2017

Bad information in epilepsy care.

Epilepsy Behav 2017 Feb 27;67:133-134. Epub 2016 Dec 27.
Robert S Fisher

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Mar
2017

CDK regulation of transcription by RNAP II: Not over 'til it's over?

Transcription 2017 Mar 22;8(2):81-90. Epub 2016 Dec 22.
Robert P Fisher
Transcription by RNA polymerase (RNAP) II is regulated at multiple steps by phosphorylation, catalyzed mainly by members of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) family. The CDKs involved in transcription have overlapping substrate specificities, but play largely non-redundant roles in coordinating gene expression. Novel functions and targets of CDKs have recently emerged at the end of the transcription cycle, when the primary transcript is cleaved, and in most cases polyadenylated, and transcription is terminated by the action of the "torpedo" exonuclease Xrn2, which is a CDK substrate.

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Sep
2016

Endovascular sealing is a developing technique for treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm that draws on novel concepts utilizing polymer filling of endobags within the aorto-iliac lumen. The morphologic indications and patient selection, while similar to those of endovascular aneurysm repair, differ in some regards. The Instructions for Use for the Nellix sealing device may expand the indications for aneurysm treatment and are closely scrutinized in this article.

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Dec
2016

The East Melanesian Islands have been a focal area for research into island biogeography and community ecology. However, previously undescribed and biogeographically significant new species endemic to this region continue to be discovered. Here we describe a phylogenetically distinct (~20% divergence at the mitochondrial ND2 gene) and biogeographically disjunct new species of gecko in the genus Gehyra, from the Admiralty and St Matthias Islands.

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Mar
2017

What forces structure ecological assemblages? A key limitation to general insights about assemblage structure is the availability of data that are collected at a small spatial grain (local assemblages) and a large spatial extent (global coverage). Here, we present published and unpublished data from 51 ,388 ant abundance and occurrence records of more than 2,693 species and 7,953 morphospecies from local assemblages collected at 4,212 locations around the world. Ants were selected because they are diverse and abundant globally, comprise a large fraction of animal biomass in most terrestrial communities, and are key contributors to a range of ecosystem functions.

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Dec
1969

To report the successful treatment of a type IIIb endoleak with an Amplatzer Septal Occluder.
A 76-year-old man was found to have a type IIIb endoleak in the proximal body component of a fenestrated graft at 4-year surveillance imaging; the leak was associated with rapid aneurysm growth. The anatomy of the graft and position of the fabric defect precluded treatment by relining with a secondary endograft.

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Apr
2017

The aim of this study is to present the clinical outcome of endovascular aneurysm sealing (EVAS) with the Nellix endoprosthesis in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms treated in our institution.
This is a retrospective, single center, observational cohort study. A departmental database was interrogated to extract demographics, clinical information, and outcome of all patients treated with EVAS between December 2013 and December 2015.

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Feb
2017

We introduce a mathematical model for studying the population dynamics under drought of the California newt (Taricha torosa), a species of special concern in the state of California. Since 2012, California has experienced a record-setting drought, and multiple studies predict drought conditions currently underway will persist and even increase in severity. Recent declines and local extinctions of California newt populations in Santa Monica Mountain streams motivate our study of the impact of drought on newt population sizes.

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Dec
1969

Understanding the diet of an endangered species illuminates the animal's ecology, habitat requirements, and conservation needs. However, direct observation of diet can be difficult, particularly for small, nocturnal animals such as the Pacific pocket mouse (Heteromyidae: Perognathus longimembris pacificus). Very little is known of the dietary habits of this federally endangered rodent, hindering management and restoration efforts.

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Jan
2017

Electromagnetic interference (EMI) can affect the function of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD). Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) have increased popularity and are a potential source of EMI. Little is known about the in vivo effects of EMI generated by HEV on ICD.

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Nov
2016

Little is known about how well postoperative pain is managed in living liver donors, despite pain severity being the strongest predictor of persistent pain with long-lasting disability.
We conducted a prospective multicenter study of 172 living liver donors. Self-reported outcomes for pain severity, activity interference, affective (emotional) reactions, adverse effects to treatment, and perceptions of care were collected using the American Pain Society Patient Outcomes Questionnaire-Revised.

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Aug
2016

This study reports the incidence and sequelae of migration of the Nellix (Endologix Inc, Irvine, Calif) endoprosthesis after endovascular aneurysm sealing.
A review was performed of the follow-up imaging of all endovascular aneurysm sealing patients in a university hospital endovascular program who had a minimum follow-up of 1 year. The first postoperative and latest follow-up computed tomography scans were used to measure the distances between the proximal and distal borders of the stent grafts relative to reference vessels using a previously validated technique.

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Dec
1969

Between September and November 1991, 54 adult skinks from 15 species were collected by hand or blowpipe from several localities on Rarotonga, Cook Islands, Ovalau Island, Fiji, and Papua New Guinea (PNG), and their feces were examined for coccidians. Species included 5 seaside skinks (Emoia atrocostata), 1 Pacific blue-tailed skink (Emoia caeroleocauda), 2 Fiji slender treeskinks (Emoia concolor), 15 white-bellied copper-striped skinks (Emoia cyanura), 1 Bulolo River forest skink (Emoia guttata), 6 dark-bellied copper-striped skinks (Emoia impar), 5 Papua five-striped skinks (Emoia jakati), 2 Papua slender treeskinks (Emoia kordoana), 3 Papua robust treeskinks (Emoia longicauda), 1 brown-backed forest skink (Emoia loveridgei), 3 Papua black-sided skinks (Emoia pallidiceps), 2 Papua white-spotted skinks (Emoia physicae), 2 Papua yellow-head skinks (Emoia popei), 1 Papua brown forest skink (Emoia submetallica), and 5 Fiji barred treeskinks (Emoia trossula) Species of Eimeria (Ei.) were detected from these Emoia (Em.

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Dec
1969

How and when eukaryotic cells make the irrevocable commitment to divide remain central questions in the cell-cycle field. Parallel studies in yeast and mammalian cells seemed to suggest analogous control mechanisms operating during the G1 phase-at Start or the restriction (R) point, respectively-to integrate nutritional and developmental signals and decide between distinct cell fates: cell-cycle arrest or exit versus irreversible commitment to a round of division. Recent work has revealed molecular mechanisms underlying this decision-making process in both yeast and mammalian cells but also cast doubt on the nature and timing of cell-cycle commitment in multicellular organisms.

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Sep
2016

Treatment of acute liver failure by cell transplantation is hindered by a shortage of human hepatocytes. Current protocols for hepatic differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) result in low yields, cellular heterogeneity, and limited scalability. In the present study, we have developed a novel multicellular spheroid-based hepatic differentiation protocol starting from embryoid bodies of hiPSCs (hiPSC-EBs) for robust mass production of human hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) using two novel inhibitors of the Wnt pathway.

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Jul
2016

The Paris Natural History Museum herpetological collection (MNHN-RA) has seven historical specimens of Brachylophus spp. collected late in the 18th and early in the 19th centuries. Brachylophus fasciatus was described in 1800 by Brongniart but its type was subsequently considered as lost and never present in MNHN-RA collections.

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Dec
1969

The 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic in West Africa was unprecedented in its geographical distribution, scale, and toll on public health infrastructure. Standard public health measures were rapidly overwhelmed, and many projections on outbreak progression through the region were dire. At the beginning of the outbreak there were no treatments or vaccines that had been shown to be safe and effective for treating or preventing EVD, limiting health care providers to offer supportive care under extremely challenging circumstances and at great risk to themselves.

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