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Author: Robert Goodman (283)


Feb
2018

Kisspeptin/Neurokinin B/Dynorphin (KNDy) neurons of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) play a key role in the regulation of fertility. The ability to detect features of KNDy neurons that are essential for fertility may require three-dimensional (3D) imaging of the complete population. Recently developed protocols for optical tissue clearing permits 3D imaging of neuronal populations in un-sectioned brains.

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Jan
2018

Four studies tested the proposition that mindfulness and its training fostered prosociality toward ostracized strangers. In discovery Study 1, dispositional mindfulness predicted greater empathic concern for, and more helping behavior toward, an ostracized stranger. Using an experimental design, Study 2 revealed that very briefly instructed mindfulness, relative to active control instructions, also promoted prosocial responsiveness to an ostracized stranger.

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Dec
2017

It has been suggested that the structure of psychiatric phenomena can be reduced to a few symptom dimensions. These proposals, mainly based on epidemiological samples, may not apply to clinical populations. We tested the structure of psychiatric symptoms across two pediatric clinical samples from England (N = 8434) and Norway (N = 5866).

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Dec
2017

Parents and teachers often disagree on the presence of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) in children. It has been argued that ODD should be treated as an informant-specific disorder. This study compared the characteristics of children identified with ODD by parent- and teacher report.

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Oct
2017

Small-scale neuronal networks may impose widespread effects on large network dynamics. To unravel this relationship, we analyzed eight multiscale recordings of spontaneous seizures from four patients with epilepsy. During seizures, multiunit spike activity organizes into a submillimeter-sized wavefront, and this activity correlates significantly with low-frequency rhythms from electrocorticographic recordings across a 10-cm-sized neocortical network.

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Dec
1969

Discrepancies between multiple informants often create considerable uncertainties in delivering services to youth. The present study assessed the ability of the parent and youth scales of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) to predict mental health problems/disorders across several mental health domains as validated against two contrasting indices of validity for psychopathology derived from the Development and Well Being Assessment (DAWBA): (1) an empirically derived computer algorithm and (2) expert based ICD-10 diagnoses.
Ordinal and logistic regressions were used to predict any problems/disorders, emotional problems/disorders and behavioural problems/disorders in a community sample (n = 252) and in a clinic sample (n = 95).

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Apr
2017

H. Boyd Woodruff (1917-2017).

Science 2017 Apr 27;356(6336):381. Epub 2017 Apr 27.
Joan Wennstrom Bennett, Douglas Eveleigh, Robert M Goodman

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Dec
1969

Evaluate the seizure-reduction response and safety of mesial temporal lobe (MTL) brain-responsive stimulation in adults with medically intractable partial-onset seizures of mesial temporal lobe origin.
Subjects with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) were identified from prospective clinical trials of a brain-responsive neurostimulator (RNS System, NeuroPace). The seizure reduction over years 2-6 postimplantation was calculated by assessing the seizure frequency compared to a preimplantation baseline.

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Dec
1969

Evaluate the seizure-reduction response and safety of brain-responsive stimulation in adults with medically intractable partial-onset seizures of neocortical origin.
Patients with partial seizures of neocortical origin were identified from prospective clinical trials of a brain-responsive neurostimulator (RNS System, NeuroPace). The seizure reduction over years 2-6 postimplantation was calculated by assessing the seizure frequency compared to a preimplantation baseline.

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Dec
1969

Two modes of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion are necessary for female fertility: surge and episodic secretion. However, the neural systems that regulate these GnRH secretion patterns are still under investigation. The neuropeptide somatostatin (SST) inhibits episodic LH secretion in humans and sheep, and several lines of evidence suggest SST may regulate secretion during the LH surge.

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Aug
2017

Epileptiform discharges, an electrophysiological hallmark of seizures, can propagate across cortical tissue in a manner similar to traveling waves. Recent work has focused attention on the origination and propagation patterns of these discharges, yielding important clues to their source location and mechanism of travel. However, systematic studies of methods for measuring propagation are lacking.

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Dec
1969

Seasonal reproduction in sheep is primarily due to a dramatic increase in the ability of estradiol (E2) to inhibit the pulsatile secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) during the nonbreeding season [anestrus (ANS)]. Recent findings suggest that kisspeptin/neurokinin B/dynorphin (KNDy) neurons of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) play a key role in conveying this negative feedback influence, with dopaminergic projections from the retrochiasmatic area acting upon KNDy cells to decrease kisspeptin release and thus inhibit GnRH pulses. However, several questions remain unanswered: (1) Are the coexpressed KNDy peptides, neurokinin B (NKB) and dynorphin, under seasonal regulation similar to kisspeptin? (2) Are seasonal changes in these peptides and their colocalization of D2 dopamine receptors (D2Rs) steroid dependent? and (3) Do KNDy neurons receive direct input from dopaminergic terminals? We used dual- and triple-label immunofluorescence to analyze brain sections through the ARC of ovariectomized (OVX) and OVX plus E2 ewes perfused during either the breeding season or ANS.

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Nov
2017

Neuroimaging studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have most commonly reported volumetric abnormalities in the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and prefrontal cortices. Few studies have examined the relationship between ADHD symptomatology and brain structure in population-based samples. We investigated the relationship between dimensional measures of ADHD symptomatology, brain structure, and reaction time variability-an index of lapses in attention.

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Jan
2017

To explore the feasibility of eliciting the brainstem H reflex in the masseter muscle in patients under general anesthesia.
We electrically stimulated the masseteric nerve, a branch of the trigeminal nerve, and recorded ipsilateral masseteric and temporalis muscle responses. We tested eight patients who presented with trigeminal neuralgia; one patient had a temporal bone tumor and one patient had a brainstem arteriovenous malformation.

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Dec
2016

There is now general agreement that neurokinin B (NKB) acts via neurokinin-3-receptor (NK3R) to stimulate secretion of GnRH and LH in several species, including rats, mice, sheep, and humans. However, the roles of two other tachykinins, substance P (SP) and neurokinin A, which act primarily via NK1R and NK2R, respectively, are less clear. In rodents, these signaling pathways can stimulate LH release and substitute for NKB signaling; in humans, SP is colocalized with kisspeptin and NKB in the mediobasal hypothalamus.

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Dec
1969

Negative life events (NLE) contribute to anxiety and depression disorders, but their relationship with brain functioning in adolescence has rarely been studied. We hypothesized that neural response to social threat would relate to NLE in the frontal-limbic emotional regions. Participants (N = 685) were drawn from the Imagen database of 14-year-old community adolescents recruited in schools.

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Dec
1969

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.

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Jun
2017

Youth- and parent-rated screening measures derived from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) were compared on their psychometric properties as predictors of caseness in adolescence (mean age 14). Successful screening was judged firstly against the likelihood of having an ICD-10 psychiatric diagnosis and secondly by the ability to discriminate between community (N = 252) and clinical (N = 86) samples (sample status). Both, SDQ and DAWBA measures adequately predicted the presence of an ICD-10 disorder as well as sample status.

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Dec
1969


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Dec
1969

High-gamma (HG; 80-150 Hz) activity in macroscopic clinical records is considered a marker for critical brain regions involved in seizure initiation; it is correlated with pathological multiunit firing during neocortical seizures in the seizure core, an area identified by correlated multiunit spiking and low frequency seizure activity. However, the effects of the spatiotemporal dynamics of seizure on HG power generation are not well understood. Here, we studied HG generation and propagation, using a three-step, multiscale signal analysis and modeling approach.

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Dec
1969

Training in mindfulness, classically described as a receptive attentiveness to present events and experiences, has been shown to improve attention and working memory. Both are key to long-term memory formation, and the present three-study series used multiple methods to examine whether mindfulness would enhance episodic memory, a key form of long-term memory. In Study 1 (N = 143), a self-reported state of mindful attention predicted better recognition performance in the Remember-Know (R-K) paradigm.

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Dec
1969

Kisspeptin-neurokinin B-dynorphin (KNDy) cells of the hypothalamus are a key component in the neuroendocrine regulation of GnRH secretion. Evidence in sheep and other species suggests that dynorphin released by KNDy cells inhibits pulsatile GnRH secretion by acting upon κ-opioid receptors (KOR). However, the precise anatomical location and neurochemical phenotype of KOR-expressing cells in sheep remain unknown.

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Mar
2016

The extensive distribution and simultaneous termination of seizures across cortical areas has led to the hypothesis that seizures are caused by large-scale coordinated networks spanning these areas. This view, however, is difficult to reconcile with most proposed mechanisms of seizure spread and termination, which operate on a cellular scale. We hypothesize that seizures evolve into self-organized structures wherein a small seizing territory projects high-intensity electrical signals over a broad cortical area.

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Apr
2016

Mindfulness-based interventions have been increasingly applied to treat eating-related problems ranging from obesity to eating disorders. Yet few studies have empirically examined the mechanisms of a mindful approach to eating. The current studies examine the potential of brief mindfulness instructions to enhance the psychological and behavioral dimensions of eating.

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Aug
2016

Difficulties with interpersonal relationships have been reported in children and adolescents with manic symptoms, even if they do not fulfil criteria for a manic episode. The role of social aptitude (SA) in youths with manic symptoms has never been examined in the general population. Moreover, no study has examined whether SA is differentially associated with dimensions of manic symptoms.

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May
2016

An observational study.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a health plan's prior authorization (PA) programs for low back pain (LBP) in a non-Medicare population by assessing changes in pre-surgical nonoperative care; lumbar fusion trends; and overall back surgery rates compared with another health plan with a similar program and national benchmarks. The PA programs require mandatory physiatrist consultation before surgical evaluation, with subsequent additional LBP surgery PA.

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May
2016

The purpose of this study was to assess the safety and outcomes of the clinical use of LINAC (linear accelerator)-based flattening-filter-free beams for delivering ablative stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for trigeminal neuralgia (TN).
Thirty-six consecutive patients (34 unique patients) followed up by a single neurosurgeon and diagnosed with medically refractory unilateral TN were treated with SRS. There were 14 left-sided cases (41%) and 20 right-sided cases (59%).

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Dec
1969

Knowledge about the presentation of psychopathology in preschool age and associated risk factors is fundamental to preventive intervention before schooling.
To investigate the full spectrum of psychiatric diagnoses in general population children at the period of transition from preschool to school.
A sample of 1585 children from the Copenhagen Child Cohort, CCC2000 aged 5-7 years was assessed using the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) with diagnostic classification by experienced clinicians.

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Oct
2015

Neuroimaging findings have been reported in regions of the brain associated with emotion in both adults and adolescents with depression, but few studies have investigated whether such brain alterations can be detected in adolescents with subthreshold depression, a condition at risk for major depressive disorder. In this study, we searched for differences in brain structure at age 14 years in adolescents with subthreshold depression and their relation to depression at age 16 years.
High-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess adolescents with self-reported subthreshold depression (n = 119) and healthy control adolescents (n = 461), all recruited from a community-based sample.

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Nov
2015

Low income is a widely studied risk factor for child and adolescent behavioural difficulties. Previous research on this relationship has produced mixed findings.
To investigate the level, shape and homogeneity of income gradients in different types of antisocial behaviour.

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Oct
2015

Spike-sorting algorithms have been used to identify the firing patterns of isolated neurons ('single units') from implanted electrode recordings in patients undergoing assessment for epilepsy surgery, but we do not know their potential for providing helpful clinical information. It is important therefore to characterize both the stability of these recordings and also their context. A critical consideration is where the units are located with respect to the focus of the pathology.

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Oct
2015

Despite an extensive body of work, it is still not clear how short term maintenance of information is implemented in the human brain. Most prior research has focused on "working memory"-typically involving the storage of a number of items, requiring the use of a phonological loop and focused attention during the delay period between encoding and retrieval. These studies largely support a model of enhanced activity in the delay interval as the central mechanism underlying working memory.

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Dec
2015

The authors examined whether alterations in the brain's reward network operate as a mechanism across the spectrum of risk for depression. They then tested whether these alterations are specific to anhedonia as compared with low mood and whether they are predictive of depressive outcomes.
Functional MRI was used to collect blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) responses to anticipation of reward in the monetary incentive task in 1,576 adolescents in a community-based sample.

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Sep
2015

Prenatal testosterone (T)-treated ewes display a constellation of reproductive defects that closely mirror those seen in PCOS women, including altered hormonal feedback control of GnRH. Kisspeptin/neurokinin B/dynorphin (KNDy) neurons of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) play a key role in steroid feedback control of GnRH secretion, and prenatal T treatment in sheep causes an imbalance of KNDy peptide expression within the ARC. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that prenatal T exposure, in addition to altering KNDy peptides, leads to changes in the morphology and synaptic inputs of this population, kisspeptin cells of the preoptic area (POA), and GnRH cells.

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Jun
2015

To determine whether resection of areas with evidence of intense, synchronized neural firing during seizures is an accurate indicator of postoperative outcome.
Channels meeting phase-locked high gamma (PLHG) criteria were identified retrospectively from intracranial EEG recordings (102 seizures, 46 implantations, 45 patients). Extent of removal of both the seizure onset zone (SOZ) and PLHG was correlated with seizure outcome, classified as good (Engel class I or II, n = 32) or poor (Engel class III or IV, n = 13).

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Dec
1969

Measurements of neuronal signals during human seizure activity and evoked epileptic activity in experimental models suggest that, in these pathological states, the individual nerve cells experience an activity driven depolarization block, i.e. they saturate.

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Jul
2015

Valid screening tools are needed to identify Indian children and adolescents with mental health problems, both for clinical or research purposes. The present study validated the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in Malayalam across different informants and sub-scales.
A sample of 150 children and adolescents seen in a psychiatric clinic for children in Kerala, India was compared to a community sample of 1984 children from six surrounding urban and rural districts.

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Aug
2015

The chemical propanil enhances antibody responses to a heat-killed Streptococcus pneumoniae (HKSP) vaccine. The enhanced response is dependent on gonads in females, but independent of gonads in males. The sex differences in the immune response may be due to sexual differentiation of the immune system or sex chromosome complement.

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Jun
2016

In social situations, skillful regulation of emotion and behavior depends on efficiently discerning others' emotions. Identifying factors that promote timely and accurate discernment of facial expressions can therefore advance understanding of social emotion regulation and behavior. The present research examined whether trait mindfulness predicts neural and behavioral markers of early top-down attention to, and efficient discrimination of, socioemotional stimuli.

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Mar
2015

To report long-term efficacy and safety results of the SANTE trial investigating deep brain stimulation of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT) for treatment of localization-related epilepsy.
This long-term follow-up is a continuation of a previously reported trial of 5- vs 0-V ANT stimulation. Long-term follow-up began 13 months after device implantation with stimulation parameters adjusted at the investigators' discretion.

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Apr
2015

Seasonal reproduction is a common adaptive strategy among mammals that allows for breeding to occur at times of the year when it is most advantageous for the subsequent survival and growth of offspring. A major mechanism responsible for seasonal reproduction is a striking increase in the responsiveness of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons to the negative feedback effects of estradiol. The neural and neuroendocrine circuitry responsible for mammalian seasonal reproduction has been primarily studied in three animal models: the sheep, and two species of hamsters.

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Dec
1969

Effective emotion regulation is important for high-quality social functioning. Recent laboratory-based evidence suggests that mindfulness may enhance emotion regulation in socioemotional contexts; however, little is known about mindful emotion regulation during in vivo social interactions. In a study of romantic couples, we assessed each partner's mindfulness and top-down attentional efficiency (with an Emotional Go/No-Go task) prior to sampling emotions and perceived connection with others during day-to-day social interactions.

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Jan
2015

There is little research on children's positive attributes and their association with psychiatric outcomes.
To examine the hypothesis that children's positive attributes are associated with a reduced risk of developing psychopathology in future.
Positive attributes, measured with the Youth Strengths Inventory (YSI) and psychiatric outcomes were assessed on two occasions over 3 years in a large epidemiological sample of British children and adolescents (n = 5325).

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Dec
2014

Epidemiological studies infancy predictors of mental disorders are scarce.
The study is part of a longitudinal birth-cohort study, The Copenhagen Child Cohort CCC2000. Infant mental health and development and mother-infant relations were assessed by community health nurses from birth to age 10 months.

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Jul
2014

OBJECT.: The risk of developing epilepsy after perinatal stroke, hypoxic/ischemic injury, and intracerebral hemorrhage is significant, and seizures may become medically refractory in approximately 25% of these patients. Surgical management can be difficult due to multilobar or bilateral cortical injury, nonfocal or poorly lateralizing video electroencephalography (EEG) findings, and limited functional reserve.

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Dec
2014

It has been reported that mania may be associated with superior cognitive performance. In this study, we test the hypothesis that manic symptoms in youth separate along two correlated dimensions and that a symptom constellation of high energy and cheerfulness is associated with superior cognitive performance.
We studied 1755 participants of the IMAGEN study, of average age 14.

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Jun
2014

The purpose of the study was to define the latent structure of parent-reported manic symptoms and their association with functional impairment and familial risk in a community sample of Brazilian children.
We screened for manic symptoms in a community sample of 2,512 children 6 to 12 years of age. Parents of children with "episodes of going abnormally high" completed a detailed mania section (n = 479; 19.

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Apr
2014

Regular monitoring of patient progress is important to assess the clinical effectiveness of an intervention. Recently, initiatives within UK child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) have advocated the use of session-by-session monitoring to continually evaluate the patient's outcome throughout the course of the intervention. However, the feasibility and acceptability of such regular monitoring is unknown.

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Dec
2013

It has been well established in animal models that electrical fields generated during inter-ictal and ictal discharges are strong enough in intensity to influence action potential firing threshold and synchronization. We discuss recently published data from microelectrode array recordings of human neocortical seizures and speculate about the possible role of field effects in neuronal synchronization. We have identified two distinct seizure territories that cannot be easily distinguished by traditional EEG analysis.

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