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Author: Robert R Althoff (65)



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Jan
2018

As societies become increasingly diverse, mental health professionals need instruments for assessing emotional, behavioral, and social problems in terms of constructs that are supported within and across societies. Building on decades of research findings, multisample alignment confirmatory factor analyses tested an empirically based 8-syndrome model on parent ratings across 30 societies and youth self-ratings across 19 societies. The Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 6-18 and Youth Self-Report for Ages 11-18 were used to measure syndromes descriptively designated as Anxious/Depressed, Withdrawn/Depressed, Somatic Complaints, Social Problems, Thought Problems, Attention Problems, Rule-Breaking Behavior, and Aggressive Behavior.

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May
2017

The reliability and validity of traditional taxonomies are limited by arbitrary boundaries between psychopathology and normality, often unclear boundaries between disorders, frequent disorder co-occurrence, heterogeneity within disorders, and diagnostic instability. These taxonomies went beyond evidence available on the structure of psychopathology and were shaped by a variety of other considerations, which may explain the aforementioned shortcomings. The Hierarchical Taxonomy Of Psychopathology (HiTOP) model has emerged as a research effort to address these problems.

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Nov
2017

Neuroimaging studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have most commonly reported volumetric abnormalities in the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and prefrontal cortices. Few studies have examined the relationship between ADHD symptomatology and brain structure in population-based samples. We investigated the relationship between dimensional measures of ADHD symptomatology, brain structure, and reaction time variability-an index of lapses in attention.

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Dec
2016

We used latent class analysis (LCA) to examine the prevalence and characteristics of the Dysregulation Profile (DP) based on data from the Youth Self-Report (YSR). The DP comprises elevated scores on the Anxious/Depressed, Attention Problems, and Aggressive Behavior syndromes and thus reflects significant problems in self-regulation of affect, attention, and behavior.
We examined YSR data for 38,070 adolescents (48.

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Nov
2016

Food security is a condition achieved when all members of a household have access to adequate food at all times for a healthy, active lifestyle. As of 2014, 14% of households in the United States were food insecure. Previous research has suggested that household food insecurity is associated with numerous adverse medical and psychosocial outcomes across the lifespan.

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Aug
2016

More than 75,000 articles have been published on internalizing and externalizing problems. To advance clinical and research applications of internalizing/externalizing concepts and data, our objectives were as follows: to provide an overview of recent research on internalizing/externalizing problems assessed at ages 1½ to 18 years; to identify issues raised by methods for assessing such problems; and to develop recommendations for more precise, consistent, informative, and productive assessment of such problems.
A total of 4,870 peer-reviewed articles published from January 1, 2012 through December 31, 2014 were systematically reviewed and identified by the search terms "internalizing" or "externalizing," followed by detailed coding of 693 articles that reported use of measures meeting criteria for methodologically sound assessment of internalizing/externalizing problems.

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Jul
2016

The Reviews Are In!

J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2016 Jul;55(7):542
Robert R Althoff, Andrés Martin

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Aug
2017

Individual differences in impulsivity and early adversity are known to be strong predictors of adolescent antisocial behavior. However, the neurobiological bases of impulsivity and their relation to antisocial behavior and adversity are poorly understood.
Impulsivity was estimated with a temporal discounting task.

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Mar
2016

"Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder" (DMDD) has been introduced into the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed. but the utility of this new label and the clinical correlates of the children it describes are yet to be determined.
A proxy for the DMDD diagnosis was extracted from the National Comorbidity Survey - Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A) data on 6483 adolescents (51.

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Dec
2015

Cannabis use in adolescence may be characterized by differences in the neural basis of affective processing. In this study, we used an fMRI affective face processing task to compare a large group (n=70) of 14-year olds with a history of cannabis use to a group (n=70) of never-using controls matched on numerous characteristics including IQ, SES, alcohol and cigarette use. The task contained short movies displaying angry and neutral faces.

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Apr
2015

We examined child temperament, maternal parenting, and the effects of their interactions with each other on child social functioning. A total of 355 children aged 5-18 years old (54% male; mean age=10.8) were evaluated.

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May
2015

Little is known about the longitudinal genetic and environmental association between juvenile irritability and symptoms of anxiety and depression. This study's goal was to assess the relationship between these constructs across a critical developmental period spanning childhood to young adulthood.
Parents (n = 1,348 twin pairs) from the Swedish Twin Study of Child and Adolescent Development completed the Child/Adult Behavior Checklist (CBCL/ABCL) about their twin children.

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Feb
2016

This study examined the stability of internalizing and externalizing problems from age 1.5 to 6 years, while taking into account developmental changes in the presentation of problems. The study comprised a population-based cohort of 7,206 children (50.

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Dec
2015

Social perceptual ability plays a key role in successful social functioning. Social interactions demand a number of simultaneous skills, one of which is the detection of self-directed gaze. This study demonstrates how the ability to accurately detect self-directed gaze, called the stare-in-the-crowd effect, can be studied using a new eye-tracking paradigm.

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Aug
2014

A comprehensive account of the causes of alcohol misuse must accommodate individual differences in biology, psychology and environment, and must disentangle cause and effect. Animal models can demonstrate the effects of neurotoxic substances; however, they provide limited insight into the psycho-social and higher cognitive factors involved in the initiation of substance use and progression to misuse. One can search for pre-existing risk factors by testing for endophenotypic biomarkers in non-using relatives; however, these relatives may have personality or neural resilience factors that protect them from developing dependence.

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Nov
2014

Children meeting the Child Behavior Checklist Dysregulation Profile (CBCL-DP) suffer from high levels of co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problems. Little is known about the cognitive abilities of these children with CBCL-DP. We examined the relationship between CBCL-DP and nonverbal intelligence.

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Oct
2014

Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) has components of both irritability and defiance. It remains unclear whether children with variation in these domains have different adult outcomes. This study examined the concurrent and predictive validity of classes of oppositional defiant behavior.

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Aug
2013

Children with co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problems have higher levels of impairment and worse outcomes later in life, but it is unclear whether these children can be distinguished validly from children who have problems in a single domain. We used a person-centered statistical approach to examine whether a group of children with co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problems can be identified in a general-population sample of young children.
This study included a population-based sample of 6,131 children, aged 5 through 7 years.

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Dec
2013

Recently, there has been a gradual shift from inpatient-only electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) toward outpatient administration. Potential advantages include convenience and reduced cost. But providers do not have the same opportunity to monitor treatment response and adverse effects as they do with inpatients.

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Jul
2013

The Child Behavior Checklist Dysregulation Profile (DP) in youth has been shown to be a predictor of psychopathology later in life. We examined the activity of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis in youth with remitted, new, persistent, and no DP. Data from 489 youth (47% boys) participating in a Dutch longitudinal general population study were included (Wave 1 mean age=11.

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Feb
2013

Although oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is usually considered the mildest of the disruptive behavior disorders, it is a key factor in predicting young adult anxiety and depression and is distinguishable from normal childhood behavior. In an effort to understand possible subsets of oppositional defiant behavior (ODB) that may differentially predict outcome, we used latent class analysis of mother report on the Conners' Parent Rating Scales Revised Short Forms (CPRS-R:S).
Data were obtained from mother report for Dutch twins (7 years old, n = 7,597; 10 years old, n = 6,548; and 12 years old, n = 5,717) from the Netherlands Twin Registry.

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May
2013

Recent functional connectivity studies have demonstrated that, in resting humans, activity in a dorsally-situated neocortical network is inversely associated with activity in the amygdalae. Similarly, in human neuroimaging studies, aspects of emotion regulation have been associated with increased activity in dorsolateral, dorsomedial, orbital and ventromedial prefrontal regions, as well as concomitant decreases in amygdalar activity. These findings indicate the presence of two countervailing systems in the human brain that are reciprocally related: a dorsally-situated cognitive control network, and a ventrally-situated limbic network.

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Dec
2012


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Nov
2012

Drs. Althoff and Williamson reply.

J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2012 Nov;51(11):1220
Robert R Althoff, Genevieve Williamson

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Dec
2012

With the desire to assess genetic variation across the lifespan in large-scale collaborative projects, one question is whether inference of copy number (CN) is sensitive to the source of material for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) analysis (e.g., blood and buccal) and another question is whether CN is stable as individual sage.

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Oct
2012

Copy number variations (CNVs) have been reported to be causal suspects in a variety of psychopathologic traits. We investigate whether de novo and/or inherited CNVs contribute to the risk for Attention Problems (APs) in children. Based on longitudinal phenotyping, 50 concordant and discordant monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs were selected from a sample of ∼3200 MZ pairs.

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Aug
2012

It is crucial to characterize self-regulation in children. We compared the temperamental profiles of children with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Dysregulation Profile (CBCL-DP) to profiles associated with other CBCL-derived syndromes. 382 children (204 boys; aged 5-18) from a large family study were examined.

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Jun
2012

  Substantial evidence suggests that a Five-Factor Model personality assessment generates a valid description of childhood individual differences and relates to a range of psychological outcomes. Less is known, however, about naturally occurring profiles of personality and their links to psychopathology. The current study explores whether childhood personality characteristics tend to cluster in particular personality profiles that show unique associations with psychopathology and quality of life across time.

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Oct
2011

A commonly encountered situation for evaluating clinicians is a history of significant problems in one setting with little or no difficulties in another. This study aims to describe this phenomenon and to examine its relations with other child and family characteristics.
A total of 1,730 children (mean age 11.

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Dec
2011

Personality traits and socioeconomic factors such as neighborhood income have been identified as risk factors for future alcohol abuse, but findings have been inconsistent possibly due to interactions between risk and protective factors. The present study examined the prediction of drinking behavior using empirically derived multi-trait patterns and tested for moderation by average neighborhood income. Using latent profile analysis (LPA) in a sample of 863 Dutch adolescents, four empirical personality profiles based on 6 traits were observed: Extraverted, Dysregulated, Neurotic, and Regulated.

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Mar
2011

Genetics and the neurosciences are changing the knowledge base of psychiatry. The authors of this commentary argue that if psychiatry is to meet the considerable challenges associated with assimilating the rapid advance of those sciences and populating the field with new leaders who will contribute to such advances, fundamental problems in psychiatric education and training must be addressed. The authors argue that three domains in particular require change--an overemphasis on the outmoded diagnostic system, a residual attachment to archaic psychoanalytic constructs, and an unwarranted confidence in current therapeutic capabilities.

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Feb
2011


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Dec
1969

Results of several investigations indicate that eye movements can reveal memory for elements of previous experience. These effects of memory on eye movement behavior can emerge very rapidly, changing the efficiency and even the nature of visual processing without appealing to verbal reports and without requiring conscious recollection. This aspect of eye movement based memory investigations is particularly useful when eye movement methods are used with special populations (e.

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Nov
2010

Using a general population sample, the adult outcomes of children who presented with severe problems with self-regulation defined as being concurrently rated highly on attention problems, aggressive behavior, and anxious-depression on the Child Behavior Checklist-Dysregulation Profile (CBCL-DP) were examined.
Two thousand seventy-six children from 13 birth cohorts 4 to 16 years of age were drawn from Dutch birth registries in 1983. CBCLs were completed by parents at baseline when children from the different cohorts were 4 to 16 years of age and sampled every 2 years for the next 14 years.

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Dec
2009

Personalized medicine and pharmacogenomics in child psychiatry.

J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2009 Dec 20;48(12):1136. Epub 2009 Nov 20.
Carol Rockhill, Robert R Althoff

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Sep
2010

Disorders of self-regulatory behavior are common reasons for referral to child and adolescent clinicians. Here, the authors sought to compare 2 methods of empirically based assessment of children with problems in self-regulatory behavior. Using parental reports on 2,028 children (53% boys) from a U.

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Aug
2010

To test the association between the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism and both aggressive behavior and attention problems in youth. We hypothesized that youth carrying a Met allele would have greater average aggressive behavior scores, and that youth exhibiting Val-homozygosity would have greater average attention problems scores.
Complete data on maternally rated Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) measures of aggressive behavior (AGG) and attention problems (AP), COMT polymorphism data, demographics, and maternal parenting quality were available for 149 youth (6 to 18 years old).

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Apr
2010

Dysregulated children reconsidered.

J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2010 Apr;49(4):302-5
Robert R Althoff

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Apr
2010

The Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (OCS) of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) predicts obsessive-compulsive disorder and is highly heritable. Latent class analysis (LCA) of the OCS was used to identify profiles within this 8-item scale and to examine heritability of those profiles. The LCA was performed on maternal CBCL reports of their 6- to 18-year-old children from 2 US nationally representative samples from 1989 (n = 2475, 50% male) and 1999 (n = 2029, 53% male) and from Dutch twins in the Netherlands Twin Registry at ages 7 (n = 10 194, 49.

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Jun
2009

Recent findings of an association between anesthesia administration in the first three years of life and later learning disabilities have created concerns that anesthesia has neurotoxic effects on synaptogenesis, causing later learning problems. An alternative hypothesis is that those children who are likely to undergo surgery early in life have significant medical problems that are associated with a vulnerability to learning disabilities. These two hypotheses were evaluated in a monozygotic concordant-discordant twin design.

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Dec
2008

Advanced twin designs.

J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2008 Dec;47(12):1358
Robert R Althoff

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