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Author: Robert Walters (59)


Jul
2017

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with poorer performance on neuropsychological tests in veterans. However, prior studies have generally compared individuals with PTSD to control groups, often excluding individuals with moderate symptoms. The present study evaluated neuropsychological performance among OEF/OIF/OND veterans as a function of overall PTSD severity, while also exploring potential associations between cognitive performance and PTSD symptom clusters.

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Mar
2017

Quaternary alloys are essential for the development of high-performance optoelectronic devices. However, immiscibility of the constituent elements can make these materials vulnerable to phase segregation, which degrades the optical and electrical properties of the solid. High-efficiency III-V photovoltaic cells are particularly sensitive to this degradation.

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Mar
2017

Urban stormwater samples were collected from five aquatic systems in Melbourne, Australia, on six occasions between October 2011 and March 2012 and tested for 30 herbicides and 14 trace metals. Nineteen different herbicides were observed in one or more water samples from the five sites; chemicals observed at more than 40% of sites were simazine (100%), MCPA (83%), diuron (63%) and atrazine (53%). Using the toxicity unit (TU) concept to assess potential risk to aquatic ecosystems, none of the detected herbicides were considered to pose an individual, group or collective short-term risk to fish or zooplankton in the waters studied.

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Apr
2017

PTSD is characterized by both affective and cognitive dysfunction. Affectively, PTSD is associated with both heightened emotional reactivity and disengagement. Cognitively, perseverative thinking is a core feature of the disorder.

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Jan
2017

RNAs besides tRNA and rRNA contain chemical modifications, including the recently described 5' nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) RNA in bacteria. Whether 5' NAD-RNA exists in eukaryotes remains unknown. We demonstrate that 5' NAD-RNA is found on subsets of nuclear and mitochondrial encoded mRNAs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae NAD-mRNA appears to be produced cotranscriptionally because NAD-RNA is also found on pre-mRNAs, and only on mitochondrial transcripts that are not 5' end processed.

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Nov
2016

Converging lines of evidence suggest that individuals with comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) may be characterized by heightened defensive reactivity, which serves to maintain drinking behaviors and anxiety/hyperarousal symptoms. However, it is important to note that very few studies have directly tested whether individuals with PTSD and AUD exhibit greater defensive reactivity compared with individuals with PTSD without AUD. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to test this emerging hypothesis by examining individual differences in error-related negativity (ERN), an event-related component that is larger among anxious individuals and is thought to reflect defensive reactivity to errors.

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Dec
2016

Hostile men have reliably displayed an exaggerated sympathetic stress response across multiple experimental settings, with cardiovascular reactivity for blood pressure and heart rate concurrent with lateralized right frontal lobe stress (Trajanoski et al., in Diabetes Care 19(12):1412-1415, 1996; see Heilman et al., in J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 38(1):69-72, 1975).

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Mar
2016

Canine-assisted therapy (CAT) has been used in many settings with much success, yet no study has assessed its feasibility and receptiveness in hospitalized patients awaiting heart transplantation.
Patients admitted to our institution with a status I for heart transplantation during a 12-month period (April 2014-April 2015) were prospectively included in a feasibility pilot study. Patients were included if there was no history of transmittable disease or active infectious process and consented for study participation.

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Jan
2016

Stress granules are mRNA-protein granules that form when translation initiation is limited, and they are related to pathological granules in various neurodegenerative diseases. Super-resolution microscopy reveals stable substructures, referred to as cores, within stress granules that can be purified. Proteomic analysis of stress granule cores reveals a dense network of protein-protein interactions and links between stress granules and human diseases and identifies ATP-dependent helicases and protein remodelers as conserved stress granule components.

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Mar
2016

Water and sediment samples were collected from up to 17 sites in waterways entering the Corner Inlet Marine National Park monthly between November 2009 and April 2010, with the Chemcatcher passive sampler system deployed at these sites in November 2009 and March 2010. Trace metal concentrations were low, with none occurring at concentrations with the potential for adverse ecological effects. The agrochemical residues data showed the presence of a small number of pesticides at very low concentration (ng/L) in the surface waters of streams entering the Corner Inlet, and as widespread, but still limited contamination of sediments.

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Oct
2015

A key aspect of the control of gene expression is the differential rates of mRNA translation and degradation, including alterations due to extracellular inputs. Surprisingly, multiple examples now argue that Hsp70 protein chaperones and their associated Hsp40 partners modulate both mRNA degradation and translation. Hsp70 proteins affect mRNA metabolism by various mechanisms including regulating nascent polypeptide chain folding, activating signal transduction pathways, promoting clearance of stress granules, and controlling mRNA degradation in an mRNA-specific manner.

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Sep
2015

Stress granules and P-bodies are conserved assemblies of nontranslating mRNAs in eukaryotic cells that can be related to RNA-protein aggregates found in some neurodegenerative diseases. Herein, we examine how the Hsp70/Hsp40 protein chaperones affected the assembly and disassembly of stress granules and P-bodies in yeast. We observed that Hsp70 and the Ydj1 and Sis1 Hsp40 proteins accumulated in stress granules and defects in these proteins led to decreases in the disassembly and/or clearance of stress granules.

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Sep
2014

Drying is a commonly used technique for improving the product stability of biotherapeutics. Typically, drying is accomplished through freeze-drying, as evidenced by the availability of several lyophilized products on the market. There are, however, a number of drawbacks to lyophilization, including the lengthy process time required for drying, low energy efficiency, high cost of purchasing and maintaining the equipment, and sensitivity of the product to freezing and various other processing-related stresses.

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Mar
2014

In eukaryotic cells many mRNAs are localized to specific regions of the cytosol, thereby allowing the local production of proteins. The process of mRNA localization can be coordinated with mRNA turnover, which can also be spatially controlled to increase the degree of mRNA localization. The coordination of mRNA localization, translation repression during transport, and mRNA degradation suggests the hypothesis that an additional layer of mRNA quality control exists in cells to degrade mRNAs that fail to be appropriately localized.

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Apr
2014

The control of mRNA translation and degradation is mediated in part by a set of proteins that can inhibit translation and promote decapping, as well as function in the assembly of cytoplasmic mRNP granules referred to as processing bodies (P-bodies). The conserved enhancer of mRNA decapping 3 (Edc3) protein functions to promote both decapping and P-body assembly. Crystal structures of the YjeF_N domain in hEdc3 identified a putative binding site for a small molecule.

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Jul
2013

In this work solar cell anti-reflection coatings tuned to give a specific hue under solar illumination are investigated. We demonstrate that it is possible to form patterned coatings with large color contrast and high transmittance. We use colorimetric and thin film optics models to explore the relationship between the color and performance of bilayer anti-reflection coatings on Si, and predict the photocurrent generation from an example Si solar cell.

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Aug
2012

Abnormally expanded polyglutamine domains in proteins are associated with several neurodegenerative diseases, including Huntington's disease. Expansion of the polyglutamine (polyQ) domain facilitates aggregation of the affected protein, and several studies directly link aggregation to neurotoxicity. Studies of synthetic polyQ peptides have contributed substantially to our understanding of the mechanism of aggregation.

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Mar
2012

A dependence of poliovirus on an unorthodox translation initiation mode can be targeted selectively to drive viral protein synthesis and cytotoxicity in malignant cells. Transformed cells are naturally susceptible to poliovirus, due to widespread ectopic upregulation of the poliovirus receptor, Necl-5, in ectodermal/neuroectodermal cancers. Viral tumor cell killing and the host immunologic response it engenders produce potent, lasting antineoplastic effects in animal tumor models.

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Apr
2012

The aim was to investigate the influence of a daily mixed nutritional supplement during an 8-week arduous training programme on immune indices and mediators including circulating leucocyte counts; bacterially stimulated neutrophil degranulation; interleukin-6 (IL-6), cortisol and saliva secretory immunoglobulin-A (SIgA). Thirty men (mean (SD): age 25 (3) years; body mass, 80.9 (7.

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Sep
2011

Abnormally expanded polyglutamine domains are associated with at least nine neurodegenerative diseases, including Huntington's disease. Expansion of the glutamine region facilitates aggregation of the impacted protein, and aggregation has been linked to neurotoxicity. Studies of synthetic peptides have contributed substantially to our understanding of the mechanism of aggregation because the underlying biophysics of polyglutamine-mediated association can be probed independent of their context within a larger protein.

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Nov
2011

A 57-year-old man status post several myocardial infarcts and heart transplantation presented with a slowly growing violaceous plaque on his lateral left knee at the site of prior minor trauma. A biopsy revealed a suppurative dermatitis with associated pseudocarcinomatous epithelial hyperplasia. There were multiple non-pigmented eosinophilic organisms with clear cytoplasmic halos within the infiltrate.

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Jun
2011

The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of carbohydrate (CHO) intake, with and without protein (PRO), immediately after prolonged strenuous exercise on circulating bacterially stimulated neutrophil degranulation. Twelve male runners completed 3 feeding interventions, 1 week apart, in randomized order after 2 hr of running at 75% VO2max. The feeding interventions included a placebo solution, a CHO solution equal to 1.

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Jun
2010

We report on the design, fabrication, and measurement of ultrathin film a-Si:H solar cells with nanostructured plasmonic back contacts, which demonstrate enhanced short circuit current densities compared to cells having flat or randomly textured back contacts. The primary photocurrent enhancement occurs in the spectral range from 550 nm to 800 nm. We use angle-resolved photocurrent spectroscopy to confirm that the enhanced absorption is due to coupling to guided modes supported by the cell.

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Jul
2010

The authors describe 3 patients with Graves orbitopathy who all have accessory orbital structures on orbital imaging. These structures are isodense on CT and isointense on MRI to the extraocular muscles and have a similar anatomical appearance to accessory extraocular muscles previously described in the literature. The authors propose that Graves orbitopathy involves these accessory muscles and makes them visible on imaging.

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Jun
2010

The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of two nights of sleep deprivation with or without energy restriction on immune indices at rest and in response to cold exposure. On three randomised occasions ten males slept normally [mean (SD): 436 (21) min night(-1); CON], were totally sleep-deprived (SDEP), or were totally sleep-deprived and 90% energy-restricted (SDEP + ER) for 53 h. After 53 h (1200 h) participants performed a seated cold air test (CAT) at 0.

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Jan
2010

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally through binding specific sites within the 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) of their target mRNAs. Numerous investigations have documented repressive effects of miRNAs and identified factors required for their activity. However, the precise mechanisms by which miRNAs modulate gene expression are still obscure.

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Jan
2010

Human pathogenic viruses manipulate host cell translation machinery to ensure efficient expression of viral genes and to thwart host cell protein synthesis. Viral strategies include cleaving translation factors, manipulating translation factor abundance and recruitment into translation initiation complexes, or expressing viral translation factor analogs. Analyzing translation factors in herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)-infected HeLa cells, we found diminished association of the polyadenylate-binding protein (PABP) with the cap-binding complex.

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Nov
2009

Abnormally expanded polyglutamine domains in proteins are associated with several neurodegenerative diseases, of which the best known is Huntington's. Expansion of the polyglutamine domain facilitates aggregation of the affected protein, and several studies directly link aggregation to neurotoxicity. The age of onset of disease is inversely correlated with the length of the polyglutamine domain; this correlation motivates an examination of the role of the length of the domain on aggregation.

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Jul
2009

We present the design, synthesis, and physical and photophysical characterization of Eu(3+) and Gd(3+) complexes formed with two ligands bearing either one or three fluorene sensitizer units. As a novel sensitizing approach, the oligomer length is used to control the energies of the triplet states of the sensitizer and to mediate the sensitizer to lanthanide energy transfer.

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May
2009

Nicotinic acid is one of the most effective agents for both lowering triglycerides and raising HDL. However, the side effect of cutaneous flushing severely limits patient compliance. As nicotinic acid stimulates the GPCR GPR109A and Gi/Go proteins, here we dissected the roles of G proteins and the adaptor proteins, beta-arrestins, in nicotinic acid-induced signaling and physiological responses.

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Oct
2008

The aim was to investigate the effects of 48 hr of fluid, energy, or combined fluid and energy restriction on circulating leukocyte and lymphocyte subset counts (CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+) and bacterially stimulated neutrophil degranulation at rest and after exercise. Thirteen healthy men (M +/- SEM age 21 +/- 1 yr) participated in 4 randomized 48-hr trials. During control (CON) participants received their estimated energy (2,903 +/- 17 kcal/day) and fluid (3,912 +/- 140 ml/day) requirements.

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Feb
2009

A one night period without sleep is not uncommon amongst athletes travelling across time zones and military personnel during training and operations. However, the effect of one night without sleep on immune indices in response to strenuous exercise remains unknown. The objective was to determine the effect of one night without sleep on immune indices in response to subsequent strenuous exercise.

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Dec
2008

Two strategies for the synthesis of configurationally stable twisted polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) were pursued. The first approach employed dissymmetrically positioned 1-naphthyl substituents to bias the direction of twist in highly substituted PACs. 2,3-Bis(1-naphthyl)-1,4-diphenyltriphenylene (7) was prepared, and its meso cis-dinaphthyl and enantiomeric trans-dinaphthyl isomers were resolved by preparative supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) on chiral supports.

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Jun
2008

We investigate the influence of array order in the optical transmission properties of subwavelength hole arrays, by comparing the experimental spectral transmittance of periodic and quasiperiodic hole arrays as a function of frequency. We find that periodicity and long-range order are not necessary requirements for obtaining enhanced and suppressed optical transmission, provided short-range order is maintained. Transmission maxima and minima are shown to result, respectively, from constructive and destructive interference at each hole, between the light incident upon and exiting from a given hole, and surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) arriving from individual neighboring holes.

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May
2008

We examined a novel hypothesis for the maintenance of communal nesting in the salamander, Hemidactylium scutatum, namely that communal nests are more likely than solitary nests to be associated with cutaneous antifungal bacteria, which can inhibit fungal infections of embryos. A communal nest contains eggs of two or more females of the same species. The nesting behavior of H.

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Jan
2008

Beneficial bacteria that live on salamander skins have the ability to inhibit pathogenic fungi. Our study aimed to identify the specific chemical agent(s) of this process and asked if any of the antifungal compounds known to operate in analogous plant-bacteria-fungi systems were present. Crude extracts of bacteria isolated from salamander skin were exposed to HPLC, UV-Vis, GC-MS, and HR-MS analyses.

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Nov
2007

There are at least nine neurodegenerative diseases associated with proteins that contain an unusually expanded polyglutamine domain, the best known of which is Huntington's disease. In all of these diseases, the mutant protein aggregates into neuronal inclusions; it is generally, although not universally, believed that protein aggregation is an underlying cause of the observed neuronal degeneration. In an effort to examine the role of polyglutamine in facilitating protein aggregation, investigators have used synthetic polyglutamine peptides as model systems.

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Jan
2008

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of prolonged exercise with and without a thermal clamp on neutrophil trafficking, bacterial-stimulated neutrophil degranulation, stress hormones, and cytokine responses. Thirteen healthy male volunteers (means +/- SE: age 21 +/- 1 yr; mass 74.9 +/- 2.

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Sep
2007

The thalamus has been described as a "relay station" for sensory information from most sensory modalities projecting to cortical areas. Therefore injury to the thalamus may result in multimodal sensory and motor deficits. In the present study, a 61-year-old woman suffered a right thalamic cerebral vascular accident (CVA; as evidenced by a computerised tomography [CT] scan).

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Jun
2007

The aim was to investigate the effects of a 48 h period of fluid, energy or combined fluid and energy restriction on salivary IgA (s-IgA) responses at rest and after exercise. Thirteen healthy males (age 21 (sem 1) years) participated in four randomised 48 h trials. In the control trial participants received their estimated energy (12,154 (sem 230) kJ/d) and water (3912 (sem 140) ml/d) requirements.

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Mar
2006

Visual formaesthesias (hallucinations) are a common symptom of neurological insult. Research on emotional valances and the laterality of emotional valence extends to clinical populations experiencing visual hallucinations. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the relationship of reported hemispace of visual formaesthesia and associated emotional valence.

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Jan
2007

A small subsurface ion mobility spectrometer (SS-IMS) was constructed and tested with several environmental contaminants to determine its potential for monitoring gaseous volatile organic compounds in the vadose zone. Trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) were detected and separated in IMS for the first time. Detection limits as low as 1 part per billion volume-to-volume (ppb(v)) were observed.

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Aug
2006

The effects of the first 19 weeks of U.K. Parachute Regiment (PARA) training on upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) incidence and immune function (circulating leukocyte counts, lymphocyte subsets, lipopolysaccharide-stimulated neutrophil degranulation, and salivary immunoglobulin A concentrations) were investigated for 14 PARA recruits and 12 control subjects.

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Mar
2006

Enhancement of eukaryotic messenger RNA (mRNA) translation initiation by the 3' poly(A) tail is mediated through interaction of poly(A)-binding protein with eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4G, bridging the 5' terminal cap structure. In contrast to cellular mRNA, translation of the uncapped, non-polyadenylated hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome occurs independently of eIF4G and a role for 3'-untranslated sequences in modifying HCV gene expression is controversial. Utilizing cell-based and in vitro translation assays, we show that the HCV 3'-untranslated region (UTR) or a 3' poly(A) tract of sufficient length interchangeably stimulate translation dependent upon the HCV internal ribosomal entry site (IRES).

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Nov
2005

Evidence supports an interaction between neuro-endocrine responses to exercise and immune responses to exercise. We hypothesized that prolonged exercise in the heat would evoke a greater stress hormone response and a greater decrease in neutrophil degranulation [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated elastase release] than when the same exercise was performed in thermoneutral conditions.
In counterbalanced order and separated by 7 d, 13 male cyclists cycled for 2 h at 62 +/- 3% VO2max (mean +/- SEM), with ad libitum water intake, on one occasion with heat (HOT: 30.

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Oct
2005

Genomic convergence is a multistep approach that combines gene expression with genomic linkage to identify and prioritize susceptibility genes for complex disease. As a first step, we previously performed linkage analysis on 174 multiplex Parkinson's disease (PD) families, identifying five peaks for PD risk and two for genes affecting age at onset (AAO) in PD [Hauser et al., Hum Mol Genet 2003;12:671-677].

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