Helping You Find Full Text Journal Articles

Search Results:

Author: Roberto Ciccocioppo (122)


Mar
2018

The development of tolerance to the antinociceptive effect is a main problem associated with the repeated administration of opioids. The progressively higher doses required to relieve pain reduce safety and exacerbate the side effects of classical opioid receptor agonists like morphine. Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) and its NOP receptor constitute the fourth endogenous opioid system that is involved in the control of broad spectrum of biological functions, including pain transmission.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
2017

Nociceptin is a key regulator linking environmental stress and alcohol drinking. In a genome-wide methylation analysis, we recently identified an association of a methylated region in the OPRL1 gene with alcohol-use disorders.
Here, we investigate the biological basis of this observation by analysing psychosocial stressors, methylation of the OPRL1 gene, brain response during reward anticipation and alcohol drinking in 660 fourteen-year-old adolescents of the IMAGEN study.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Cocaine addiction is a widespread psychiatric condition still waiting for approved efficacious medications. Previous studies suggested that simultaneous activation of nociceptin opioid (NOP) and mu opioid (MOP) receptors could be a successful strategy to treat cocaine addiction, but the paucity of molecules co-activating both receptors with comparable potency has hampered this line of research. Cebranopadol is a non-selective opioid agonist that at nanomolar concentration activates both NOP and MOP receptors and that recently reached phase-III clinical trials for cancer pain treatment.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Nov
2017

Approved pharmacological treatments for alcohol use disorder are limited in their effectiveness, and new drugs that can easily be translated into the clinic are warranted. One of those candidates is oxytocin because of its interaction with several alcohol-induced effects. Alcohol-dependent rats as well as post-mortem brains of human alcoholics and controls were analyzed for the expression of the oxytocin system by qRT-PCR, in situ hybridization, receptor autoradiography ([I]OVTA binding), and immunohistochemistry.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Oct
2017

Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is an enzyme that prominently degrades the major endocannabinoid N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide). Inhibition of this enzyme leads to increased anandamide levels in brain regions that modulate stress and anxiety. Recently, we found that genetically selected Marchigian Sardinian alcohol-preferring (msP) rats display hyperactive FAAH in amygdalar regions that was associated with increased stress sensitivity and a hyper-anxious phenotype.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Alcohol use disorders (AUD) are a major public health concern. Understanding the brain network alterations is of the utmost importance to diagnose and develop treatment strategies. Employing resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we have performed a longitudinal study in a rat model of chronic excessive alcohol consumption, to identify functional alterations in brain networks triggered by alcohol drinking.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
2017

Possibly through their actions upon glia, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists (PPAR) have been shown to alter the abuse potential of addictive drugs in several preclinical models. The current study extends this research into the human laboratory as the first clinical study into the effects of the PPAR gamma agonist, pioglitazone, on the abuse potential of nicotine. Heavy smokers were recruited for this 3-week study.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Oct
2017

The present study evaluated the effect of systemic injection of the CRF1 receptor antagonist R121919, the corticosterone synthesis inhibitor metyrapone and central amygdala (CeA) injections of the nonselective CRF antagonist D-Phe-CRFin rats in which binge eating was evoked by stress and cycles of food restriction.
Female rats were subjected or not to repeated cycles of regular chow food restriction/ad libitum feeding during which they were also given limited access (2 h) to palatable food. On the test day, rats were either exposed or not to the sight of the palatable food for 15 min without allowing access, before assessing food consumption.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

May
2017

The neuropeptide transmitter nociceptin, which binds to the nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (NOP) receptor, is a core component of the brain's antistress system. Nociceptin exerts its antistress effect by counteracting the functions of corticotropin-releasing factor, the primary stress-mediating neuropeptide in the brain. Basic investigations support a role for medications that target nociceptin receptors in the treatment of alcohol use disorders.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Mar
2018

The central amygdala (CeA) is involved in the processing of anxiety and stress and plays a role in ethanol consumption. Chronic ethanol recruits stress systems in the CeA, leading to aversive withdrawal symptoms. Although primarily GABAergic, CeA contains glutamatergic afferents, and we have reported inhibitory effects of ethanol on locally evoked glutamatergic responses in CeA of Wistar and Marchigian Sardinian alcohol-preferring (msP) rats.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Mar
2018

Buprenorphine's clinical use is approved for the treatment of heroin addiction; however, evidence supporting its efficacy in cocaine abuse also exists. While for heroin it has been demonstrated that the effect of buprenorphine is mediated by its ability to activate μ-opioid peptide receptor (MOP) receptors, the mechanism through which it attenuates cocaine intake remains elusive. We explored this mechanism using operant models where rodents were trained to chronically self-administer cocaine for 2 hours daily.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Feb
2018

Substance use disorders continue to impose increasing medical, financial and emotional burdens on society in the form of morbidity and overdose, family disintegration, loss of employment and crime, while advances in prevention and treatment options remain limited. Importantly, not all individuals exposed to abused substances effectively develop the disease. Genetic factors play a significant role in determining addiction vulnerability and interactions between innate predisposition, environmental factors and personal experiences are also critical.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Oct
2017

Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) mediates anxiogenic responses by activating CRF type 1 (CRF) receptors in limbic brain regions. Anxiety is further modulated by the endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) system that attenuates the synaptic effects of stress. In the amygdala, acute stress activates the enzymatic clearance of the eCB N-arachidonoylethanolamine via fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), although it is unclear whether chronic dysregulation of CRF systems induces maladaptive changes in amygdalar eCB signaling.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Aug
2017

Binge alcohol drinking has emerged as a typical phenomenon in young people. This pattern of drinking, repeatedly leading to extremely high blood and brain alcohol levels and intoxication is associated with severe risks of neurodegeneration and cognitive damage. Mechanisms involved in excitotoxicity and neuroinflammation are pivotal elements in alcohol-induced neurotoxicity.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
2016

PPARγ is one of the three isoforms of the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs). PPARγ is activated by thiazolidinediones such as pioglitazone and is targeted to treat insulin resistance. PPARγ is densely expressed in brain areas involved in regulation of motivational and emotional processes.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
2016

Oxidative stress, alpha-synuclein changes, mitochondrial complex I defects and dopamine loss, observed in the striatum of rats exposed to the pesticide permethrin in early life, could represent neuropathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD). Nevertheless, an animal model of PD should also fulfill criteria of face and predictive validities. This study was designed to: 1) verify dopaminergic status in the striatum and substantia nigra pars compacta; 2) recognize non-motor symptoms; 3) investigate the time-course development of motor disabilities; 4) assess L-Dopa effectiveness on motor symptoms in rats previously exposed to permethrin in early life.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Evidence suggests that binge eating may be caused by a unique interaction between dieting and stress. We developed a binge-eating model in which female rats with a history of intermittent food restriction show binge-like palatable food consumption after a 15-minute exposure to the sight of the palatable food (frustration stress). The aim of the present study was to investigate the regulation of the stress neurohormone corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system and of the nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) system genes in selective rat brain regions, using our animal model.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jan
2017

Relapse to opioids is often driven by the avoidance of the aversive states of opioid withdrawal. We recently demonstrated that activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) by pioglitazone reduces the motivation for heroin and attenuates its rewarding properties. However, the role of PPARγ in withdrawal and other forms of relapse to heroin is unknown.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Nov
2016

Studies evidenced the relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and tobacco smoking in adulthood. An appropriate parenting style has been found to be associated with children's less frequent tobacco consumption. Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity could represent the potential link between ACEs, mood disorders and smoking susceptibility.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Feb
2017

The nociceptin (NOP) receptor is a G-protein-coupled receptor whose natural ligand is the NOP/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) peptide. Evidence from pharmacological studies suggests that the N/OFQ system is implicated in the regulation of several addiction-related phenomena, such as drug intake, withdrawal, and relapse. Here, to further explore the role of NOP system in addiction, we used NOP (-/-) rats to study the motivation for cocaine, heroin, and alcohol self-administration in the absence of N/OFQ function.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Oct
2016

A large body of evidence has shown that the Corticotropin Releasing Factor (CRF) system, which plays a key role in stress modulation, is deeply involved in relapse to alcohol seeking induced by exposure to stressful events such as foot shock or yohimbine injections. Exposure to environmental cues is also known to be a trigger for alcohol relapse, nevertheless, the relationship between the relapse evoked by the cue-induced model and the CRF stress systems remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in male Wistar rats, the involvement of the CRF system and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis in relapse induced by environmental cues.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Sep
2017

Robust neuroimaging markers of neuropsychiatric disorders have proven difficult to obtain. In alcohol use disorders, profound brain structural deficits can be found in severe alcoholic patients, but the heterogeneity of unimodal MRI measurements has so far precluded the identification of selective biomarkers, especially for early diagnosis. In the present work we used a combination of multiple MRI modalities to provide comprehensive and insightful descriptions of brain tissue microstructure.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Aug
2016

Neuropeptide S (NPS) displays unique pharmacological properties and induces both anxiolytic and pro-stress/arousal activities. Previous studies performed using Wistar rats demonstrated that NPS facilitated alcohol and cocaine seeking but did not affect alcohol or cocaine consumption.
Here, we investigated the effects of NPS in Marchigian Sardinian alcohol-preferring (msP) rats, a rat strain characterized by excessive alcohol consumption comorbid with heightened anxiety and depressive-like phenotypes.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

May
2016

The nociceptin/orphanin-FQ (or opioid receptor-like [ORL1]) receptor (NOP) is localized in the mesolimbic reward pathway and has been suggested to play a role in feeding, mood, stress, and addiction. Since its deorphanization in 1995, there has been a clear dichotomy in the literature regarding whether an agonist or antagonist would provide therapeutic benefit. Specifically, the literature reports indicate that NOP receptor antagonists produce efficacy in animal models of hyperphagia and antidepressant-like activity, whereas NOP agonists produce anxiolytic-like effects and dampen reward/addiction behaviors including ethanol consumption.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Feb
2016

Stress arises from an external demand placed on an organism that triggers physiological, cognitive and behavioural responses in order to cope with that request. It is thus an adaptive response useful for the survival of an organism. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize global changes in gene expression in the hippocampus in response to acute stress stimuli, by employing a mouse model of short-term restraint stress.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Drug abuse represents a considerable burden of disease and has enormous economic impacts on societies. Over the years, few medications have been developed for clinical use. Their utilization is endowed with several limitations, including partial efficacy or significant side effects.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Mar
2016

The CRF system of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) is important for the processing of anxiety, stress, and effects of acute and chronic ethanol. We previously reported that ethanol decreases evoked glutamate transmission in the CeA of Sprague Dawley rats and that ethanol dependence alters glutamate release in the CeA. Here, we examined the effects of ethanol, CRF and a CRF1 receptor antagonist on spontaneous and evoked glutamatergic transmission in CeA neurons from Wistar and Marchigian Sardinian Preferring (msP) rats, a rodent line genetically selected for excessive alcohol drinking and characterized by heightened activity of the CRF1 system.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

May
2016

Activation of PPARγ by pioglitazone (PIO) has shown some efficacy in attenuating addictive-like responses in laboratory animals. The ability of PIO to alter the effects of opioids in humans has not been characterized in a controlled laboratory setting. The proposed investigation sought to examine the effects of PIO on the subjective, analgesic, physiological and cognitive effects of oxycodone (OXY).

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Nov
2015

Alcohol and nicotine are largely co-abused. Here, we investigated whether concurrent exposure to both addictive drugs influences each other's consumption and whether varenicline attenuates alcohol consumption in the presence of nicotine.
Marchigian Sardinian alcohol-preferring (msP) rats trained to simultaneously self-administer oral alcohol (10% v/v) and intravenous nicotine (30μg/kg/inf) were used.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Nov
2015

Substance P and its preferred neurokinin receptor NK1 have been implicated in stress and anxiety and have been proposed as possible therapeutic targets for the treatment of anxiety/depression. Attention is also being focused on the role this neuropeptide system may play in drug addiction, because stress-related mechanisms promote drug abuse.
The effects of the rat-specific NK1 receptor antagonist, L822429, on alcohol intake and seeking behaviour was investigated in genetically selected Marchigian Sardinian alcohol preferring rats.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Mar
2016

Environmental conditioning is a major trigger for relapse in abstinent addicts. We showed that activation of the neuropeptide S (NPS) system exacerbates reinstatement vulnerability to cocaine and alcohol via stimulation of the hypocretin-1/orexin-A (Hcrt-1/Ox-A) system.
Combining pharmacologic manipulations with immunohistochemistry techniques, we sought to determine how NPS and Hcrt-1/Ox-A systems interact to modulate reinstatement of alcohol seeking in rats.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jul
2016

Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is a satiety factor that controls motivational responses to dietary fat. Here we show that alcohol administration causes the release of OEA in rodents, which in turn reduces alcohol consumption by engaging peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α). This effect appears to rely on peripheral signaling mechanisms as alcohol self-administration is unaltered by intracerebral PPAR-α agonist administration, and the lesion of sensory afferent fibers (by capsaicin) abrogates the effect of systemically administered OEA on alcohol intake.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Acute stress provides many beneficial effects whereas chronic stress contributes to a variety of human health issues including anxiety, depression, gastrointestinal problems, cardiac disease, sleep disorders and obesity. The goal of this work was to identify, using a rodent model, hippocampal gene signatures associated with prolonged chronic stress representing candidate biomarkers and therapeutic targets for early diagnosis and pharmacological intervention for stress induced disease.
Mice underwent 'restraint stress' over 7 consecutive days and hippocampal gene-expression changes were analyzed at 3, 12 and 24 h following the final restraint treatment.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

May
2015

Severe pain occurs in the context of many diseases and conditions and is a leading cause of disability. Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) is the endogenous ligand of the N/OFQ peptide (NOP) receptor. This peptidergic system controls pain transmission and in particular spinally administered N/OFQ has robust antinociceptive properties.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Apr
2015

The α3β4 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) has been implicated in mediating nicotine reinforcement processes. AT-1001 has been recently described as a high-affinity and selective α3β4 nAChR antagonist that blocks nicotine self-administration in rats. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of action underlying the nicotine-suppressive effects of AT-1001.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Mar
2015

PPARγ is one of the three isoforms identified for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and is the receptor for the thiazolidinedione class of anti-diabetic medications including pioglitazone. PPARγ has been long studied for its role in adipogenesis and glucose metabolism, but the discovery of the localization in ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons opens new vistas for a potential role in the regulation of reward processing and motivated behavior in drug addiction. Here, we demonstrate that activation of PPARγ by pioglitazone reduces the motivation for heroin and attenuates its rewarding properties.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Mar
2015

Marchigian Sardinian alcohol-preferring (msP) rats exhibit innate preference for alcohol along with anxious phenotype. In these animals, two single-nucleotide polymorphisms in position -1,836 and -2,097 from the first start codon of the CRF1-R transcript have been found.
Here, we examined whether these point mutations account for the heightened anxiety-like behavior and stress responsiveness of msP rats.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Nov
2014

The neuropeptide S (NPS) system is characterized by a unique pharmacology because it has anxiolytic-like effects and promotes arousal and wakefulness. To shed light on this peptidergic system, we tested the sedative effect of the central depressants diazepam and ethanol on the loss of righting reflex in mice lacking the neuropeptide S receptor (NPSR), NPSR(-/-). Furthermore, we tested the effect of the intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of NPS on the sedative effect of diazepam and ethanol in NPSR(-/-) and their wild type counterpart NPSR(+/+).

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Aug
2014

We developed recently a binge-eating model in which female rats with a history of intermittent food restriction show binge-like palatable food consumption after 15 min exposure to the sight of the palatable food. This "frustration stress" manipulation also activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress axis. Here, we determined the role of the stress neurohormone corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in stress-induced binge eating in our model.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
2014

Opioid drugs are potent analgesics. However, their chronic use leads to the rapid development of tolerance to their analgesic effects and subsequent increase of significant side effects, including drug dependence and addiction. Here, we investigated the role of PPARγ in the development of analgesic tolerance to morphine in mice.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jul
2015

Dysregulation of the nociceptin (N/OFQ) system has been implicated in alcohol abuse and alcoholism, and growing evidence suggests that targeting this system may be beneficial for treating alcoholism. To further explore the treatment target potential of the N/OFQ system, the novel non-peptide, small-molecule N/OFQ (NOP) agonist MT-7716, (R)-2-{3-[1-(Acenaphthen-1-yl)piperidin-4-yl]-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl}-N-methylacetamide hydrochloride hydrate, was examined for its effects on ethanol self-administration and stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking in non-dependent and post-dependent rats. Male Wistar rats were trained to self-administer ethanol and then made ethanol dependent via repeated intragastric ethanol intubation.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Oct
2014

Since its discovery, the nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ)-NOP receptor system has been extensively investigated as a promising target to treat alcoholism. Encouraging results obtained with the endogenous ligand N/OFQ stimulated research towards the development of novel brain-penetrating NOP receptor agonists with a pharmacological and toxicological profile compatible with clinical development. Here we describe the biochemical and alcohol-related behavioral effects of the novel NOP receptor agonist MT-7716.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Mar
2014

During the neurodevelopmental period, the brain is potentially more susceptible to environmental exposure to pollutants. The aim was to determine if neonatal exposure to permethrin (PERM) pesticide, at a low dosage that does not produce signs of obvious abnormalities, could represent a risk for the onset of diseases later in the life.
Neonatal rats (from postnatal day 6 to 21) were treated daily by gavage with a dose of PERM (34 mg/kg) close to the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL), and hippocampal morphology and function of synapses were investigated in adulthood.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

The GABAergic system in the central amygdala (CeA) plays a major role in ethanol dependence and the anxiogenic-like response to ethanol withdrawal. A large body of evidence shows that Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) regulates ethanol intake and anxiety-like behavior. In the rat, ethanol significantly augments CeA GABA release, whereas N/OFQ diminishes it.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jul
2014

Cannabis derivatives are among the most widely used illicit substances among young people. The addictive potential of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major active ingredient of cannabis is well documented in scientific literature. However, the consequence of THC exposure during adolescence on occurrence of addiction for other drugs of abuse later in life is still controversial.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jan
2014

Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) is the primary mediator of stress responses, and nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) plays an important role in the modulation of these stress responses. Thus, in this multidisciplinary study, we explored the relationship between the N/OFQ and the CRF systems in response to stress. Using in situ hybridization (ISH), we assessed the effect of body restraint stress on the gene expression of CRF and N/OFQ-related genes in various subdivisions of the amygdala, a critical brain structure involved in the modulation of stress response and anxiety-like behaviors.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Mar
2014

Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) is a 17 amino acid peptide that was deorphanized in 1995. The generation of specific agonists, antagonists and receptor deficient mice and rats has enabled progress in elucidating the biological functions of N/OFQ. Additionally, radio-imaging technologies have been advanced for investigation of this system in animals and humans.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jan
2014

There is recognition that biomedical research into the causes of mental disorders and their treatment needs to adopt new approaches to research. Novel biomedical techniques have advanced our understanding of how the brain develops and is shaped by behaviour and environment. This has led to the advent of stratified medicine, which translates advances in basic research by targeting aetiological mechanisms underlying mental disorder.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Back to top