Helping You Find Full Text Journal Articles

Search Results:

Author: Roman Ulm (37)


Dec
2017

Plants grow in constantly changing environments, including highly variable light intensities. Sunlight provides the energy that drives photosynthesis and is thus of the utmost importance for plant growth and the generation of oxygen, which the majority of life on Earth depends on. However, exposure to either insufficient or excess levels of light can have detrimental effects and cause light stress.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jun
2017

How plants cope with UV-B: from perception to response.

Curr Opin Plant Biol 2017 Jun 12;37:42-48. Epub 2017 Apr 12.
Ruohe Yin, Roman Ulm
Ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) is an intrinsic part of the solar radiation that reaches the Earth's surface and affects the biosphere. Plants have evolved a specific UV-B signaling pathway mediated by the UVR8 photoreceptor that regulates growth, development, and acclimation. Major recent advances have contributed to our understanding of the UVR8 photocycle, UV-B-responsive protein-protein interactions, regulation of UVR8 subcellular localization, and UVR8-regulated physiological responses.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jul
2017

The Arabidopsis UV-B photoreceptor UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (UVR8) orchestrates the expression of hundreds of genes, many of which can be associated with UV-B tolerance. UV-B does not efficiently penetrate into tissues, yet UV-B regulates complex growth and developmental responses. To unravel to what extent and how UVR8 located in different tissues contributes to UV-B-induced responses, we expressed UVR8 fused to the YELLOW FLUORESCENT PROTEIN (YFP) under the control of tissue-specific promoters in a uvr8 null mutant background.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
2016

Life on earth is dependent on the photosynthetic conversion of light energy into chemical energy. However, absorption of excess sunlight can damage the photosynthetic machinery and limit photosynthetic activity, thereby affecting growth and productivity. Photosynthetic light harvesting can be down-regulated by nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ).

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969


View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

The UV-B photoreceptor UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (UVR8) promotes UV-B acclimation and tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana UVR8 localizes to both cytosol and nucleus, but its main activity is assumed to be nuclear. UV-B photoreception stimulates nuclear accumulation of UVR8 in a presently unknown manner. Here, we show that CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1) is required for UV-B-induced nuclear accumulation of UVR8, but bypassing the COP1 requirement for UVR8 nuclear accumulation did not rescue the cop1 mutant UV-B phenotype.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Apr
2016

Plants perceive UV-B, an intrinsic component of sunlight, via a signaling pathway that is mediated by the photoreceptor UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8) and induces UV-B acclimation. To test whether similar UV-B perception mechanisms exist in the evolutionarily distant green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we identified Chlamydomonas orthologs of UVR8 and the key signaling factor CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1). Cr-UVR8 shares sequence and structural similarity to Arabidopsis thaliana UVR8, has conserved tryptophan residues for UV-B photoreception, monomerizes upon UV-B exposure, and interacts with Cr-COP1 in a UV-B-dependent manner.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Feb
2016

Plants perceive UV-B through the UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (UVR8) photoreceptor and UVR8 activation leads to changes in gene expression such as those associated with UV-B acclimation and stress tolerance. Albeit functionally unrelated, UVR8 shows some homology with RCC1 (Regulator of Chromatin Condensation 1) proteins from non-plant organisms at the sequence level. These proteins act as guanine nucleotide exchange factors for Ran GTPases and bind chromatin via histones.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jun
2015

Plants are able to sense UV-B through the UV-B photoreceptor UVR8. UV-B photon absorption by a UVR8 homodimer leads to UVR8 monomerization and interaction with the downstream signaling factor COP1. This then initiates changes in gene expression, which lead to several metabolic and morphological alterations.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jan
2015

UV-B photon reception by the Arabidopsis thaliana homodimeric UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8) photoreceptor leads to its monomerization and a crucial interaction with CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1). Relay of the subsequent signal regulates UV-B-induced photomorphogenesis and stress acclimation. Here, we report that two separate domains of UVR8 interact with COP1: the β-propeller domain of UVR8 mediates UV-B-dependent interaction with the WD40 repeats-based predicted β-propeller domain of COP1, whereas COP1 activity is regulated by interaction through the UVR8 C-terminal C27 domain.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Oct
2014

In plants subjected to UV-B radiation, responses are activated that minimize damage caused by UV-B. The bZIP transcription factor ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5) acts downstream of the UV-B photoreceptor UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8) and promotes UV-B-induced photomorphogenesis and acclimation. Expression of HY5 is induced by UV-B; however, the transcription factor(s) that regulate HY5 transcription in response to UV-B and the impact of UV-B on the association of HY5 with its target promoters are currently unclear.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jun
2014

Plants reorient their growth towards light to optimize photosynthetic light capture--a process known as phototropism. Phototropins are the photoreceptors essential for phototropic growth towards blue and ultraviolet-A (UV-A) light. Here we detail a phototropic response towards UV-B in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
2013

Arabidopsis thaliana UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (UVR8) is a UV-B photoreceptor that initiates photomorphogenic responses underlying acclimation and UV-B tolerance in plants. UVR8 is a homodimer in its ground state, and UV-B exposure results in its instantaneous monomerization followed by interaction with CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1), a major factor in UV-B signaling. UV-B photoreception by UVR8 is based on intrinsic tryptophan aromatic amino acid residues, with tryptophan-285 as the main chromophore.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) is an intrinsic part of sunlight that is accompanied by significant biological effects. Plants are able to perceive UV-B using the UV-B photoreceptor UVR8 which is linked to a specific molecular signaling pathway and leads to UV-B acclimation. Herein we review the biological process in plants from initial UV-B perception and signal transduction through to the known UV-B responses that promote survival in sunlight.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Light-sensitive proteins are useful tools to control protein localization, activation and gene expression, but are currently limited to excitation with red or blue light. Here we report a novel optogenetic system based on the ultraviolet-B-dependent interaction of the Arabidopsis ultraviolet-B photoreceptor UVR8 with COP1 that can be performed in visible light background. We use this system to induce nuclear accumulation of cytoplasmic green fluorescent protein fused to UVR8 in cells expressing nuclear COP1, and to recruit a nucleoplasmic red fluorescent protein fused to COP1 to chromatin in cells expressing UVR8-H2B.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jul
2013

The emergence and future of mammalian synthetic biology depends on technologies for orchestrating and custom tailoring complementary gene expression and signaling processes in a predictable manner. Here, we demonstrate for the first time multi-chromatic expression control in mammalian cells by differentially inducing up to three genes in a single cell culture in response to light of different wavelengths. To this end, we developed an ultraviolet B (UVB)-inducible expression system by designing a UVB-responsive split transcription factor based on the Arabidopsis thaliana UVB receptor UVR8 and the WD40 domain of COP1.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jan
2013

Reversion of the Arabidopsis UV-B photoreceptor UVR8 to the homodimeric ground state.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2013 Jan 31;110(3):1113-8. Epub 2012 Dec 31.
Marc Heijde, Roman Ulm
Plants require the UV-B photoreceptor UV resistance locus 8 (UVR8) for acclimation and survival in sunlight. Upon UV-B perception, UVR8 switches instantaneously from a homodimeric to monomeric configuration, which leads to interaction with the key signaling protein constitutively photomorphogenic 1 (COP1) and induction of UV-B-protective responses. Here, we show that UVR8 monomerization is reversible in vivo, restoring the homodimeric ground state.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Mar
2013

Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) stress activates MAP kinases (MAPKs) MPK3 and MPK6 in Arabidopsis. MAPK activity must be tightly controlled in order to ensure an appropriate cellular outcome. MAPK phosphatases (MKPs) effectively control MAPKs by dephosphorylation of phosphothreonine and phosphotyrosine in their activation loops.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jan
2013

MAP kinase phosphatases (MKPs) are important regulators of the activation levels and kinetics of MAP kinases. This is crucial for a large number of physiological processes during development and growth, as well as interactions with the environment, including the response to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) stress. Arabidopsis MKP1 is a key regulator of MAP kinases MPK3 and MPK6 in response to UV-B stress.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

May
2012

Phytochrome A (phyA) is the dominant photoreceptor of far-red light sensing in Arabidopsis thaliana. phyA accumulates at high levels in the cytoplasm of etiolated seedlings, and light-induced phyA signaling is mediated by a complex regulatory network. This includes light- and FHY1/FHL protein-dependent translocation of native phyA into the nucleus in vivo.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Apr
2012

UV-B photoreceptor-mediated signalling in plants.

Trends Plant Sci 2012 Apr 9;17(4):230-7. Epub 2012 Feb 9.
Marc Heijde, Roman Ulm
Ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) is a key environmental signal that is specifically perceived by plants to promote UV acclimation and survival in sunlight. Whereas the plant photoreceptors for visible light are rather well characterised, the UV-B photoreceptor UVR8 was only recently described at the molecular level. Here, we review the current understanding of the UVR8 photoreceptor-mediated pathway in the context of UV-B perception mechanism, early signalling components and physiological responses.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Nov
2011

Plants perceive UV-B radiation as an informational signal by a pathway involving UVR8 as UV-B photoreceptor, activating photomorphogenic and acclimation responses. In contrast, the response to UV-B as an environmental stress involves mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling cascades. Whereas the perception pathway is plant specific, the UV-B stress pathway is more broadly conserved.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

May
2011

Cryptochromes are a class of photosensory receptors that control important processes in animals and plants primarily by regulating gene expression. How photon absorption by cryptochromes leads to changes in gene expression has remained largely elusive. Three recent studies, including Lian and colleagues (pp.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Apr
2011

To optimize their growth and survival, plants perceive and respond to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation. However, neither the molecular identity of the UV-B photoreceptor nor the photoperception mechanism is known. Here we show that dimers of the UVR8 protein perceive UV-B, probably by a tryptophan-based mechanism.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jul
2011

A primary component of plant defense is the detection of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by plasma membrane-localized pathogen recognition receptors. PAMP perception results in rapid and transient activation of phosphorylation-dependent signaling pathways that lead to a wide array of defense-related responses, including extensive changes in gene expression. In Arabidopsis, several kinases, including the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) MPK6 and MPK3, are rapidly activated after PAMP treatment, and are thought to positively regulate a wide array of defense-related responses.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jul
2011

Circadian clocks regulate many molecular and physiological processes in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), allowing the timing of these processes to occur at the most appropriate time of the day in a 24-h period. The accuracy of timing relies on the synchrony of the clock and the environmental day/night cycle. Visible light is the most potent signal for such synchronization, but light-induced responses are also rhythmically attenuated (gated) by the clock.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Nov
2010

Plants respond to low levels of UV-B radiation with a coordinated photomorphogenic response that allows acclimation to this environmental stress factor. The key players in this UV-B response are COP1 (an E3 ubiquitin ligase), UVR8 (a β-propeller protein), and HY5 (a bZIP transcription factor). We have shown previously that an elevated UV-B-specific response is associated with dwarf growth, indicating the importance of balancing UV-B-specific signaling.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jun
2010

Reversible phosphorylation is a crucial regulatory mechanism that controls the activity of proteins. In mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades, the cellular response depends on the intensity and duration of the MAPK activation, which is determined by balanced phosphorylation-dephosphorylation. MAPK phosphatases (MKPs), a subgroup of the dual-specificity phosphatases, are major negative regulators of MAPKs.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jul
2010

Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation present in sunlight is an important trigger of photomorphogenic acclimation and stress responses in sessile land plants. Although numerous moss species grow in unshaded habitats, our understanding of their UV-B responses is very limited. The genome of the model moss Physcomitrella patens, which grows in sun-exposed open areas, encodes signaling and metabolic components that are implicated in the UV-B response in flowering plants.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jan
2010

Plants fend off potentially damaging ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation by synthesizing and accumulating UV-B-absorbing flavonols that function as sunscreens. Regulation of this biosynthetic pathway is largely transcriptional and controlled by a network of transcription factors, among which the PRODUCTION OF FLAVONOL GLYCOSIDES (PFG) family of R2R3-MYB transcription factors was recently identified with a pivotal function. Here, we describe the response of Arabidopsis seedlings to narrow-band UV-B radiation at the level of phenylpropanoid pathway genes using whole-genome transcriptional profiling and identify the corresponding flavonol glycosides accumulating under UV-B.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Sep
2009

Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase phosphatases are important negative regulators of the levels and kinetics of MAP kinase activation that modulate cellular responses. The dual-specificity phosphatase MAP KINASE PHOSPHATASE1 (MKP1) was previously shown to regulate MAP KINASE6 (MPK6) activation levels and abiotic stress responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we report that the mkp1 null mutation in the Columbia (Col) accession results in growth defects and constitutive biotic defense responses, including elevated levels of salicylic acid, camalexin, PR gene expression, and resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Mar
2009

The ultraviolet-B (UV-B) portion of the solar radiation functions as an environmental signal for which plants have evolved specific and sensitive UV-B perception systems. The UV-B-specific UV RESPONSE LOCUS 8 (UVR8) and the multifunctional E3 ubiquitin ligase CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1) are key regulators of the UV-B response. We show here that uvr8-null mutants are deficient in UV-B-induced photomorphogenesis and hypersensitive to UV-B stress, whereas overexpression of UVR8 results in enhanced UV-B photomorphogenesis, acclimation and tolerance to UV-B stress.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

May
2008

Ultraviolet-B light (UV-B) regulates the expression of genes in a wavelength- and fluence rate-dependent fashion. A signaling pathway consisting of CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENESIS 1 (COP1) and UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (UVR 8) mediates responsiveness to longer wavelength, low intensity UV-B light-activating, for example, HY5 gene expression. By contrast, transcription of another group of genes, including ANAC13, modulated by shorter wavelength, higher intensity UV-B is controlled by a yet unknown and largely COP1-independent signaling cascade.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Aug
2006

CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1) is a negative regulator of photomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. COP1 functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase, targeting select proteins for proteasomal degradation in plants as well as in mammals. Among its substrates is the basic domain/leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5), one of the key regulators of photomorphogenesis under all light qualities, including UV-B responses required for tolerance to this environmental threat.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Oct
2005

In contrast to phytochrome-, cryptochrome- and phototropin-sensing systems, about which considerable knowledge has accumulated, the ultraviolet-B (UVB) photoreceptor is not yet known at the molecular level. Information about the downstream signalling events that underlie UVB-provoked physiological responses is limited. Recent whole-genome transcript profiling, isolation of mutants that are impaired in specific UVB-induced responses and detailed photobiological studies suggest that responses that are triggered by shorter wavelength UVB and longer wavelength UVB are mediated by two different sensory systems.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Feb
2004

The light environment is a key factor that governs a multitude of developmental processes during the entire life cycle of plants. An important and increasing part of the incident sunlight encompasses a segment of the UV-B region (280-320 nm) that is not entirely absorbed by the ozone layer in the stratosphere of the earth. This portion of the solar radiation, which inevitably reaches the sessile plants, can act both as an environmental stress factor and an informational signal.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
2002

The Arabidopsis genome contains 20 genes encoding mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), which drastically outnumbers genes for their negative regulators, MAP kinase phosphatases (MKPs) (five at most). This contrasts sharply with genomes of other eukaryotes where the number of MAPKs and MKPs is approximately equal. MKPs may therefore play an important role in signal integration in plants, through concerted regulation of several MAPKs.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Back to top