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Author: Rudolf Brenneisen (35)


Dec
1969

Inhalation by vaporization is a promising application mode for cannabis in medicine. An in vitro validation of 5 commercial vaporizers was performed with THC-type and CBD-type cannabis. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to determine recoveries of total THC (THCtot) and total CBD (CBDtot) in the vapor.

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Nov
2015

Evidence suggests that cannabinoids can prevent chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. The use of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has also been suggested for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), but evidence is very limited and inconclusive. To evaluate the effectiveness of IV THC in the prevention of PONV, we performed this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial with patient stratification according to the risk of PONV.

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Aug
2015

A quantitative assay for determination of the main bufadienolides bersaldegenin-1-acetate (1), bersaldegenin-3-acetate (2), bryophyllin A (3), and bersaldegenin-1,3,5-orthoacetate (4) in Bryophyllum pinnatum leaves and manufactured products was developed and validated. The assay involved extraction by pressurised liquid extraction, followed by quantification by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy. The ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy method was applied to various batches of leaves harvested on several dates from plants grown at two locations (Brazil and Germany).

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Mar
2015

The endocannabinoid (EC) system is implicated in many chronic liver diseases, including hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection. Cannabis consumption is associated with fibrosis progression in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC), however, the role of ECs in the development of CHC has never been explored. To study this question, anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) were quantified in samples of HCV patients and healthy controls by gas and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.

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Dec
1969

Phytochemical investigation of a dichloromethane-methanol (1:1) extract of the fruit pericarp of Omphalocarpum procerum which exhibited antiplasmodial activity during preliminary screening led to the isolation of the new fatty ester triterpenoid 3β-hexadecanoyloxy-28-hydroxyolean-12-en-11-one (1), together with five known compounds 2-6. The structure of the new compound as well as those of the known compounds was established by means of spectroscopic methods and by comparison with previously reported data. Compounds 1- 4 were evaluated in-vitro for their cytotoxicity against L6 cell lines and antiprotozoal activities against Plasmodium falciparum, Leishmania donovani, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Trypanosoma cruzi (species responsible for human malaria, visceral leishmaniasis, African trypanosomiasis and Chagas disease, respectively).

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Oct
2015

After no research in humans for >40 years, there is renewed interest in using lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in clinical psychiatric research and practice. There are no modern studies on the subjective and autonomic effects of LSD, and its endocrine effects are unknown. In animals, LSD disrupts prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response, and patients with schizophrenia exhibit similar impairments in PPI.

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Jan
2015

Recent evidence has shown that a single maintenance dose of heroin attenuates psychophysiological stress responses in heroin-dependent patients, probably reflecting the effectiveness of heroin-assisted therapies for the treatment of severe heroin addiction. However, the underlying neural circuitry of these effects has not yet been investigated. Using a cross-over, double-blind, vehicle-controlled design, 22 heroin-dependent and heroin-maintained outpatients from the Centre of Substance Use Disorders at the University Hospital of Psychiatry in Basel were studied after heroin and placebo administration, while 17 healthy controls from the general population were included for placebo administration only.

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Mar
2015

Paranoia is receiving increasing attention in its own right, since it is a central experience of psychotic disorders and a marker of the health of a society. Paranoia is associated with use of the most commonly taken illicit drug, cannabis. The objective was to determine whether the principal psychoactive ingredient of cannabis-∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-causes paranoia and to use the drug as a probe to identify key cognitive mechanisms underlying paranoia.

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May
2015

The compulsion to seek and use heroin is frequently driven by stress and craving during drug-cue exposure. Although previous neuroimaging studies have indicated that craving is mediated by increased prefrontal cortex activity, it remains unknown how heroin administration modulates the prefrontal cortex response. This study examines the acute effects of heroin on brain function in heroin-maintained patients.

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Jul
2014

A double-blind, randomized, active placebo-controlled pilot study was conducted to examine safety and efficacy of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)-assisted psychotherapy in 12 patients with anxiety associated with life-threatening diseases. Treatment included drug-free psychotherapy sessions supplemented by two LSD-assisted psychotherapy sessions 2 to 3 weeks apart. The participants received either 200 μg of LSD (n = 8) or 20 μg of LSD with an open-label crossover to 200 μg of LSD after the initial blinded treatment was unmasked (n = 4).

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Nov
2013

Bryophyllum pinnatum is a succulent perennial plant native to Madagascar which is used in anthroposophical medicine to treat psychiatric disorders and as a tocolytic agent to prevent premature labour. We performed a metabolite profiling study in order to obtain a comprehensive picture of the constituents in B. pinnatum leaves and to identify chromatographic markers for quality control and safety assessment of medicinal preparations.

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Apr
2013

Heroin dependence is associated with a stressful environment and with dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The present study examined the acute effects of intravenous heroin versus placebo on the HPA axis response in heroin-dependent patients. Twenty-eight heroin-dependent patients in heroin-assisted treatment and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy participants were included in a controlled trial in which patients were twice administered heroin or saline in a crossover design, and healthy controls were only administered saline.

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Jan
2013

Community-based studies suggest that cannabis products that are high in Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) but low in cannabidiol (CBD) are particularly hazardous for mental health. Laboratory-based studies are ideal for clarifying this issue because THC and CBD can be administered in pure form, under controlled conditions. In a between-subjects design, we tested the hypothesis that pre-treatment with CBD inhibited THC-elicited psychosis and cognitive impairment.

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Jun
2012

Cannabinoids exert neuroprotective and symptomatic effects in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We assessed the pharmacokinetics (PK) and tolerability of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in ALS patients.
Nine patients received THC single oral doses of 5mg and 10mg, separated by a wash-out period of two weeks.

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Dec
2011

To check the effectiveness of campaigns preventing drug abuse or indicating local effects of efforts against drug trafficking, it is beneficial to know consumed amounts of substances in a high spatial and temporal resolution. The analysis of drugs of abuse in wastewater (WW) has the potential to provide this information. In this study, the reliability of WW drug consumption estimates is assessed and a novel method presented to calculate the total uncertainty in observed WW cocaine (COC) and benzoylecgonine (BE) loads.

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Dec
1969

The cannabinoid system (CS) is implicated in the regulation of hepatic fibrosis, steatosis and inflammation, with cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2) being involved in regulation of pro- and antifibrogenic effects. Daily cannabis smoking is an independent risk factor for the progression of fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C and a mediator of experimental alcoholic steatosis. However, the role and function of CS in alcoholic liver fibrosis (ALF) is unknown so far.

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Mar
2011

The main ingredient in cannabis, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), can elicit acute psychotic reactions in healthy individuals and precipitate relapse in schizophrenic patients. However, the neural mechanism of this is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that THC psychopathology is related to changes in electroencephalography (EEG) power or inter-regional coherence.

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Nov
2011

Intravenous (IV) Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) induces transient psychotic symptoms in healthy subjects and in schizophrenic patients, but the psychotomimetic mechanism is unknown. One possibility is that THC stimulates dopamine (DA) release in the striatum. In this study we tested whether IV THC led to an increase in striatal DA release compared to placebo.

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Nov
2010

Llicit and illicit drugs represent a recent group of emerging contaminants and have been found in the aquatic environment. A HPLC-MS/MS method was developed using direct injection (DI) of larger volumes and a polar endcapped reversed-phase (RP) column to measure drug components in water samples belonging to the cocaine group, opiates, amphetamine-like stimulants and metabolites thereof. After validation, including sensitivity, linearity, recovery, precision and matrix effect studies, most drugs could be detected with limits of quantitation (LOQ) of 20 ng L(-1) in wastewater (WW) and 0.

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Nov
2009

According to the regulations of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), the use of cannabinoids is forbidden in competition. In doping controls, the detection of cannabinoid misuse is based on the analysis of the non-psychoactive metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (carboxy-THC). The determination of values greater than 15 ng/mL in urine represents an adverse analytical finding; however, no accurate prediction of the time of application is possible as the half-life of carboxy-THC ranges between three and four days.

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Apr
2010

Since 2004, cannabis has been prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency for all sports competitions. In the years since then, about half of all positive doping cases in Switzerland have been related to cannabis consumption. In doping urine analysis, the target analyte is 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH), the cutoff being 15 ng/mL.

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May
2009

For improving the identification of potential heparin impurities such as oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS) the standard 2D (1)H-(1)H NMR NOESY was applied. Taking advantage of spin diffusion and adjusting the experimental parameters accordingly additional contaminant-specific signals of the corresponding sugar ring protons can easily be detected. These are usually hidden by the more intense heparin signals.

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Apr
2008

We examined acute effects of intravenous diacetylmorphine (heroin) administration - which induces a characteristic biphasic response: A short rush-sensation associated with intense pleasurable feelings followed by a subjectively different period of euphoria on cerebral blood flow. This was assessed in nine male heroin dependent patients participating in a heroin maintenance program in a setting resembling everyday pattern of heroin abuse. 99mTc-HMPAO was administered 45 s (rush) and 15 min (euphoria) after administration of i.

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Feb
2007

The effect of the opioid antagonists naloxone-3-glucuronide and N-methylnaloxone on rat colon motility after morphine stimulation was measured. The rat model consisted of the isolated, vascularly perfused colon. The antagonists (10(-4) M, intraluminally) and morphine (10(-4) M, intra-arterially) were administered from 20 to 30 and from 10 to 50 min, respectively.

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Nov
2006

(-)-Menthol, a monoterpene from Mentha species (Lamiaceae), has been shown to inhibit bone resorption in vivo by an unknown mechanism. In the present study, plasma and urine profiling in rats determined by GC/MS demonstrate that (-)-menthol is extensively metabolized, mainly by hydroxylation and carboxylation, and excreted in the urine, in part as glucuronides. In plasma, very low concentrations of (-)-menthol metabolites were detected after a single dose of (-)-menthol, whereas after repeated treatment, several times higher concentrations and long residence times were measured.

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Jun
2005

A method using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) was developed for the determination of ajulemic acid (AJA), a non-psychoactive synthetic cannabinoid with interesting therapeutic potential, in human plasma. When using two calibration graphs, the assay linearity ranged from 10 to 750 ng/ml, and 750 to 3000 ng/ml AJA. The intra- and inter-day precision (R.

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May
2005

One gram of onion added to the food of rats inhibits significantly (p < 0.05) bone resorption as assessed by the urinary excretion of tritium released from bone of 9-week-old rats prelabeled with tritiated tetracycline from weeks 1 to 6. To isolate and identify the bone resorption inhibiting compound from onion, onion powder was extracted and the extract fractionated by column chromatography and medium-pressure liquid chromatography.

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May
2005

In Europe and the United States, the recreational use of gamma-hydroxy butyric acid (GHB) at dance clubs and "rave" parties has increased substantially. In addition, GHB is used to assist in the commission of sexual assaults. The aim of this controlled clinical study was to acquire pharmacokinetic profiles, detection times, and excretion rates in human subjects.

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May
2004

The aim of the present study was to develop a physiologically compatible inhalation solution of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and to compare the pharmacokinetic and analgesic properties of pulmonal THC versus pulmonal placebo and intravenous (iv) THC, respectively. Eight healthy volunteers were included in this randomized, double-blind, crossover study. The aqueous THC formulations were prepared by using a solubilization technique.

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Jan
2004

A method for the determination of menthol and menthol glucuronide (M-G) after enzymatic hydrolysis in plasma and urine of rats and humans was developed using headspace solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the selected ion monitoring mode (HS-SPME/GC-MS). The assay linearity for plasma ranged from 5 to 1000 ng/ml. The limit of quantification (LOQ) in plasma was 5 ng/ml.

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Sep
2003

From folk medicine and anecdotal reports it is known that Cannabis may reduce pain. In animal studies it has been shown that delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has antinociceptive effects or potentiates the antinociceptive effect of morphine. The aim of this study was to measure the analgesic effect of THC, morphine, and a THC-morphine combination (THC-morphine) in humans using experimental pain models.

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Mar
2003

Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), a minor metabolite or precursor of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), acts as a neurotransmitter/neuromodulator via binding to GABA receptors and to specific presynaptic GHB receptors. Based upon the stimulatory effects, GHB is widely abused. Thus, there is great interest in monitoring GHB in body fluids and tissues.

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Mar
2003

Acetylcodeine (ACOD) is a synthesis byproduct present in street heroin but not in pharmaceutical diacetylmorphine (DAM) as used in the Swiss program Heroin-Assisted Treatment for Opiate Dependent Drug Users (HAT). ACOD was evaluated and validated as an urine marker to detect the consumption of street heroin by HAT participants. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method allowing the quantitation of ACOD concentrations as low as 0.

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Sep
2002

In a clinical study eight volunteers received psilocybin (PY) in psychoactive oral doses of 212+/-25 microg/kg body weight. To investigate the elimination kinetics of psilocin (PI), the first metabolite of PY, urine was collected for 24 h and PI concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with column switching and electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). Sample workup included protection of the unstable PI with ascorbic acid, freeze-drying, and extraction with methanol.

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Jul
2002

The inhalation of heroin vapors after heating on aluminium foil ("chasing the dragon") is gaining popularity nowadays among heroin users seeking to avoid the risks of parenteral drug administration. The heroin-smoking procedure was simulated under laboratory conditions by heating the samples on aluminium foil at 250 to 400 degrees C and collecting the vapors in a condenser trap. A total of 72 pyrolysis products of diacetylmorphine, street heroin, residues from aluminium foils used to smoke street heroin, typical by-products, and adulterants were detected by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS).

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