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Author: Sabine Hoffmann (31)


Feb
2018

Background Addicted Internet users present with higher rates of comorbidities, e.g., attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depressive, and anxiety disorders.

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Dec
1969

Exposure measurement error represents one of the most important sources of uncertainty in epidemiology. When exposure uncertainty is not or only poorly accounted for, it can lead to biased risk estimates and a distortion of the shape of the exposure-response relationship. In occupational cohort studies, the time-dependent nature of exposure and changes in the method of exposure assessment may create complex error structures.

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Jan
2018

Cognitive investigations in brain tumor patients have mostly explored episodic memory without differentiating between encoding, storage, and retrieval deficits. The aim of this study is to offer insight into the memory sub-processes affected in primary brain tumor patients and propose an appropriate assessment method.
We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and memory assessments of 158 patients with primary brain tumors who had presented to our departments with cognitive complaints and were investigated using the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test.

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Mar
2018

Randomized trials of medications for alcohol dependence (AD) often report no differences between active medications. Few studies in AD have tested hypotheses regarding which medication will work best for which patients (ie, precision medicine). The PREDICT study tested acamprosate and naltrexone vs placebo in 426 randomly assigned AD patients in a 3-month treatment.

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Oct
2017

Alcohol metabolizing enzymes, such as the alcohol dehydrogenases and the aldehyde dehydrogenases, regulate the levels of acetaldehyde in the blood and play an important role in the development and maintenance of alcohol addiction. Recent genome-wide systematic searches found associations between a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs1789891, risk allele: A, protective allele: C) in the alcohol dehydrogenase gene cluster and the risk of alcohol dependence. The current study investigated the effect of this single nucleotide polymorphism on alcohol consumption, craving for alcohol, relapse risk and brain gray matter volume.

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May
2017

Individual differences in reward sensitivity along with weakened executive control are characteristic for alcohol use disorder (AUD). Emerging translational models of psychotherapy propose the integration of such neurobiological risk profiles to elucidate the mechanisms underlying behavior change in order to improve intervention efficacy. The primary aim of the study was to investigate whether striatal baseline reward sensitivity can be used as a neurobiological predictor of intervention-specific changes in neural functioning during AUD therapy.

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Dec
1969

Addicts to specific internet applications involving communication features showed increased social anxiety, emotional competence deficits and impaired prefrontal-related inhibitory control. The dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex (dACC) likely plays an important role in cognitive control and negative affect (such as social exclusion, pain or anxiety).
To assess (social) anxiety-related inhibitory control in specific internet addiction (addicted use of games and social networks) and its relation to altered dACC activation.

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Dec
1969

Many occupational cohort studies on underground miners have demonstrated that radon exposure is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer mortality. However, despite the deleterious consequences of exposure measurement error on statistical inference, these analyses traditionally do not account for exposure uncertainty. This might be due to the challenging nature of measurement error resulting from imperfect surrogate measures of radon exposure.

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Feb
2017

Blockade of the μ-opioid receptor (MOR) by naltrexone reduces relapse risk in a subpopulation of alcohol-dependent patients. Previous positron-emission-tomography (PET) studies using the MOR ligand [C]carfentanil have found increased MOR availability in abstinent alcoholics, which may reflect either increased MOR expression or lower endogenous ligand concentration. To differentiate between both effects, we investigated two cohorts of alcoholic subjects using either post-mortem or clinical PET analysis.

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Sep
2016

Background and aims Internet gaming addiction appears to be related to self-concept deficits and increased angular gyrus (AG)-related identification with one's avatar. For increased social network use, a few existing studies suggest striatal-related positive social feedback as an underlying factor. However, whether an impaired self-concept and its reward-based compensation through the online presentation of an idealized version of the self are related to pathological social network use has not been investigated yet.

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Dec
1969

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) receptors are highly expressed in the amygdala, caudate and hypothalamus. GATA4 gene encodes a transcription factor of ANP associated with the pathophysiology of alcohol dependence. We have previously demonstrated that the GATA4 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs13273672 revealed stronger alcohol-specific amygdala activation associated with lowered relapse risk to heavy drinking at 90 days in the AA-homozygotes.

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Aug
2016

Common variants in the gene GATA binding protein 4 (GATA4) show association with alcohol dependence (AD). The aim of this study was to identify rare variants in GATA4 in order to elucidate the role of this gene in AD susceptibility. Identification of rare variants may provide a more complete picture of the allelic architecture at this risk locus.

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May
2016

The top priorities for urban water sustainability include the provision of safe drinking water, wastewater handling for public health, and protection against flooding. However, rapidly aging infrastructure, population growth, and increasing urbanization call into question current urban water management strategies, especially in the fast-growing urban areas in Asia and Africa. We review innovative approaches in urban water management with the potential to provide locally adapted, resource-efficient alternative solutions.

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Nov
2015

The aim of the current study was to determine genotype effects of four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes of the N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptor (GRIN1, GRIN2A, GRIN2C) and kainate receptor (GRIK1), which have been previously associated with alcoholism, on behavior, neural cue-reactivity and drinking outcome. Eighty-six abstinent alcohol dependent patients were recruited from an in-patient setting. Neuropsychological tests, genotyping and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were used to study genotype effects.

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Aug
2015

The endogenous opioid system is involved in the pathophysiology of alcohol-use disorders. Genetic variants of the opioid system alter neural and behavioral responses to alcohol. In particular, a single nucleotide polymorphism rs1799971 (A118G) in the mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) is suggested to modulate alcohol-related phenotypes and neural response in the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system.

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Jul
2015

Mesocorticolimbic reactivity to alcohol-associated cues has been shown to be associated with relapse to renewed drinking and to be decreased by cue-exposure-based extinction training (CET). Evidence from preclinical studies suggests that the extinction of conditioned alcohol-seeking behavior might be facilitated by drugs increasing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-associated memory consolidation.
In this study, we assessed the efficacy of CET treatment supplemented with the partial NMDA-receptor agonist D-cycloserine (DCS) at reducing mesolimbic cue reactivity (CR), craving, and relapse risk in alcoholism.

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Apr
2015

Dysfunctional cognitions can contribute to depression and its maintenance. They may be related to a higher relapse rate and a longer duration of the depressive episode. The relevance of dysfunctional cognitions for acute inpatient treatment of unipolar depression is examined in this study and its variability by cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT).

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Nov
2014

Effect sizes of pharmacotherapy in alcoholism are modest. They might improve if subjects could be divided into more homogeneous subgroups and would then be treated targeted to their neurobiological profile. In such an effort, we tested neural cue reactivity as a potential predictor of treatment response to naltrexone.

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Jun
2015

Patient satisfaction with psychiatric treatment has emerged as an important factor with respect to the quality of health care.
Patient satisfaction using the Zurich Satisfaction Questionnaire (ZUF-8) as well as symptom severity (measured with the Hamilton Depression Scale [HRSD], Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and Clinical Global Impression Scale) was assessed at admission and discharge of inpatient treatment in patients with a major depressive episode (MDD, N = 217) and schizophrenia (N = 75). Differences between the two diagnostic groups (using T-tests) and correlations of patient satisfaction with different social and treatment variables were calculated (Pearson product-moment correlation).

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Oct
2014

The goal of the current study was to use tree-based methods (Zhang and Singer, 2010, Recursive Partitioning and Applications, 2nd ed. Springer, New York) to identify predictors of abstinence from heavy drinking in COMBINE (Anton et al. JAMA 2006; 295:2003), the largest study of pharmacotherapy for alcoholism in the United States to date, and to validate these results in PREDICT (Mann et al.

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Dec
2014

Previous research on alcohol dependent patients has shown that variations in eyeblink startle response can be used as an indicator of their emotional responses to alcohol-related stimuli. Postulating that reactions on substance associated stimuli are controlled by either a negative or a positive affective processing system, we expect that abstinent alcoholics react differently (within-group) in the emotional evaluation of alcohol cues. Furthermore, we assumed the startle response to covary with medication response to acamprosate and naltrexone.

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Mar
2015

Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is important for long-term social functioning. It is considerably reduced in patients with depression. We studied the impact of HRQoL on treatment outcome in patients with unipolar depression.

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Apr
2014

Goal of the presented study is to evaluate whether alcohol-dependent patients given additional individual psychotherapy after a heavy relapse during pharmacotherapy remain abstinent for longer than those who continue with pharmacotherapy alone.
In a randomized, multicenter study, 109 alcohol-dependent patients who had suffered a heavy relapse either while receiving anticraving medication or placebo were randomized into 2 groups. One group received medication, medical management, and additional individual, disorder-specific, cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy, while the control group received medication and medical management only.

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Sep
2013

Anxious depression (AD) is common in patients with unipolar depression. It remains unclear if they have a higher level of depressive symptoms, a higher risk of non-response, a poorer prognosis and a higher relapse rate compared to non-anxious depressed (non-AD) patients.
168 patients took part in all three measurement points: (1) intake, (2) discharge and (3) follow-up.

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Nov
2013

The results of placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) with acamprosate or naltrexone vary substantially. Those differences have been attributed to differing patient characteristics, recruitment strategies, treatment settings and remuneration systems. We tested these assumptions by comparing a new double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial conducted in Germany (called PREDICT Study) with data from the US COMBINE Study.

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Oct
2013

This study examines the relationship of personality disorders (PDs) with the outcome of an inpatient treatment for depression. One hundred sixty-eight inpatients with unipolar depression (41% with PD according to SCID-II) were assessed at admission, discharge, and 1-year follow-up. Patients without as well as with PD showed a significant and comparable intake-to-discharge symptom reduction in all inventories.

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Jun
2012

This naturalistic study is a contribution to randomized controlled trials which reflect only a very limited part of patients of the clinical practice and the relevance of guideline recommended treatment.
Adhering to quality assurance and development of treatment guidelines, 224 patients were evaluated for the effectiveness of inpatient treatment of unipolar depressive disorders by assessing admission and discharge depression scores, response and remission rates. Furthermore patients who were treated according to current guidelines (duration of treatment, dosage of antidepressants, combination of medication and psychotherapy) were compared to patients who did not meet those criteria.

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Jun
2012

Meta-analyses show benefits for patients from a combination of medication and cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy. However, it is still unclear whether or not additional cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) also produces a better treatment outcome in a naturalistic psychiatric setting.
Two-hundred six consecutively registered acute psychiatric inpatients with a unipolar depressive disorder were treated with additional CBT.

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Sep
2011

Lymphoceles (LC) represent a well-described rare complication post-radical prostatectomy (RP). Our aim was to determine risk factors and to develop possible prevention strategies for LC in a community-based study.
Data from 1163 RP-patients from 67 clinics between January 2002 and December 2004 were retrospectively evaluated.

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Oct
2002

Exposure of neutrophils to low doses of bacterial lipopolysaccharides enhances their readiness to respond with inflammatory mediator generation including oxygen radical formation to a subsequently applied inflammatory stimulus ("priming"). In the present study, we investigated the role of lipid mediator synthesis and the impact of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 on the lipopolysaccharide-dependent priming of human neutrophils in response to N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine.
Prospective, experimental study.

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