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Author: Samuel J Oliver (25)



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Feb
2017

Cognitive performance is impaired by hypoxia despite global cerebral oxygen delivery and metabolism being maintained. Using arterial spin labelled (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging, this is the first study to show regional reductions in cerebral blood flow (CBF) in response to decreased oxygen supply (hypoxia) at 2 h that increased in area and became more pronounced at 10 h. Reductions in CBF were seen in brain regions typically associated with the 'default mode' or 'task negative' network.

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Mar
2016

To compare the effectiveness of a single-layered polyethylene survival bag (P), a single-layered polyethylene survival bag with a hot drink (P+HD), a multi-layered metalized plastic sheeting survival bag (MPS: Blizzard Survival), and a multi-layered MPS survival bag with 4 large chemical heat pads (MPS+HP: Blizzard Heat) to treat cold casualties.
Portable cold casualty treatment methods were compared by examining core and skin temperature, metabolic heat production, and thermal comfort during a 3-hour, 0°C cold air exposure in 7 shivering, near-hypothermic men (35.4°C).

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Mar
2016

The identification of beverages that promote longer-term fluid retention and maintenance of fluid balance is of real clinical and practical benefit in situations in which free access to fluids is limited or when frequent breaks for urination are not desirable. The postingestion diuretic response is likely to be influenced by several beverage characteristics, including the volume ingested, energy density, electrolyte content, and the presence of diuretic agents.
This study investigated the effects of 13 different commonly consumed drinks on urine output and fluid balance when ingested in a euhydrated state, with a view to establishing a beverage hydration index (BHI), i.

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Feb
2016

This review outlines recent advancements in the understanding of athlete immune health. Controversies discussed include whether high levels of athletic training and environmental stress (for example, heat acclimation, cryotherapy and hypoxic training) compromise immunity and increase upper respiratory tract infection (URTI). Recent findings challenge early exercise immunology doctrine by showing that international athletes performing high-volume training suffer fewer, not greater, URTI episodes than lower-level performers and URTI incidence decreases, not increases, around the time of competition compared with heavy training.

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Oct
2015

In persons completing exhaustive daily exercise, sleep and energy restriction have been highlighted as risk factors for hypothermia in cold environments. The present study therefore sought to determine the effect of sleep deprivation (SDEP), with and without energy restriction, on the thermal response to cold.
In a random order, ten recreationally active men (mean ± SD: age 25 ± 6 years, body fat 17 ± 5 %) completed three 53 h trials: a control (CON: 436 min/night sleep), SDEP (0 min sleep), and sleep deprivation and energy restriction (SDEP + ER: 0 min sleep and 10% daily energy requirements).

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Mar
2015

Dehydration in older adults contributes to increased morbidity and mortality during hospitalization. As such, early diagnosis of dehydration may improve patient outcome and reduce the burden on healthcare. This prospective study investigated the diagnostic accuracy of routinely used physical signs, and noninvasive markers of hydration in urine and saliva.

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Jun
2014

The study was undertaken to determine whether normobaric hypoxia causes elevated brain volume and intracranial pressure in individuals with symptoms consistent with acute mountain sickness (AMS).
Thirteen males age = (26 (sd 6)) years were exposed to normobaric hypoxia (12% O2 ) and normoxia (21% O2 ). After 2 and 10 hours, AMS symptoms were assessed alongside ventricular and venous vessel volumes, cerebral blood flow, regional brain volumes, and intracranial pressure, using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging.

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Jun
2014

The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of systemic poikilocapnic hypoxia on forearm cutaneous thermal hyperaemia. A secondary aim was to examine the relationship between the individual susceptibility to oxygen desaturation and cutaneous vasodilator capacity. Twelve healthy participants (seven male) were exposed to 9 h of normoxia and 12% poikilocapnic hypoxia in a temperature- and humidity-controlled environmental chamber.

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Jun
2013

The aim was to assess the effect of high altitude on the development of new immune memory (induction) using a contact sensitization model of in vivo immunity. We hypothesized that high-altitude exposure would impair induction of the in vivo immune response to a novel antigen, diphenylcyclopropenone (DPCP). DPCP was applied (sensitization) to the lower back of 27 rested controls at sea level and to ten rested mountaineers 28 hours after passive ascent to 3777 m.

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Aug
2013

Elevated brain water is a common finding in individuals with severe forms of altitude illness. However, the location, nature, and a causative link between brain edema and symptoms of acute mountain sickness such as headache remains unknown. We examined indices of brain white matter water mobility in 13 participants after 2 and 10 hours in normoxia (21% O2) and hypoxia (12% O2) using magnetic resonance imaging.

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Jul
2012

The aim of this prospective observational cohort study was to investigate relationships between acute mountain sickness (AMS) and physical and mental health during a high altitude expedition.
Forty-four participants (mean age, 34 ± 13 y; body mass index, 23.6 ± 3.

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Mar
2012

Acute carbohydrate supplementation decreases effort perception and increases endurance exercise capacity at sea level. It also improves laboratory-based endurance performance at altitude. However, the effect of chronic carbohydrate supplementation at altitude, when acclimatization may attenuate carbohydrate effects, achieved doses are lower and metabolic effects may be different, is unknown and was therefore focused on in the present study.

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Mar
2011

The physical training undertaken by athletes is one of a set of lifestyle or behavioural factors that can influence immune function, health and ultimately exercise performance. Others factors including potential exposure to pathogens, health status, lifestyle behaviours, sleep and recovery, nutrition and psychosocial issues, need to be considered alongside the physical demands of an athlete's training programme. The general consensus on managing training to maintain immune health is to start with a programme of low to moderate volume and intensity; employ a gradual and periodised increase in training volumes and loads; add variety to limit training monotony and stress; avoid excessively heavy training loads that could lead to exhaustion, illness or injury; include non-specific cross-training to offset staleness; ensure sufficient rest and recovery; and instigate a testing programme for identifying signs of performance deterioration and manifestations of physical stress.

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Jun
2010

The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of two nights of sleep deprivation with or without energy restriction on immune indices at rest and in response to cold exposure. On three randomised occasions ten males slept normally [mean (SD): 436 (21) min night(-1); CON], were totally sleep-deprived (SDEP), or were totally sleep-deprived and 90% energy-restricted (SDEP + ER) for 53 h. After 53 h (1200 h) participants performed a seated cold air test (CAT) at 0.

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Aug
2009

The aim of the study was to determine the influence of immediate and 1-hr-delayed carbohydrate (CHO) and protein (PRO) feeding after prolonged exercise on leukocyte trafficking, bacterially stimulated neutrophil degranulation, saliva secretory IgA (S-IgA) responses, and circulating stress hormones. In randomized order, separated by 1 wk, 9 male runners completed 3 feeding interventions after 2 hr of running at 75% VO2max. During control (CON), participants received water (12 ml/kg body mass [BM]) immediately and 1 hr postexercise.

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Nov
2009

Body mass loss is inevitable with chronic hypoxic exposure. However, the exact body-composition changes, their causes, and possible treatments remain unknown.
The objective was to investigate body composition during a high-altitude expedition by using non-empirically derived methods, experimentally manipulating energy intake, and investigating the influence of initial body composition.

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Sep
2009

The aim was to test the hypothesis that one night of sleep deprivation will impair pre-loaded 30 min endurance performance and alter the cardio-respiratory, thermoregulatory and perceptual responses to exercise. Eleven males completed two randomised trials separated by 7 days: once after normal sleep (496 (18) min: CON) and once following 30 h without sleep (SDEP). After 30 h participants performed a 30 min pre-load at 60% [VO(2 max) followed by a 30 min self-paced treadmill distance test.

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Oct
2008

The aim was to investigate the effects of 48 hr of fluid, energy, or combined fluid and energy restriction on circulating leukocyte and lymphocyte subset counts (CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+) and bacterially stimulated neutrophil degranulation at rest and after exercise. Thirteen healthy men (M +/- SEM age 21 +/- 1 yr) participated in 4 randomized 48-hr trials. During control (CON) participants received their estimated energy (2,903 +/- 17 kcal/day) and fluid (3,912 +/- 140 ml/day) requirements.

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Feb
2009

A one night period without sleep is not uncommon amongst athletes travelling across time zones and military personnel during training and operations. However, the effect of one night without sleep on immune indices in response to strenuous exercise remains unknown. The objective was to determine the effect of one night without sleep on immune indices in response to subsequent strenuous exercise.

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Oct
2008

To investigate whether unstimulated whole saliva flow rate (UFR) and osmolality (Sosm) track changes in hydration status during 48h of restricted fluid intake (RF) or combined fluid and energy restriction (RF+RE). Following the 48h periods, UFR and Sosm were assessed after acute exercise dehydration and rehydration.
Thirteen healthy males completed three trials in a randomised order: control (CON) where participants received their estimated energy (12,154+/-230kJ/d: mean+/-S.

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Jun
2007

The aim was to investigate the effects of a 48 h period of fluid, energy or combined fluid and energy restriction on salivary IgA (s-IgA) responses at rest and after exercise. Thirteen healthy males (age 21 (sem 1) years) participated in four randomised 48 h trials. In the control trial participants received their estimated energy (12,154 (sem 230) kJ/d) and water (3912 (sem 140) ml/d) requirements.

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Feb
2007

To determine the effect of a 48-h period of either fluid restriction (FR), energy restriction (ER), or fluid and energy restriction (F + ER) on 30-min treadmill time trial (TT) performance in temperate conditions.
Thirteen males participated in four randomized 48-h trials (mean +/- SD: age, 21 +/- 3 yr; VO2max 50.9 +/- 4.

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Sep
2004

Firstly, to identify whether saliva flow rate, osmolality, and total protein are potential markers of hydration, we compared changes in these parameters with changes in plasma osmolality during progressive dehydration. Secondly, we compared the sensitivity of saliva parameters to track hydration changes with the sensitivity of urine osmolality. Thirdly, to test the hypothesis that dehydration, rather than neuroendocrine regulation, is responsible for the decrease in saliva flow rate during prolonged exercise, we compared flow rate and catecholamine responses to prolonged exercise with and without fluids.

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