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Author: Sarah Hohmann (29)


Jan
2018

Multimodal treatment of children with ADHD often includes parent-child training (PCT). However, due to the high heritability, parents of children with ADHD are frequently also affected by the disorder, which is likely to constitute a significant barrier to successful treatment of the child. This secondary analysis of our randomized controlled multicentre AIMAC trial (ADHD in mothers and children) investigates whether children's outcomes following parent-child training in combination with maternal ADHD treatment depend on maternal symptom improvement.

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Dec
2017

Moment-to-moment reaction time variability on tasks of attention, often quantified by intra-individual response variability (IRV), provides a good indication of the degree to which an individual is vulnerable to lapses in sustained attention. Increased IRV is a hallmark of several disorders of attention, including Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Here, task-based fMRI was used to provide the first examination of how average brain activation and functional connectivity patterns in adolescents are related to individual differences in sustained attention as measured by IRV.

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Jan
2018

According to DSM-5, Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD) is characterized by chronic temper outbursts and irritable moods. So far, little is known about its prevalence rate, course and influence on individual well-being. We assessed the prevalence rates of DMDD symptoms during adulthood and primary school age - the latter retrospectively - and studied their relationship with psychiatric disorders and socioeconomic variables.

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Aug
2017

Previous research suggests a role of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) in metacognitive representation of social information, while the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) has been linked to social perception. This study targeted these functional roles in the context of spontaneous mentalizing. An animated shapes task was presented to 46 subjects during functional magnetic resonance imaging.

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Dec
1969

Neurofeedback (NF) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been investigated in a series of studies over the last years. Previous studies did not unanimously support NF as a treatment in ADHD. Most studies did not control for unspecific treatment effects and did not demonstrate that self-regulation took place.

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Apr
2017

Subcortical brain volume differences in participants with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adults: a cross-sectional mega-analysis.

Lancet Psychiatry 2017 Apr 16;4(4):310-319. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
Martine Hoogman, Janita Bralten, Derrek P Hibar, Maarten Mennes, Marcel P Zwiers, Lizanne S J Schweren, Kimm J E van Hulzen, Sarah E Medland, Elena Shumskaya, Neda Jahanshad, Patrick de Zeeuw, Eszter Szekely, Gustavo Sudre, Thomas Wolfers, Alberdingk M H Onnink, Janneke T Dammers, Jeanette C Mostert, Yolanda Vives-Gilabert, Gregor Kohls, Eileen Oberwelland, Jochen Seitz, Martin Schulte-Rüther, Sara Ambrosino, Alysa E Doyle, Marie F Høvik, Margaretha Dramsdahl, Leanne Tamm, Theo G M van Erp, Anders Dale, Andrew Schork, Annette Conzelmann, Kathrin Zierhut, Ramona Baur, Hazel McCarthy, Yuliya N Yoncheva, Ana Cubillo, Kaylita Chantiluke, Mitul A Mehta, Yannis Paloyelis, Sarah Hohmann, Sarah Baumeister, Ivanei Bramati, Paulo Mattos, Fernanda Tovar-Moll, Pamela Douglas, Tobias Banaschewski, Daniel Brandeis, Jonna Kuntsi, Philip Asherson, Katya Rubia, Clare Kelly, Adriana Di Martino, Michael P Milham, Francisco X Castellanos, Thomas Frodl, Mariam Zentis, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Andreas Reif, Paul Pauli, Terry L Jernigan, Jan Haavik, Kerstin J Plessen, Astri J Lundervold, Kenneth Hugdahl, Larry J Seidman, Joseph Biederman, Nanda Rommelse, Dirk J Heslenfeld, Catharina A Hartman, Pieter J Hoekstra, Jaap Oosterlaan, Georg von Polier, Kerstin Konrad, Oscar Vilarroya, Josep Antoni Ramos-Quiroga, Joan Carles Soliva, Sarah Durston, Jan K Buitelaar, Stephen V Faraone, Philip Shaw, Paul M Thompson, Barbara Franke
Neuroimaging studies have shown structural alterations in several brain regions in children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Through the formation of the international ENIGMA ADHD Working Group, we aimed to address weaknesses of previous imaging studies and meta-analyses, namely inadequate sample size and methodological heterogeneity. We aimed to investigate whether there are structural differences in children and adults with ADHD compared with those without this diagnosis.

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Dec
1969

The debilitating effects of social dysfunction in many psychiatric disorders prompt the need for systems-level biomarkers of social abilities that can be applied in clinical populations and longitudinal studies. A promising neuroimaging approach is the animated shapes paradigm based on so-called Frith-Happé animations (FHAs) which trigger spontaneous mentalizing with minimal cognitive demands. Here, we presented FHAs during functional magnetic resonance imaging to 46 subjects and examined the specificity and sensitivity of the elicited social brain responses.

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Sep
2016

Neurofeedback training (NF) is a promising non-pharmacological treatment for ADHD that has been associated with improvement of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related symptoms as well as changes in electrophysiological measures. However, the functional localization of neural changes following NF compared to an active control condition, and of successful learning during training (considered to be the critical mechanism for improvement), remains largely unstudied. Children with ADHD (N=16, mean age: 11.

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Aug
2016

Conduct disorder (CD) causes high financial and social costs, not only in affected families but across society, with only moderately effective treatments so far. There is consensus that CD is likely caused by the convergence of many different factors, including genetic and adverse environmental factors. There is ample evidence of gene-environment interactions in the etiology of CD on a behavioral level regarding genetically sensitive designs and candidate gene-driven approaches, most prominently and consistently represented by MAOA.

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Aug
2016

Findings on the etiology of aggressive behavior have provided evidence for an effect both of genetic factors, such as variation in the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene, and adverse environmental factors. Recent studies have supported the existence of gene × environment interactions, with early experiences playing a key role. In the present study, the effects of prenatal nicotine exposure, MAOA genotype and their interaction on aggressive behavior during young adulthood were examined.

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Nov
2015

Recent longitudinal studies have indicated that affective and behavioral dysregulation in childhood is associated with an increased risk for various negative outcomes in later life. However, few studies to date have examined early mechanisms preceding dysregulation during early childhood. Aim of this study was to elucidate early mechanisms relating to dysregulation in later life using data from an epidemiological cohort study on the long-term outcome of early risk factors from birth to adulthood.

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Dec
2015

This is the first randomized controlled multicenter trial to evaluate the effect of two treatments of maternal attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on response to parent-child training targeting children's external psychopathology.
Mother-child dyads (n = 144; ADHD according to DSM-IV; children: 73.5% males, mean age 9.

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Jun
2015

Discovering the genetic basis of early-onset psychiatric disorders has been the aim of intensive research during the last decade. We will first selectively summarize results of genetic research in child and adolescent psychiatry by using examples from different disorders and discuss methodological issues, emerging questions and future directions. In the second part of this review, we will focus on how to link genetic causes of disorders with physiological pathways, discuss the impact of genetic findings on diagnostic systems, prevention and therapeutic interventions.

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Apr
2015

Variation in the gene encoding for the norepinephrine transporter (NET, SLC6A2) has repeatedly been linked with ADHD, although there is some inconsistency regarding the association with specific genes. The variants for which most consistent association has been found are the NET variants rs3785157 and rs28386840. Here, we tested for their association with ADHD diagnosis and ADHD-related phenotypes during development in a longitudinal German community sample.

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Aug
2015

We assessed intra-individual variability of response times (RT) and single-trial P3 amplitudes following targets in healthy adults during a Flanker/NO-GO task. RT variability and variability of the neural responses coupled at the faster frequencies examined (0.07-0.

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Dec
1969

Dramatically increasing prevalence rates of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents in the United States have provoked controversy regarding the boundaries of manic symptoms in child and adolescent psychiatry. The serious impact of this ongoing debate on the treatment of affected children is reflected in the concomitant increase in prescription rates for antipsychotic medication. A key question in the debate is whether this increase in bipolar disorder in children and adolescents is based on a better detection of early-onset bipolar disorder-which can present differently in children and adolescents-or whether it is caused by an incorrect assignment of symptoms which overlap with other widely known disorders.

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Mar
2016

Converging evidence emphasizes the role of an interaction between monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotype, environmental adversity, and sex in the pathophysiology of aggression. The present study aimed to clarify the impact of this interaction on neural activity in aggression-related brain systems. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 125 healthy adults from a high-risk community sample followed since birth.

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Mar
2015

Converging evidence has highlighted the association between poverty and conduct disorder (CD) without specifying neurobiological pathways. Neuroimaging research has emphasized structural and functional alterations in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) as one key mechanism underlying this disorder. The present study aimed to clarify the long-term influence of early poverty on OFC volume and its association with CD symptoms in healthy participants of an epidemiological cohort study followed since birth.

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Jul
2014

There is accumulating evidence relating maternal smoking during pregnancy to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) without elucidating specific mechanisms. Research investigating the neurobiological underpinnings of this disorder has implicated deficits during response inhibition. Attempts to uncover the effect of prenatal exposure to nicotine on inhibitory control may thus be of high clinical importance.

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Aug
2014

Considerable evidence suggests that genetic factors combine with environmental influences to impact on the development of aggressive behavior. A genetic variant that has repeatedly been reported to render individuals more sensitive to the presence of adverse experiences, including stress exposure during fetal life, is the seven-repeat allele of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene.
The present investigation concentrated on the interplay of prenatal maternal stress and DRD4 genotype in predicting self-reported aggression in young adults.

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Jul
2014

Inhibitory response control has been extensively investigated in both electrophysiological (ERP) and hemodynamic (fMRI) studies. However, very few multimodal results address the coupling of these inhibition markers. In fMRI, response inhibition has been most consistently linked to activation of the anterior insula and inferior frontal cortex (IFC), often also the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC).

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Dec
1969

Aggressive behaviour is a common phenomenon during childhood and adolescence, but at the same time it is an important associated feature of many psychiatric disorders during this age period. Persistent aggression is related to a variety of negative outcomes in adulthood, including low socioeconomic status and unemployment, criminal behaviour and social isolation. The great heterogeneity of aggressive behaviour still hampers our understanding of causal mechanisms.

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Sep
2013

Electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have been used to study the neural correlates of reward anticipation, but the interrelation of EEG and fMRI measures remains unknown. The goal of the present study was to investigate this relationship in response to a well established reward anticipation paradigm using simultaneous EEG-fMRI recording in healthy human subjects. Analysis of causal interactions between the thalamus (THAL), ventral-striatum (VS), and supplementary motor area (SMA), using both mediator analysis and dynamic causal modeling, revealed that (1) THAL fMRI blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) activity is mediating intermodal correlations between the EEG contingent negative variation (CNV) signal and the fMRI BOLD signal in SMA and VS, (2) the underlying causal connectivity network consists of top-down regulation from SMA to VS and SMA to THAL along with an excitatory information flow through a THAL→VS→SMA route during reward anticipation, and (3) the EEG CNV signal is best predicted by a combination of THAL fMRI BOLD response and strength of top-down regulation from SMA to VS and SMA to THAL.

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Dec
1969

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are heterogeneous, neurodevelopmental disorders with early onset, characterized by a triad of impairments in reciprocal interaction and communication as well as repetitive and restricted interests and activities. Though underlying causes still remain largely unknown, there is now evidence for abnormal growth trajectories in the early brain development in ASD during vulnerable periods and subsequent impairment of neuronal organization and differentiation of neuronal networks. A growing number of studies over the last 10 years support the efficacy of behaviorally based interventions in ASD for the improvement of social communication and behavioral functioning.

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Nov
2011

In the central nervous system, serotonergic and dopaminergic signaling is terminated by the activity of specialized transporter proteins for serotonin (SERT) and dopamine (DAT). These transporter proteins are found both on the cell surface and in intracellular transport vesicles. Trafficking between these subcellular domains regulates the efficiency of removal of extracellular neurotransmitters and hence the efficacy of neuronal signaling.

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Nov
2011

To review current studies on the effectiveness of neurofeedback as a method of treatment of the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD).
Studies were selected based on searches in PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, ERIC, and CINAHL using combinations of the following keywords: 'Neurofeedback' OR 'EEG Biofeedback' OR 'Neurotherapy' OR 'Mu-Rhythm' OR 'SMR' AND 'Autism' OR 'Autism Spectrum Disorder' OR 'Pervasive Developmental Disorder'.
The existing evidence does not support the use of neurofeedback in the treatment of ASD.

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Aug
2010

Anxiety is a core symptom of schizophrenia that elicits significant subjective burden of disease and contributes to treatment resistance in schizophrenia. Anxious syndromes might be attributed to incompletely remitted delusions, the negative syndrome, depressive episodes, panic attacks, social phobia, avoidance after hospitalization, and down-tapering of benzodiazepine medication. Pregabalin, an antagonist at the alpha2delta subunit of voltage-gated Ca channels, modulates several neurotransmitter systems and was found to alleviate anxiety in different mental disorders.

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Dec
2009

The present study aimed to clarify the functional role of genes in the dopamine and serotonin systems by examining whether polymorphisms in these genes are related to adolescent externalizing behavior either alone or in interaction with each other. Participants were selected from an ongoing prospective study of the outcome of early risk factors. At age 15 years, 298 adolescents (144 males, 154 females) completed the Youth Self Report, 296 primary caregivers the Child Behavior Checklist and 253 teachers the Teacher Report Form.

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Sep
2003

We initially performed a mutation screen of the coding region of the MC4R in 808 extremely obese children and adolescents and 327 underweight or normal-weight controls allowing for a case-control study. A total of 16 different missense, nonsense, and frameshift mutations were found in the obese study group; five of these have not been observed previously. In vitro assays revealed that nine [the haplotype (Y35X; D37V) was counted as one mutation] of the 16 mutations led to impaired cAMP responses, compared with wild-type receptor constructs.

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