Helping You Find Full Text Journal Articles

Search Results:

Author: Simona G Codreanu (24)


Dec
2017

Alternative splicing dramatically increases transcriptome complexity but its contribution to proteome diversity remains controversial. Exon-exon junction spanning peptides provide direct evidence for the translation of specific splice isoforms and are critical for delineating protein isoform complexity. Here we found that junction-spanning peptides are underrepresented in publicly available mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteomics data sets.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Sep
2017

We hypothesized that distinct protein expression features of benign and malignant pulmonary nodules may reveal novel candidate biomarkers for the early detection of lung cancer. We performed proteome profiling by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to characterize 34 resected benign lung nodules, 24 untreated lung adenocarcinomas (ADCs), and biopsies of bronchial epithelium. Group comparisons identified 65 proteins that differentiate nodules from ADCs and normal bronchial epithelium and 66 proteins that differentiate ADCs from nodules and normal bronchial epithelium.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
2016

Understanding blood-brain barrier responses to inflammatory stimulation (such as lipopolysaccharide mimicking a systemic infection or a cytokine cocktail that could be the result of local or systemic inflammation) is essential to understanding the effect of inflammatory stimulation on the brain. It is through the filter of the blood-brain barrier that the brain responds to outside influences, and the blood-brain barrier is a critical point of failure in neuroinflammation. It is important to note that this interaction is not a static response, but one that evolves over time.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
2016

Metabolites are building blocks of cellular function. These species are involved in enzyme-catalyzed chemical reactions and are essential for cellular function. Upstream biological disruptions result in a series of metabolomic changes and, as such, the metabolome holds a wealth of information that is thought to be most predictive of phenotype.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Carfilzomib (CFZ) is a second-generation proteasome inhibitor that is Food and Drug Administration and European Commission approved for the treatment of relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. CFZ is an epoxomicin derivative with an epoxyketone electrophilic warhead that irreversibly adducts the catalytic threonine residue of the β5 subunit of the proteasome. Although CFZ produces a highly potent, sustained inactivation of the proteasome, the electrophilic nature of the drug could potentially produce off-target protein adduction.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is a key sensor kinase in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway that transduces cellular responses to oxidants and electrophiles. ASK1 is regulated by a large, dynamic multiprotein signalosome complex, potentially including over 90 reported ASK1-interacting proteins. We employed both shotgun and targeted mass spectrometry assays to catalogue the ASK1 protein-protein interactions in HEK-293 cells treated with the prototypical lipid electrophile 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE).

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Aug
2015

Determine the mechanism by which C-terminus of HSC70-interacting protein (CHIP) induction alters neuronal survival under conditions of mitochondrial stress induced by oxygen glucose deprivation.
We report that animals deficient in the E3 ubiquitin ligase, CHIP, have high baseline levels of central nervous system protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation, reduced antioxidant defenses, and decreased energetic status. Stress-associated molecules typically linked to Parkinson's disease such as the mitochondrial kinase, PTEN-inducible putative kinase 1 (PINK1), and another E3 ligase, Parkin, are upregulated in brains from CHIP knockout (KO) animals.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Mar
2014

Protein alkylation by reactive electrophiles contributes to chemical toxicities and oxidative stress, but the functional impact of alkylation damage across proteomes is poorly understood. We used Click chemistry and shotgun proteomics to profile the accumulation of proteome damage in human cells treated with lipid electrophile probes. Protein target profiles revealed three damage susceptibility classes, as well as proteins that were highly resistant to alkylation.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Proteomic analyses of protein-electrophile adducts generally employ affinity capture of the adduct moiety, which enables global analyses, but is poorly suited to targeted studies of specific proteins. We describe a targeted molecular probe approach to study modifications of the molecular chaperone heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90), which regulates diverse client proteins. Noncovalent affinity capture with a biotinyl analog of the HSP90 inhibitor geldanamycin enables detection of the native protein isoforms Hsp90α and Hsp90β and their phosphorylated forms.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Formation of covalent protein adducts by lipid electrophiles contributes to diseases and toxicities linked to oxidative stress, but analysis of the adducts presents a challenging analytical problem. We describe selective adduct capture using biotin affinity probes to enrich protein and peptide adducts for analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). One approach employs biotinamidohexanoic acid hydrazide to covalently label residual carbonyl groups on adducts.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jun
2011

Antitumor nitrogen mustards, such as bis(2-chloroethyl)methylamine (mechlorethamine), are useful chemotherapeutic agents with a long history of clinical application. The antitumor effects of nitrogen mustards are attributed to their ability to induce DNA-DNA and DNA-protein cross-links (DPCs) that block DNA replication. In the present work, a mass spectrometry-based methodology was employed to characterize in vivo DNA-protein cross-linking following treatment of human fibrosarcoma (HT1080) cells with cytotoxic concentrations of mechlorethamine.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Feb
2011

Toxicoproteomic samples are rich in posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of proteins. Identifying these modifications via standard database searching can incur significant performance penalties. Here, we describe the latest developments in TagRecon, an algorithm that leverages inferred sequence tags to identify modified peptides in toxicoproteomic data sets.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Sep
2010

1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane (DEB) is a strongly genotoxic diepoxide hypothesized to be the ultimate carcinogenic metabolite of the common industrial chemical and environmental carcinogen 1,3-butadiene. DEB is a bis-electrophile capable of cross-linking cellular biomolecules to form DNA-DNA and DNA-protein cross-links (DPCs), which are thought to play a central role in its biological activity. Previous studies with recombinant proteins have shown that the biological outcomes of DEB-induced DPCs are strongly influenced by protein identities.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Reversible thiol modification is a major component of the modulation of cell-signaling pathways by reactive oxygen species. Hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite, or lipid hydroperoxides are all able to oxidize cysteines to form cysteine sulfenic acids; this reactive intermediate can be directly reduced to thiol by cellular reductants such as thioredoxin or further participate in disulfide bond formation with glutathione or cysteine residues in the same or another protein. To identify the direct protein targets of cysteine modification and the conditions under which they are oxidized, a series of dimedone-based reagents linked to affinity or fluorescent tags have been developed that specifically alkylate and trap cysteine sulfenic acids.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jun
2009

Nitrogen mustards are antitumor agents used clinically for the treatment of a variety of neoplastic conditions. The biological activity of these compounds is typically attributed to their ability to induce DNA-DNA cross-links. However, nitrogen mustards are able to produce a variety of other lesions, including DNA-protein cross-links (DPCs).

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Apr
2009

Lipid peroxidation yields a variety of electrophiles, which are thought to contribute to the molecular pathogenesis of diseases involving oxidative stress, yet little is known of the scope of protein damage caused by lipid electrophiles. We identified protein targets of the prototypical lipid electrophile 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) in RKO cells treated with 50 or 100 mum HNE. HNE Michael adducts were biotinylated by reaction with biotinamidohexanoic acid hydrazide, captured with streptavidin, and the captured proteins were resolved by one dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, digested with trypsin, and identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jun
2007

The enzyme 2-hydroxychromene-2-carboxylic acid (HCCA) isomerase catalyzes the glutathione (GSH)-dependent interconversion (Keq = 1.5) of HCCA and trans-o-hydroxybenzylidene pyruvic acid (tHBPA) in the naphthalene catabolic pathway of Pseudomonas putida. The dimeric protein binds one molecule of GSH very tightly (Kd approximately 5 nM) and a second molecule of GSH with much lower affinity (Kd approximately 2 to 11 microM).

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Aug
2006

Protein serine/threonine phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a critical regulator of numerous cellular signaling processes and a potential target for reactive electrophiles that dysregulate phosphorylation-dependent signal transduction cascades. The predominant cellular form of PP2A is a heterotrimeric holoenzyme consisting of a structural A, a variable B, and a catalytic C subunit. We studied the modification of two purified PP2A holoenzyme complexes (ABalpha(FLAG)C and ABdelta(FLAG)C) with two different thiol-reactive electrophiles, biotinyl-iodoacetamidyl-3,6-dioxaoctanediamine (PEO-IAB) and the biotinamido-4-[4'-(maleimidomethyl)cyclohexanecarboxamido]butane (BMCC).

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Aug
2005

Mammalian glutathione (GSH) transferases are dimeric proteins, many of which share a common hydrophobic interaction motif that is important for dimer stability. In the rGSTM1-1 enzyme this motif involves the side chain of F56, located on the 56 loop of the N-terminal domain, which is intercalated between the alpha4- and alpha5-helices of the C-terminal domain of the opposing subnuit. Disruption of the complementary interactions in this motif by mutation of F56 to serine, arginine, or glutamate is known to have deleterious effects on catalytic efficiency but remarkably different effects on the stability of the dimer [Hornby et al.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

May
2005

We describe the use of commercially available microcentrifugation devices (spin filters) for cleanup and digestion of protein samples for mass spectrometry analyses. The protein sample is added to the upper chamber of a spin filter with a > or = 3000 molecular weight cutoff membrane and then washed prior to resuspension in ammonium bicarbonate. The protein is then reduced, alkylated, and digested with trypsin in the upper chamber and the peptides are recovered by centrifugation through the membrane.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
2004

Human small ubiquitin-like modifier (sumo) proteins include sumo-1 and the less studied, nearly identical sumo-2 and sumo-3 proteins. Whereas the structurally related ubiquitin molecule targets proteins for degradation, sumo provides a distinct, yet poorly understood regulatory signal. Protein sumoylation is sensitive to diverse cellular stresses, yet the targets of sumoylation in stress are unknown.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Sep
2004

Microsomal glutathione (GSH) transferase 1 (MGST1) is a trimeric, integral membrane protein involved in cellular response to chemical or oxidative stress. The cytosolic domain of MGST1 harbors the GSH binding site and a cysteine residue (C49) that acts as a sensor of oxidative and chemical stress. Spatially resolved changes in the kinetics of backbone amide H/D exchange reveal that the binding of a single molecule of GSH/trimer induces a cooperative conformational transition involving movements of the transmembrane helices and a reordering of the cytosolic domain.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
2002

Glutathione transferase rGSTM1-1 catalyzes the addition of glutathione (GSH) to 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, a reaction in which the chemical step is 60-fold faster than the physical step of product release. The hydroxyl group of Y115, located in the active site access channel, controls the egress of product from the active site. The Y115F mutant enzyme has a k(cat) (72 s(-)(1)) that is 3.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
2002

Cytosolic glutathione (GSH) transferases (GSTs) exist as stable homo- and heterodimers. Interactions at the subunit interface serve an important role in stabilizing the subunit tertiary structures of all GSH transferases. In addition, the dimer is required to maintain functional conformations at the active site on each subunit and the nonsubstrate ligand binding site at the dimer interface [Dirr, H.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Back to top