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Author: Stefan Gutwinski (23)


Feb
2018


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Jan
2018

A better understanding of specific sociodemographic and clinical factors in patients with migration background may help to significantly improve psychiatric treatment outcome of these patients. Therefore, we investigated these factors in a large sample of psychiatric outpatients.
N = 423 psychiatric patients of a large outpatient service were assessed for sociodemographic variables as well as clinical variables including diagnosis, psychopharmacological treatment, treatment duration and current symptom load (SCL-14).

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Oct
2017

The number of homeless people in Germany is increasing. Studies from multiple countries have shown that most homeless people suffer from mental illnesses that require treatment. Accurate figures on the prevalence of mental illness among the homeless in Germany can help improve care structures for this vulnerable group.

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Sep
2017

Regular alcohol consumption affects cognitive performance and the development of dementia. So far, findings are contradicting, which might be explained in part by dose-related effects. For this narrative review, we undertook a literature search for surveys investigating the impact of alcohol consumption on cognitive performance and the development of dementia.

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Feb
2018

Anxiety and depression are some of the most common psychiatric symptoms of patients suffering with life-threatening diseases, often associated with a low quality of life and a poor overall prognosis. 5-HT-receptor agonists (serotonergic hallucinogens, 'psychedelics') like lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and psilocybin were first investigated as therapeutic agents in the 1960s. Recently, after a long hiatus period of regulatory obstacles, interest in the clinical use of these substances has resumed.

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Dec
1969

Alcohol use disorder (AUD) with harmful drinking patterns is on the one hand characterized by impulsive behavior and is on the other hand known to involve structural brain alterations with lower gray matter volume (GMV), especially in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). So far it is unclear whether frontal brain volumes are associated to harmful alcohol drinking and impulsivity, while controlling simultaneously for a wide array of important confounding factors, which are related to alcohol consumption. We used voxel-based morphometry in 99 adults ranging within a continuum of normal to harmful drinking behavior and alcohol dependence, measured by the 'Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test', to examine whether the severity of harmful drinking is correlated with structural markers, in particular in the PFC and whether such markers are linked to self-reported impulsivity.

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Apr
2016

The maintenance of harmful alcohol use can be considered a reiterated decision in favour of alcohol in concrete drinking occasions. These decisions are often made despite an intention to quit or reduce alcohol consumption. We tested if a hyperactive reward system and/or an impaired cognitive control system contribute to such unfavourable decision-making.

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Feb
2016

This study aimed to investigate the development of opioid tolerance in patients receiving long-term methadone maintenance treatment (MMT).
A region-wide cross-sectional study was performed focusing on dosage and duration of treatment. Differences between racemic methadone and levomethadone were examined.

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May
2014

Opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) successfully improves social functioning and leads to an increase of survival rates, by reducing drug-related mortality and infections. A region-wide anonymous survey was performed to evaluate subjective factors that could potentially contribute to growing numbers of patients in OMT in the city of Berlin, Germany. In the survey, performed in 2011, 46 staff members and 986 patients participated.

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Mar
2014

The aim of our survey was to assess the dosage and the frequency of side effects in patients with opioid dependency receiving opioid maintenance therapy (OMT).
A region-wide anonymous survey was carried out in the city of Berlin. The dosage, the frequency of side effects, data on the dependence disorder and type of OMT was assessed.

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Oct
2013

This study focused on the question whether patients with conventional opioid maintenance treatment (COMT) would prefer a switch to heroin maintenance treatment (HMT).
We performed a region-wide anonymous survey of patients in the opioid maintenance program in Berlin, Germany. All 20 psychiatric hospitals and all 110 physicians' practices in Berlin licensed to offer COMT were approached to reach patients under COMT and also fulfilling the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) criteria of opiate dependence.

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Feb
2014

Behavioral studies have shown an alcohol-approach bias in alcohol-dependent patients: the automatic tendency to faster approach than avoid alcohol compared with neutral cues, which has been associated with craving and relapse. Although this is a well-studied psychological phenomenon, little is known about the brain processes underlying automatic action tendencies in addiction. We examined 20 alcohol-dependent patients and 17 healthy controls with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), while performing an implicit approach-avoidance task.

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Jun
2013

Opiate-dependent patients can be given several days' worth of maintenance medication to take home. We studied whether the patients chosen to receive take home maintenance medication met the criteria that were published in the guidelines of the German Medical Association. These include, among other things: abstinence from additional consumption of heath-endangering substances, psychosocial reintegration, completion of the switch from illegal narcotics to the substitute maintenance medication, and clinical stabilization.

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Apr
2013

Patients with depression show an enhanced preoccupation with negative expectations and are often unable to look forward to positive events. Here we studied anticipatory emotional processes in unmedicated depressed patients using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Consistent with a negative processing bias, we hypothesized enhanced responses to negative and attenuated responses to positive expectancy cues in brain areas associated with emotional expectancy.

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May
2014

Neuropsychological studies reported decoding deficits of emotional facial expressions in alcohol-dependent patients, and imaging studies revealed reduced prefrontal and limbic activation during emotional face processing. However, it remains unclear whether this reduced neural activation is mediated by alcohol-associated volume reductions and whether it interacts with treatment outcome. We combined analyses of neural activation during an aversive face-cue-comparison task and local gray matter volumes (GM) using Biological Parametric Mapping in 33 detoxified alcohol-dependent patients and 33 matched healthy controls.

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Dec
1969

While hemispheric specialization of language processing is well established, lateralization of emotion processing is still under debate. Several conflicting hypotheses have been proposed, including right hemisphere hypothesis, valence asymmetry hypothesis and region-specific lateralization hypothesis. However, experimental evidence for these hypotheses remains inconclusive, partly because direct comparisons between hemispheres are scarce.

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Dec
2011

The human cerebrum is asymmetrical, consisting of two hemispheres with differing functions. Recent epidemiological and neurobiological research has shed new light on the development of the cerebral lateralization of motor processes, including handedness. In this article, we present these findings from a medical perspective.

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Mar
2012

Objective Augmentation of antidepressants with atypical antipsychotics is used in depressive patients with non-response to antidepressants. We investigated the utility of this strategy.Methods Systematic computer-based search in the online library Pubmed for randomized placebo-controlled double-blind trials (RCT) from the years 1990 to 2011.

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Sep
2010

Schizophrenia is the collective term for a heterogeneous group of mental disorders with a still obscure biological basis. In particular, the specific contribution of risk or candidate gene variants to the complex schizophrenic phenotype is largely unknown.
To prepare the ground for a novel "phenomics" approach, a unique schizophrenia patient database was established by GRAS (Göttingen Research Association for Schizophrenia), designed to allow association of genetic information with quantifiable phenotypes.

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Sep
2007

The reduction of the frequency of rehospitalisation is important for improving the outcomes for patients with schizophrenia.
This study compares the rate of rehospitalisation between patients with antipsychotics in depot-form (n = 77) and oral second-generation antipsychotics (SGA) (n = 156).
Patients with antipsychotics in depot-form had lower risk of rehospitalisation than with SGAs in oral-form after 24 months (p = 0.

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