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Author: Stefan J Borgwardt (42)


Dec
1969

Renewed interest has been seen in the use of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in psychiatric research and practice. The repeated use of LSD leads to tolerance that is believed to result from serotonin (5-HT) 5-HTreceptor downregulation. In rats, daily LSD administration for 4 days decreased frontal cortex 5-HTreceptor binding.

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Feb
2018

3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is used recreationally and investigated as an adjunct to psychotherapy. Methylphenidate and modafinil are psychostimulants that are used to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy, respectively, but they are also misused as cognitive enhancers. Little is known about differences in the acute effects of equally cardiostimulant doses of these stimulant-type substances compared directly within the same subjects.

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Apr
2017

We aimed to determine the prognostic accuracy of the Basel Screening Instrument for Psychosis (BSIP) in terms of specificity, sensitivity, positive and negative predictive value by following up individuals that were initially not considered to be at increased risk of psychosis based on the BSIP. Moreover, clinical characteristics of these individuals were examined given the relative lack of such information in the literature.
As part of the "Früherkennung von Psychosen" (FePsy) study, 87 individuals were screened with the BSIP.

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Oct
2016

Increasing evidence indicates that psychosis is associated with abnormal reward processing. Imaging studies in patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) have revealed reduced activity in diverse brain regions, including the ventral striatum, insula and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), during reward prediction. However, whether these reductions in local brain activity are due to altered connectivity has rarely been explored.

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Dec
1969

Previous diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have shown microstructural changes in the brain white matter of at-risk mental state (ARMS) subjects for psychosis and patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP). However, only a few studies have been conducted in clinical high-risk samples and findings in both groups are inconsistent, in particular along the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF).
This DTI study used tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) between ARMS subjects, untreated and antipsychotic-treated FEP patients and healthy controls (HC) across the whole brain and the SLF.

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Dec
1969

Individuals with at-risk mental state for psychosis (ARMS) often suffer from depressive and anxiety symptoms, which are clinically similar to the negative symptomatology described for psychosis. Thus, many ARMS individuals are already being treated with antidepressant medication.
To investigate clinical and structural differences between psychosis high-risk individuals with or without antidepressants.

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Apr
2015

Pituitary enlargement has been reported in individuals with schizophrenic psychosis or an at-risk mental state for psychosis (ARMS). In a previous study, our group could show pituitary volume increase in first episode and ARMS patients with later transition to psychosis (ARMS-T). However, there are no longitudinal studies on this issue so far.

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Jul
2014

Recent evidence has revealed abnormal functional connectivity between the frontal and parietal brain regions during working memory processing in patients with schizophrenia and first-episode psychosis. However, it still remains unclear whether abnormal frontoparietal connectivity during working memory processing is already evident in the psychosis high-risk state and whether the connection strengths are related to psychopathological outcomes.
Healthy controls and antipsychotic-naive individuals with an at-risk mental state (ARMS) performed an n-back working memory task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging.

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Jul
2014

Euphoria has been described in heroin-dependent individuals after heroin administration. However, affective disturbances and disorders are common in heroin dependence. The present study examined the acute effects of heroin on emotions in heroin-dependent patients.

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Feb
2014

In multiple sclerosis (MS) regional grey matter (GM) atrophy has been associated with disability progression.
The aim of this study was to compare regional GM volume changes in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients with progressive and stable disability, using voxel-based morphometry (VBM).
We acquired baseline and 1-year follow-up 3-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of RRMS patients, using two 1.

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Nov
2013

To determine whether spinal cord atrophy differs among disease subtypes in multiple sclerosis (MS) and whether it offers diagnostic and clinical correlative information beyond that provided by other magnetic resonance (MR) imaging markers.
The institutional review board approved the study; all subjects gave written informed consent. Upper cervical cord cross-sectional area (UCCA), brain and spinal cord lesion loads, and brain atrophy were measured in 440 patients with MS (311 with relapsing-remitting [RR] MS, 92 with secondary-progressive [SP] MS, and 37 with primary-progressive [PP] MS) studied in two centers.

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Apr
2013

Heroin dependence is associated with a stressful environment and with dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The present study examined the acute effects of intravenous heroin versus placebo on the HPA axis response in heroin-dependent patients. Twenty-eight heroin-dependent patients in heroin-assisted treatment and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy participants were included in a controlled trial in which patients were twice administered heroin or saline in a crossover design, and healthy controls were only administered saline.

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Nov
2012

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. MS lesions show a typical distribution pattern and primarily affect the white matter (WM) in the periventricular zone and in the centrum semiovale.
To track lesion development during disease progression, we compared the spatiotemporal distribution patterns of lesions in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) and secondary progressive MS (SPMS).

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Dec
1969

Heroin dependence is a chronic relapsing disorder characterized by the compulsion to seek and use heroin. Stress and craving are seen as key factors for heroin use. Moreover, altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function has been frequently reported.

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Mar
2012

Univariate analyses have identified gray matter (GM) alterations in different groups of MS patients. While these methods detect differences on the basis of the single voxel or cluster, multivariate methods like support vector machines (SVM) identify the complex neuroanatomical patterns of GM differences. Using multivariate linear SVM analysis and leave-one-out cross-validation, we aimed at identifying neuroanatomical GM patterns relevant for individual classification of MS patients.

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Oct
2012

Neurofunctional alterations are correlates of vulnerability to psychosis, as well as of the disorder itself. How these abnormalities relate to different probabilities for later transition to psychosis is unclear. We investigated vulnerability- versus disease-related versus resilience biomarkers of psychosis during working memory (WM) processing in individuals with an at-risk mental state (ARMS).

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May
2012

Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) has been used repeatedly in single-center studies to investigate regional gray matter (GM) atrophy in multiple sclerosis (MS). In multi-center trials, across-scanner variations might interfere with the detection of disease-specific structural abnormalities, thereby potentially limiting the use of VBM. Here we evaluated longitudinally inter-site differences and inter-site comparability of regional GM in MS using VBM.

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May
2011

People experiencing possible prodromal symptoms of psychosis have a very high risk of developing the disorder, but it is not possible to predict, on the basis of their presenting clinical features, which individuals will subsequently become psychotic. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that there are volumetric differences between individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis who later develop psychotic disorder and those who do not. However, the samples examined to date have been small, and the findings have been inconsistent.

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Jun
2011

Although the effects of cannabis on perception are well documented, little is known about their neural basis or how these may contribute to the formation of psychotic symptoms. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess the effects of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) during visual and auditory processing in healthy volunteers. In total, 14 healthy volunteers were scanned on three occasions.

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Dec
1969

Parietal lobes in schizophrenia: do they matter?

Schizophr Res Treatment 2011 16;2011:581686. Epub 2011 Oct 16.
Murat Yildiz, Stefan J Borgwardt, Gregor E Berger
Objective. Despite observations that abnormal parietal lobe (PL) function is associated with psychotic-like experiences, our knowledge about the nature of PL involvement in schizophrenia is modest. The objective of this paper is to investigate the role of the PL in schizophrenia.

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Jan
2011

Morphologic abnormalities of the pituitary gland volume (PV) have been reported in schizophrenia, but at what point in time they occur remains unclear. This study determines PV across different stages of emerging psychotic disorders compared to healthy controls.
We compared PV of 36 individuals with an at-risk mental state (ARMS) for psychosis, 23 patients with a first episode psychosis (FEP) and 20 healthy controls (HC).

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Apr
2010

Prevention of global gray matter (GM) volume changes in multiple sclerosis (MS) are an objective in clinical trials, but the effect of immunomodulatory medication on regional GM atrophy progression is unclear. MRIs from 86 patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) followed up for 24 months were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry. An analysis of covariance model (cluster threshold, corrected p<0.

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Jun
2010

Neural effects of heroin--relation to anxiety stress.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2010 Jun 28;34(5):816-7. Epub 2010 Jan 28.
Marc Walter, Gerhard A Wiesbeck, Anita Riecher-Rössler, Stefan J Borgwardt

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Oct
2010

The association of white matter (WM) lesions and grey matter (GM) atrophy is a feature in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). The spatiotemporal distribution pattern of WM lesions, their relations to regional GM changes and the underlying dynamics are unclear. Here we combined parametric and non-parametric voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to clarify these issues.

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May
2010

Alterations in gray matter volume (GMV) are a robust feature of schizophrenia. However, it is not clear to what extent these abnormalities are correlates of the genetic liability to the disorder, as opposed to environmental factors and the disorder itself. We investigated the influence of genetic and environmental risk on GMV in monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs concordant and discordant for schizophrenia.

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May
2010

Hippocampal volume (HV) reduction is well documented in schizophrenia. However, it is still unclear whether this change is a pre-existing vulnerability factor, a sign of disease progression, a consequence of environmental factors, such as drug use, antipsychotic medication, or malnutrition. The timing of HV changes is not well established, but a lack of macrostructural hippocampal brain abnormalities before disease onset would rather support a neuroprogressive illness model.

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Dec
2009

Despite extensive early detection research in schizophrenic psychoses, methods for identifying at-risk individuals and predicting their transition to psychosis are still unreliable. Moreover, there are sparse data on long-term prediction. We therefore investigated long-term psychosis transition in individuals with an At Risk Mental State (ARMS) and examined the relative efficacy of clinical and neuropsychological status in optimizing the prediction of transition.

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Jul
2009

In 1990 a satellite session of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ACNP) Annual Meeting was held that focused on the question of whether progressive changes in brain structure occur in schizophrenia and this session raised considerable controversy. Eighteen years later, on December 12, 2008, after much data have since accumulated on this topic, a group of approximately 45 researchers gathered after the annual ACNP meeting to participate in a similar workshop on several unresolved questions still remaining: (1) How strong and consistent is the evidence? (2) Is there anatomic specificity to changes and is it disease specific or subject specific? (3) What is the time course? (4) What is the underlying pathophysiology (i.e.

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Feb
2009

Symptomatic differences have been reported between patients with familial and sporadic schizophrenia. The present study examined neuroanatomical differences between the two subgroups and their parents using voxel-based morphometry. High-resolution T1-weighted images were obtained using 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging from 20 patients with schizophrenia (familial subgroup, n=10; sporadic subgroup, n=10), 20 of their parents (familial subgroup, n=10; sporadic subgroup, n=10) and 20 healthy volunteers.

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Jan
2009

Cannabis use can both increase and reduce anxiety in humans. The neurophysiological substrates of these effects are unknown.
To investigate the effects of 2 main psychoactive constituents of Cannabis sativa (Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol [Delta9-THC] and cannabidiol [CBD]) on regional brain function during emotional processing.

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Jan
2009

To investigate whether cortical thickness analysis in individuals with an at-risk mental state (ARMS) might contribute to early detection of psychosis.
Ethics committee approval and written informed consent were obtained. Cortical thickness was analyzed because early disease-related morphometric changes were expected to be most pronounced in the cerebral cortex.

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Mar
2009

Previous studies have established regional gray matter (GM) volume loss in multiple sclerosis (MS) but the relationship between development of white matter (WM) lesions and changes of regional GM volumes is unclear. The present study addresses this issue by means of voxel-based morphometry (VBM). T1-weighted three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from MS patients followed up for 12 months were analyzed using VBM.

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Dec
2008

Volumetric MRI abnormalities similar to those evident in schizophrenia are also evident in people at very high risk of psychosis. Which volumetric abnormalities are related to psychotic illness, as opposed to vulnerability to psychosis is unclear. The aim of the study was to compare regional gray matter volume in people before and after the onset of psychosis using a within-subject prospective design.

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Dec
2008

This study examined the effect of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) on brain activation during a motor inhibition task.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging and behavioural measures were recorded while 15 healthy volunteers performed a Go/No-Go task following administration of either THC or CBD or placebo in a double-blind, pseudo-randomized, placebo-controlled repeated measures within-subject design.
Relative to placebo, THC attenuated activation in the right inferior frontal and the anterior cingulate gyrus.

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Dec
2007

Neuroanatomical abnormalities are a well-established feature of schizophrenia. However, the timing of their emergence and the extent to which they are related to vulnerability to the disorder as opposed to psychotic illness itself is unclear.
To assess regional grey matter volume in the at-risk individuals who subsequently developed psychosis.

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May
2007

Individuals with an At Risk Mental State (ARMS) have a very high risk of developing a psychotic disorder but the basis of this risk is unclear. We addressed this issue by studying gray matter volume in this group with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Thirty-five individuals with an ARMS, 25 patients with first episode schizophrenia, and 22 healthy volunteers were studied using a 1.

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