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Author: Stefan P Koch (19)


Aug
2017

Neuroinflammation can be monitored using fluorine-19 (F)-containing nanoparticles andF MRI. Previously we studied neuroinflammation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) using room temperature (RT)F radiofrequency (RF) coils and low spatial resolutionF MRI to overcome constraints in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This yielded an approximate localization of inflammatory lesions.

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Jul
2017

Appetitive Pavlovian conditioning plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of drug addiction and conditioned reward cues can trigger craving and relapse even after long phases of abstinence. Promising preclinical work showed that the NMDA-receptor partial agonist D-cycloserine (DCS) facilitates Pavlovian extinction learning of fear and drug cues. Furthermore, DCS-augmented exposure therapy seems to be beneficial in various anxiety disorders, while the supposed working mechanism of DCS during human appetitive or aversive extinction learning is still not confirmed.

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Aug
2016

Behavioral control is influenced not only by learning from the choices made and the rewards obtained but also by "what might have happened," that is, inference about unchosen options and their fictive outcomes. Substantial progress has been made in understanding the neural signatures of direct learning from choices that are actually made and their associated rewards via reward prediction errors (RPEs). However, electrophysiological correlates of abstract inference in decision-making are less clear.

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Aug
2015

The electroencephalographically measured Bereitschafts (readiness)-potential in the supplementary motor area (SMA) serves as a signature of the preparation of motor activity. Using a multichannel, noninvasive near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) imager, we studied the vascular correlate of the readiness potential. Sixteen healthy subjects performed a self-paced or externally triggered motor task in a single or repetitive pattern, while NIRS simultaneously recorded the task-related responses of deoxygenated hemoglobin (HbR) in the primary motor area (M1) and the SMA.

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May
2016

In detoxified alcohol-dependent patients, alcohol-related stimuli can promote relapse. However, to date, the mechanisms by which contextual stimuli promote relapse have not been elucidated in detail. One hypothesis is that such contextual stimuli directly stimulate the motivation to drink via associated brain regions like the ventral striatum and thus promote alcohol seeking, intake and relapse.

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Dec
1969

Functional neuroimaging has provided evidence for altered function of mesolimbic circuits implicated in reward processing, first and foremost the ventral striatum, in patients with schizophrenia. While such findings based on significant group differences in brain activations can provide important insights into the pathomechanisms of mental disorders, the use of neuroimaging results from standard univariate statistical analysis for individual diagnosis has proven difficult. In this proof of concept study, we tested whether the predictive accuracy for the diagnostic classification of schizophrenia patients vs.

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Jul
2015

The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) are known to be part of a cortical network involved in visual spatial attention. Top-down control can modulate processing at target and distractor positions over a sequence of trials, leading to positive priming at prior target positions and negative priming at prior distractor positions. In order to elucidate the exact time course of this top-down mechanism we here propose a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) protocol.

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Dec
1969

In experimental psychology different experiments have been developed to assess goal-directed as compared to habitual control over instrumental decisions. Similar to animal studies selective devaluation procedures have been used. More recently sequential decision-making tasks have been designed to assess the degree of goal-directed vs.

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Jan
2014

Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a versatile neuroimaging tool with an increasing acceptance in the neuroimaging community. While often lauded for its portability, most of the fNIRS setups employed in neuroscientific research still impose usage in a laboratory environment. We present a wearable, multi-channel fNIRS imaging system for functional brain imaging in unrestrained settings.

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Jul
2012

To investigate the neural correlates of lucid dreaming.
Parallel EEG/fMRI recordings of night sleep.
Sleep laboratory and fMRI facilities.

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Feb
2012

The investigation of brain areas involved in the human execution/observation matching system (EOM) has been limited to restricted motor actions when using common neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). A method which overcomes this limitation is functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). In the present study, we explored the cerebral responses underlying action execution and observation during a complex everyday task.

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Feb
2012

Topographic non-invasive near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has become a well-established tool for functional brain imaging. Applying up to 100 optodes over the head of a subject, allows achieving a spatial resolution in the centimeter range. This resolution is poor compared to other functional imaging tools.

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Nov
2011

Since the discovery of the close association between rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and dreaming, much effort has been devoted to link physiological signatures of REM sleep to the contents of associated dreams [1-4]. Due to the impossibility of experimentally controlling spontaneous dream activity, however, a direct demonstration of dream contents by neuroimaging methods is lacking. By combining brain imaging with polysomnography and exploiting the state of "lucid dreaming," we show here that a predefined motor task performed during dreaming elicits neuronal activation in the sensorimotor cortex.

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Dec
1969

Non-invasive optical imaging of brain function has been promoted in a number of fields in which functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is limited due to constraints induced by the scanning environment. Beyond physiological and psychological research, bedside monitoring and neurorehabilitation may be relevant clinical applications that are yet little explored. A major obstacle to advocate the tool in clinical research is insufficient spatial resolution.

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Nov
2009

Understanding the rapidly developing building blocks of speech perception in infancy requires a close look at the auditory prerequisites for speech sound processing. Pioneering studies have demonstrated that hemispheric specializations for language processing are already present in early infancy. However, whether these computational asymmetries can be considered a function of linguistic attributes or a consequence of basic temporal signal properties is under debate.

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Nov
2009

A prompt behavioral response to a stimulus depends both on the salience of the stimulus as well as the subject's preparedness. Thus, both stimulus properties and cognitive factors, such as attention, may determine the strength of neuronal synchronization in the gamma range. For a comprehensive investigation of stimulus-response processing through noninvasive imaging, it is, however, a crucial issue whether both kinds of gamma modulation elicit a hemodynamic response.

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Nov
2009

Event-related potentials were measured to investigate the role of visual spatial attention mechanisms in conflict processing. We suggested that a more difficult target selection leads to stronger attentional top-down control, thereby reducing the effects of arising conflicts. This hypothesis was tested by varying the selection difficulty in a location negative priming (NP) paradigm.

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Jun
2008

In a simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) study, the predictive value of the individual alpha-frequency at rest (IAF) for the amplitude of neuronal and vascular responses to visual stimulation was investigated. Across subjects, we find (i) an inverse relationship between IAF and the amplitude of the alpha-rhythm at rest. The IAF also predicts (ii) the amplitude of the visual evoked potential (VEP), as well as (iii) the amplitude of the alpha-rhythm during stimulation.

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May
2006

We performed an electroencephalography and optical topography study simultaneously exploring electrophysiological and vascular response magnitude as a function of stimulus frequency. To elicit a response in the visual cortex, subjects were exposed to flicker frequencies varying from 1 to 25 Hz (1 Hz steps, eyes closed). Extending the standard view to compare magnitudes of the evoked neuronal to the evoked vascular response, we additionally investigated modulations of alpha-power, a marker of "background" EEG activity.

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