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Author: Stefanie Schreiber (35)


Nov
2017

We investigated corticospinal tract (CST) integrity in the absence of white matter (WM) lesions using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in early MS disease stages.
Our study comprised 19 patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), 11 patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), and 32 age- and sex-matched healthy controls, for whom MRI measures of CST integrity (fractional anisotropy [FA], mean diffusivity [MD]), T1- and T2-based lesion load, and brain volumes were available. The mean (SD) disease duration was 3.

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Dec
1969

While hypercholesterolemia plays a causative role for the development of ischemic stroke in large vessels, its significance for cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) remains unclear. We thus aimed to understand the detailed relationship between hypercholesterolemia and CSVD using the well described Ldlr-/- mouse model.
We used Ldlr-/- mice (n = 16) and wild-type (WT) mice (n = 15) at the age of 6 and 12 months.

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Feb
2018

We aimed to investigate whether sonographic peripheral cross-sectional nerve area (CSA) and progranulin (PGRN), a neuritic growth factor, are related to each other and whether they interact to predict clinical and paraclinical measures in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).
We included 55 ALS patients who had forearm median and ulnar nerve CSA, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) PGRN, and serum PGRN measures available. CSF PGRN was normalized against the CSF / serum albumin ratio (Qalb ).

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May
2017

Non-amyloid cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) may be interrelated through the damaged basement membranes (BMs) and extracellular matrix changes of small vessels, resulting in a failure of β-amyloid (Aβ) transport and degradation. We analyzed BM changes and the pattern of deposition of Aβ in the walls of blood vessels in spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats (SHRSP), a non-transgenic CSVD model. In 45 SHRSP and 38 Wistar rats aged 18 to 32 weeks: (i) the percentage area immunostained for vascular collagen IV and laminin was quantified; (ii) the capillary BM thickness as well as endothelial and pericyte pathological changes were analysed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM); and (iii) the presence of vascular Aβ was assessed.

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Jun
2017

There are conflicting results claiming that Alzheimer disease signature neurodegeneration may be more, less, or similarly advanced in individuals with β-amyloid peptide (Aβ)-negative (Aβ-) suspected non-Alzheimer disease pathophysiology (SNAP) than in Aβ-positive (Aβ+) counterparts.
To examine patterns of neurodegeneration in individuals with SNAP compared with their Aβ+ counterparts.
A longitudinal cohort study was conducted among individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and cognitively normal individuals receiving care at Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative sites in the United States and Canada for a mean follow-up period of 30.

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Dec
1969

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects upper and lower motor neurons. Observational and intervention studies can be tracked using clinical measures such as the revised Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-R) but for a complete understanding of disease progression, objective in vivo biomarkers of both central and peripheral motor pathway pathology are highly desirable. The aim of this study was to determine the utility of structural and diffusion imaging as central nervous system biomarkers compared to the standard clinical measure, ALSFRS-R, to track longitudinal evolution using three time-point measurements.

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Mar
2017

While chronic kidney disease seems to be an independent risk factor for cognitive decline, its impact on cerebral amyloid-β (Aβ) depositions, one hallmark of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) pathology, has not been investigated. Utilizing 80 male nontransgenic spontaneously hypertensive stroke prone rats (SHRSP) at various ages (12 to 44 weeks), tubulointerstitial renal damage, prevalence of cerebral microhemorrhages and Aβ accumulations were quantified. Using age-adjusted general linear models we investigated the main and interaction effects of renal damage and cerebral microhemorrhages on cerebral Aβ load.

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Apr
2016

Single lifestyle factors affect brain biomarkers and cognition. Here, we addressed the covariance of various lifestyle elements and investigated their impact on positron emission tomography-based β-amyloid (Aβ), hippocampal volume, and cognitive function in aged controls. Lower Aβ burden was associated with a lifestyle comprising high cognitive engagement and low vascular risk, particularly in apolipoprotein E ε4 carriers.

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Dec
1969

In this study we investigated whether peripheral nerve sonography could be used as a biomarker to monitor disease progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).
In 37 patients, ulnar and median nerve cross-sectional area (CSA) was determined in at least 2 ultrasound sessions; mean follow-up was 14.5 months.

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Oct
2015

The applicability of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) positron emission tomography (PET) as a biomarker in clinical settings to aid in selection of individuals at preclinical and prodromal Alzheimer disease (AD) will depend on the practicality of PET image analysis. In this context, visual-based Aβ PET assessment seems to be the most feasible approach.
To determine the agreement between visual and quantitative Aβ PET analysis and to assess the ability of both techniques to predict conversion from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to AD.

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Feb
2014

There is substantial controversy regarding the causative role of amyloid β (Aβ) deposition in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The cerebrovasculature plays an important role in the elimination of Aβ from the brain and hypertension is a well-known risk factor for AD. In spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats (SHRSP), an animal model of chronic arterial hypertension, cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) leads to age-dependent parenchymal Aβ accumulation similar to that observed in AD.

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Dec
1969

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), the accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides in the walls of cerebral blood vessels, is observed in the majority of Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains and is thought to be due to a failure of the aging brain to clear Aβ. Perivascular drainage of Aβ along cerebrovascular basement membranes (CVBMs) is one of the mechanisms by which Aβ is removed from the brain. CVBMs are specialized sheets of extracellular matrix that provide structural and functional support for cerebral blood vessels.

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May
2015

In this study we sought to determine the cross-sectional area (CSA) of peripheral nerves in patients with distinct subtypes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).
Ulnar and median nerve ultrasound was performed in 78 ALS patients [classic, n = 21; upper motor neuron dominant (UMND), n = 14; lower motor neuron dominant (LMND), n = 20; bulbar, n = 15; primary lateral sclerosis (PLS), n = 8] and 18 matched healthy controls.
Compared with controls, ALS patients had significant, distally pronounced reductions of ulnar CSA (forearm/wrist level) across all disease groups, except for PLS.

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Dec
1969

Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) in spontaneously hypertensive stroke prone rats (SHRSP) is accompanied by parenchymal amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition in the brain and by hypertensive nephropathy with tubulointerstitial damage. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) promotes blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown in SHRSP and may thus accelerate the failure of vascular and perivascular clearance of Aβ.
In this study, we test the hypothesis that treatment with NAC increases the cerebral Aβ load and improves renal damage in the SHRSP model.

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Dec
1969

Accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau (ptau) accompany cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) in the aging brain and in Alzheimer's disease. CSVD is characterized by a heterogeneous spectrum of histopathological features possibly initiated by an endothelial dysfunction and blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown.
We test the hypothesis that characteristic features of CSVD are associated with the accumulation of Aβ and ptau in non-transgenic spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats (SHRSP).

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Jun
2014

Liver resection is increasingly performed in elderly patients who are suspected of increased postoperative morbidity (PM) and reduced overall survival (OS). Patient selection based on the identification of age-adjusted risk factors may help to decrease PM and OS.
Prospectively collected data of 879 patients undergoing elective hepatic resection were analyzed.

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Jan
2014

There is growing evidence that endothelial failure and subsequent blood brain barrier (BBB) breakdown initiate cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) pathology. In spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats (SHRSP) endothelial damage is indicated by intraluminal accumulations of erythrocytes (erythrocyte thrombi) that are not observed with current magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Two-photon microscopy (2 PM) offers the potential for real-time direct detection of the small vasculature.

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Dec
1969

Human cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) has distinct histopathologic and imaging findings in its advanced stages. In spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats (SHRSP), a well-established animal model of CSVD, we recently demonstrated that cerebral microangiopathy is initiated by early microvascular dysfunction leading to the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier and an activated coagulatory state resulting in capillary and arteriolar erythrocyte accumulations (stases). In the present study, we investigated whether initial microvascular dysfunction and other stages of the pathologic CSVD cascade can be detected by serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

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Dec
1969

N-Acetylcystein (NAC) reduces the reperfusion injury and infarct size in experimental macroangiopathic stroke. Here we now investigate the impact of NAC on the development of the histopathology of microangiopathic cerebrovascular disease including initial intravasal erythrocyte accumulations, blood-brain-barrier (BBB)-disturbances, microbleeds and infarcts.
Spontaneously Hypertensive Stroke-Prone Rats (SHRSP) were treated with NAC (12 mg/kg body weight, daily oral application for three to 30 weeks) and compared to untreated SHRSP.

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Mar
2013

Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD, cerebral microangiopathy) leads to dementia and stroke-like symptoms. Lacunes, white matter lesions (WML) and microbleeds are the main pathological correlates depicted in in-vivo imaging diagnostics. Early studies described segmental arterial wall disorganizations of small penetrating cerebral arteries as the most pronounced underlying histopathology of lacunes.

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Mar
2013

In this study we compare the ultrasound features in the median nerve in patients with different types of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease and hereditary neuropathies with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) as a typical entrapment neuropathy.
Median nerve ultrasound and conduction studies were performed in patients with CMT1A (n = 12), MFN2-associated CMT2A (n = 7), CMTX (n = 5), and HNPP (n = 5), and in controls (n = 28).
Median nerve cross-sectional area (CSA) was significantly increased in CMT1A, whereas, in axonal CMT2A, fascicle diameter (FD) was enlarged.

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Nov
2012

In a pilot study we evaluated near-infrared spectroscopy as to its potential benefit in monitoring patients with steno-occlusive disease of a major cerebral artery for alterations in cortical hemodynamics.
Cortical maps of time-to-peak (TTP) in 10 patients unilaterally affected by severe stenosis or occlusion of the middle cerebral artery were acquired by multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy after bolus application of indocyanine green. Hemodynamic manifestations were assessed by comparison between affected and unaffected hemisphere and evaluated for common constituents by principal component analysis.

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Feb
2013

Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy type 2A (CMT2A) is associated with heterozygous mutations in the mitochondrial protein mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) that is intimately involved with the outer mitochondrial membrane fusion machinery. The precise consequences of these mutations on oxidative phosphorylation are still a matter of dispute. Here, we investigate the functional effects of MFN2 mutations in skeletal muscle and cultured fibroblasts of four CMT2A patients applying high-resolution respirometry.

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Nov
2012

Here we demonstrate basophile structures located in the arteriolar wall and being associated with a plasma-protein-leakage. We assume, that the structures indicate blood-brain-barrier-disturbances and degenerative small vessel wall alterations.

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Nov
2012

Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is a chronically proceeding pathology of small brain vessels associated with white matter lesions, lacunar infarcts, brain atrophy and microbleeds. CSVD leads to slowly increasing cognitive and functional deficits but may also cause stroke-like symptoms, if vessels in critical brain areas are affected. Spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats (SHRSP) exhibit several vascular risk factors, develop infarcts and hemorrhages and therefore represent a relevant model for the study of CSVD.

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Dec
2012

This study aims to assess perioperative incidence of wound hematoma and bleeding in patients who underwent carotid endarterectomy (CEA) under dual antiplatelet therapy.
Consecutive patients with initial CEA receiving aspirin, clopidogrel, or a combination of both were subjected to standard patch endarterectomy. Postoperative wound hematoma was assessed as moderate (subcutaneous bleeding, nonspace-occupying hematoma, and oozing suture bleeding) or severe, i.

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Jan
2013

The accuracy of information garnered by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), an important technology for elucidating molecular mechanisms of disease, is dependent on tissue quality. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effects of intra-operative manipulation, extended processing times, different temperatures or storage in RNAlater on RNA quality in liver samples for tissue banking. Liver samples, flash-frozen or in RNAlater, were collected over a time course (during surgery before blood arrest up to 1 day after surgery) with samples kept either at room temperature (RT) or on ice.

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Dec
1969

Human cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) has been hypothesized to be an age-dependent disease accompanied by similar vascular changes in other organs. SHRSP feature numerous vascular risk factors and may be a valid model of some aspects of human CSVD. Here we compare renal histopathological changes with the brain pathology of spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats (SHRSP).

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Feb
2012

Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is associated with vessel wall changes, microbleeds, blood-brain barrier (BBB) disturbances, and reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF). As spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats (SHRSP) may be a valid model of some aspects of human CSVD, we aimed to identify whether those changes occur in definite temporal stages and whether there is an initial phenomenon beyond those common vascular alterations. Groups of 51 SHRSP were examined simultaneously by histologic (Hematoxylin-Eosin, IgG-Immunohistochemistry, vessel diameter measurement) and imaging methods (Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 201-Thallium-Diethyldithiocarbamate/99m-Technetium-HMPAO Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography conducted as pilot study) at different stages of age.

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Feb
2011

Alterations of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) play a crucial role in schizophrenic pathology. While GAD has been studied in several brain regions, its expression in the posterior hippocampus formation has not been investigated in schizophrenia.
We studied the brains of 17 patients with chronic schizophrenia and 15 controls.

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Oct
2010

Radiation induced optic neuropathy (RION) is a rare but severe consequence of radiation therapy that is associated with adjuvant chemotherapy, specifically therapy with vincristine or nitrosoureas. However, there is very little evidence regarding the occurrence of RION after concomitant radiochemotherapy with temozolomide.
The case of a 63 year old woman with glioblastoma multiforme and concomitant radiochemotherapy with temozolomide is described.

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Apr
2010

Preoperative carotid sonography with consecutive preventive strategies might reduce stroke risk during cardiac surgery. Since routine sonography in all patients may be unfeasible, an approach to examine preselected patients was investigated.
A prognostic model predicting carotid disease was developed using the clinical data of 1,768 routinely examined patients.

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Jul
2009

The coincidence of hemodynamic and embolic findings in patients with stroke from large artery stenosis has suggested an interaction of both pathologies. This has emerged into the hypothesis of an impaired washout of emboli in the presence of hypoperfusion. We propose an additional link between both pathologies.

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