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Author: Stephane Raffard (69)



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Nov
2017

Rapid progress in the area of humanoid robots offers tremendous possibilities for investigating and improving social competences in people with social deficits, but remains yet unexplored in schizophrenia. In this study, we examined the influence of social feedbacks elicited by a humanoid robot on motor coordination during a human-robot interaction. Twenty-two schizophrenia patients and twenty-two matched healthy controls underwent a collaborative motor synchrony task with the iCub humanoid robot.

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Nov
2017

The main goal of the present study was to explore the associations between several key variables that have been shown to partially mediate the link between specific trauma exposure and auditory hallucinations (AH), that is, maladaptive schemas and dissociation in the general population.
In total, 425 voluntary participants were recruited from the general population and completed online the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Young schema questionnaire, the Dissociative Experiences Scale, and the Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale. Data were analysed using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling.

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Oct
2017

Destination memory, a memory component allowing the attribution of information to its appropriate receiver (e.g., to whom did I lend my pen?), is compromised in normal aging.

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Sep
2017

Apathy is a multidimensional symptom composed of cognitive, behavioral, and emotional facets including impaired motivation and reduced goal-directed behavior. Apathy belongs to schizophrenia's negative symptomatology which has received increased attention over the last years including a growing interest in the assessment and the consequences of apathy. Nevertheless, the pathological mechanisms are still insufficiently explored as well as the multidimensional aspect of this symptom.

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Jan
2017

This study evaluated the validity and reliability of the Montessori Assessment System. The Montessori Assessment System assesses preserved abilities in persons with moderate to severe dementia. In this respect, this instrument provides crucial information for the development of effective person-centered care plans.

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Dec
1969

We present novel, low-cost and non-invasive potential diagnostic biomarkers of schizophrenia. They are based on the 'mirror-game', a coordination task in which two partners are asked to mimic each other's hand movements. In particular, we use the patient's solo movement, recorded in the absence of a partner, and motion recorded during interaction with an artificial agent, a computer avatar or a humanoid robot.

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May
2017

Self-face recognition has been widely explored in the last few years. Nevertheless, the current literature relies on the use of standardized photographs, which do not represent daily life face recognition. Therefore, we aim for the first time to evaluate self-face processing in healthy individuals using natural/ambient images, which contain variations in the environment and in the face itself.

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May
2017

Existing evidence indicates that a younger subjective age is a marker of successful aging, including better health and cognition. Building upon this evidence, it is likely that individuals with dementia might feel older. However, subjective evaluation of age might not be affected by dementia because these individuals tend to be anosognosic and report positive health-related quality of life.

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Dec
1969

Recent studies suggest that parents' awareness of their offspring's schizophrenia could influence their offspring's insight. Low patient insight is linked to impairment of specific cognitive abilities, and biological parents of schizophrenia patients have impaired capacities in these same domains. However, little is known about what specific socio-demographic, affective or cognitive factors may influence biological parents' awareness of their offspring's disease.

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Jul
2017

Self-face recognition is crucial for sense of identity and for maintaining a coherent sense of self. Most of our daily life experiences with the image of our own face happen when we look at ourselves in the mirror. However, to date, mirror self-perception in schizophrenia has received little attention despite evidence that face recognition deficits and self abnormalities have been described in schizophrenia.

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Jul
2017

The relationships between the valence (positive or negative) of future imagined events and personality dimensions were examined in patients with schizophrenia. Correlational analyses showed that Extraversion was positively associated with the simulation of more positive future events whereas a statistical trend between Neuroticism and negative emotional valence was found. As in nonclinical individuals, personality is related to characteristics of mental time travel in schizophrenia patients.

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Aug
2017

We previously developed normative data for a French version of the Hayling Sentence Completion Test (f-HSCT) for adults and elderly people. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical utility of the f-HSCT norms in two clinical populations in which inhibition dysfunction has been largely documented, i.e.

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Aug
2017

The Hayling Sentence Completion Test (HSCT) measures prepotent response inhibition, useful to assess inhibition deficit in a variety of clinical conditions. Despite its extensive use by numerous clinical and research groups in France, normative data for the HSCT are not yet available for French speakers.
A French version of the HCST was administered to a sample of 426 healthy community-dwelling French speaking adults (20-87 years of age).

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Feb
2017

Destination memory refers to the ability to remember to whom a piece of information was previously transmitted. Our paper assessed this ability in schizophrenia. Twenty-five patients with schizophrenia and 25 control participants told proverbs (e.

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Dec
1969

The use of humanoid robots to play a therapeutic role in helping individuals with social disorders such as autism is a newly emerging field, but remains unexplored in schizophrenia. As the ability for robots to convey emotion appear of fundamental importance for human-robot interactions, we aimed to evaluate how schizophrenia patients recognize positive and negative facial emotions displayed by a humanoid robot.
We included 21 schizophrenia outpatients and 17 healthy participants.

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Dec
1969

The ability to follow one another's gaze plays an important role in our social cognition; especially when we synchronously perform tasks together. We investigate how gaze cues can improve performance in a simple coordination task (i.e.

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Jun
2016

Apathy defined as a mental state characterized by a lack of goal-directed behavior is prevalent and associated with poor functioning in older adults. The main objective of this study was to identify factors contributing to the distinct dimensions of apathy (cognitive, emotional, and behavioral) in older adults without dementia. One hundred and fifty participants (mean age, 80.

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Dec
1969

Previous research has demonstrated that self-referential strategies can be applied to improve memory in various memory- impaired populations. However, little is known regarding the relative effectiveness of self-referential strategies in schizophrenia patients. The main aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a new self-referential strategy known as self- imagination (SI) on a free recall task.

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Dec
1969

Self-face recognition has been shown to be impaired in schizophrenia (SZ), according to studies using behavioral tasks implicating cognitive demands. Here, we employed an eye-tracking methodology, which is a relevant tool to understand impairments in self-face recognition deficits in SZ because it provides a natural, continuous and online record of face processing. Moreover, it allows collecting the most relevant and informative features each individual looks at during the self-face recognition.

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May
2016

Apathy, described as impaired motivation and goal-directed behavior, is a common yet often overlooked multidimensional psychopathological state in schizophrenia. Its underlying cognitive processes remain largely unexplored. Data was drawn from a longitudinal hospital study of patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia; 137 (82.

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Mar
2016

Although some studies reported specifically self-face processing deficits in patients with schizophrenia disorder (SZ), it remains unclear whether these deficits rather reflect a more global face processing deficit. Contradictory results are probably due to the different methodologies employed and the lack of control of other confounding factors. Moreover, no study has so far evaluated possible daily life self-face recognition difficulties in SZ.

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Dec
1969

Destination memory, or the ability to remember the destination to whom a piece of information was addressed, is found to be compromised in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our paper investigated the relationship between destination memory and theory of mind in AD since both destination memory and theory of mind are social abilities that require processing attributes of interlocutors. Mild AD participants and controls were administered tasks tapping destination memory, affective theory of mind, and 1st and 2nd order cognitive theory of mind.

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Jul
2016

The ability to project oneself into the future contributes to development and maintenance of a coherent sense of identity. If recent research has revealed that schizophrenia is associated with difficulties envisioning the future, little is known about patients' future self-representations. In this study, 27 participants with schizophrenia and 26 healthy controls were asked to simulate mental representations of plausible and highly significant future events (self-defining future projections, SDFPs) that they anticipate to happen in their personal future.

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Oct
2015

Face perception depends both on the face and on the individual who perceives it. Some factors such as gender, ethnicity or age may influence face perception processing. For instance, recognition memory for faces of one's own age group is often superior to memory for other-age group faces.

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Dec
1969

Research shows beneficial effect of emotion on self-related information in patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Our paper investigates whether emotion improves destination memory (e.g.

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Aug
2015

Poor insight is found in up to 80% of schizophrenia patients and has been associated with multiple factors of which cognitive functioning, social and environmental factors. Few studies have explored associations between patient insight and that of their biological parents', and the influence of parental factors. Insight was assessed in 41 patients and their biological parents with Amador's Scale for the assessment of Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD).

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Oct
2015

Research suggests that exposure to music may enhance autobiographical recall in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) patients. This study investigated whether exposure to music could enhance the production of self-defining memories, that is, memories that contribute to self-discovery, self-understanding, and identity in AD patients.
Twenty-two mild-stage AD patients and 24 healthy controls were asked to produce autobiographical memories in silence, while listening to researcher-chosen music, and to their own-chosen music.

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Jun
2015

Facial emotion processing has been extensively studied in schizophrenia patients while general face processing has received less attention. The already published reviews do not address the current scientific literature in a complete manner. Therefore, here we tried to answer some questions that remain to be clarified, particularly: are the non-emotional aspects of facial processing in fact impaired in schizophrenia patients? At the behavioral level, our key conclusions are that visual perception deficit in schizophrenia patients: are not specific to faces; are most often present when the cognitive (e.

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Dec
1969

Although delusions and hallucinations are relatively common symptoms in individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD), very little is known regarding underlying mechanisms. We examined whether these manifestations could be underpinned by psychological distress and executive impairments.
Thirty-one participants with probable mild AD and 33 healthy older adults were administered a neuropsychological and clinical battery assessing delusions, hallucinations, anxiety, depression, episodic memory and executive functions (shifting, updating and inhibition).

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Dec
1969

Destination memory is the ability to remember the destination to which a piece of information has been addressed (e.g., "Did I tell you about the promotion?").

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Feb
2015

What leads healthy individuals to abnormal feelings of contact with schizophrenia patients remains obscure. Despite recent findings that human bonding is an interactive process influenced by coordination dynamics, the spatiotemporal organization of the bodily movements of schizophrenia patients when interacting with other people is poorly understood. Interpersonal motor coordination between dyads of patients (n = 45) or healthy controls (n = 45), and synchronization partners (n = 90), was assessed with a hand-held pendulum task following implicit exposure to pro-social, non-social, or anti-social primes.

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Feb
2015

Psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) have been found to manifest themselves on a continuum spanning both the general and clinical populations. Despite robust evidence that anxiety disorders are associated with increased risk of PLEs, little is known about their characteristics in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Therefore, this study aimed to explore the phenomenological similarities and differences of PLEs in OCD versus schizophrenia patients and healthy controls, and to test the impact of distress symptomatology on PLEs in OCD patients.

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Dec
1969

Semantic priming tasks are classically used to influence and implicitly promote target behaviors. Recently, several studies have demonstrated that prosocial semantic priming modulated feelings of social affiliation. The main aim of this study was to determine whether inducing feelings of social affiliation using priming tasks could modulate nonverbal social behaviors in schizophrenia.

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Nov
2014

Clinical insight in schizophrenia patients is partly associated with familial environment but has been poorly studied to date. We aimed to explore (1) the relationship between parents' cognitive insight and their offspring's; (2) the relationship between parents' cognitive insight and their clinical insight into the disease of their offspring; and (3) the clinical and cognitive determinants of cognitive insight in parents.
Cognitive insight was assessed in 37 patient-biological parent pairs/dyads with the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS).

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Dec
2014

This study explored the mediation effect of metacognitive beliefs on the relationship between intrusive thoughts and emotional distress in schizophrenia (N=49) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (N=35). Intrusive thoughts impact on anxiety and depression through beliefs about uncontrollability and danger of thoughts in schizophrenia. Negative beliefs in general mediated the effect of intrusive thoughts on anxiety in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

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Dec
1969

Apathy and reduced emotion-based decision-making are two behavioral modifications independently described in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI).
The aims of this study were to investigate decision-making based on emotional feedback processing in AD and aMCI and to study the impact of reduced decision-making performances on apathy.
We recruited 20 patients with AD, 20 participants with aMCI, and 20 healthy controls.

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Aug
2014

Apathy in schizophrenia patients is linked to marked functional impairments and can be defined as a quantitative reduction of voluntary, goal-directed behaviors. If there are now convincing arguments to consider apathy as a multidimensional psychopathological state (cognitive, emotional, and behavioral), there is a lack of validated and standardized instruments for detecting apathy and assessing its multidimensional aspects in schizophrenia. The Lille Apathy Rating Scale (LARS) is a semi-structured interview, yielding a global score and composite subscores for the different domains of apathy and has been validated in several different contexts but not in schizophrenia patients.

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Jun
2014

The positive association between memory self-efficacy (MSE), defined as the beliefs about one's ability to use memory effectively, and memory performance is highly documented in the literature but has not yet been explored in schizophrenia. In the current study the relationship between MSE and objective memory measures was explored in thirty schizophrenia patients and twenty healthy controls. Compared to healthy controls, schizophrenia patients presented lower MSE, which was associated with depression.

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Dec
1969

Neuropsychological tests are increasingly applied in research studies and clinical practice in psychiatry. In this context, the detection of poor effort is crucial to adequately interpret data. We measured schizophrenia patients' performance on a memory test designed to detect excessive malingering (the "21-Item Test"), before examining whether a second group of schizophrenia patients would excessively malinger on this test when given an incentive to feign memory impairment.

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Dec
1969

Defined by a persistent fear of embarrassment or negative evaluation while engaged in social interaction or public performance, social anxiety disorder (SAD) is one of the most common psychiatric syndromes. Previous research has made a considerable effort to better understand and assess this mental disorder. However, little attention has been paid to social motor behavior of patients with SAD despite its crucial importance in daily social interactions.

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Dec
2013

The aim of the study was to describe the evolution of the different dimensions of insight at 1 year and its associations with psychopathology and symptomatic remission. Participants included 55 patients hospitalized for a first psychosis episode and followed up at 6 and 12 months after discharge. Measures included the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS).

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Dec
1969

Intermediate endophenotypes emerge as an important concept in the study of schizophrenia. Although research on phenotypes mainly investigated cognitive, metabolic or neurophysiological markers so far, some authors also examined the motor behavior anomalies as a potential trait-marker of the disease. However, no research has investigated social motor coordination despite the possible importance of its anomalies in schizophrenia.

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Nov
2013

Expressive behaviour plays a crucial role in the success of social interactions. Abnormality of expressive behaviour has been reported in interpersonal interactions of patients suffering from schizophrenia and social phobia, two debilitating mental disorders with important social deficits. However, no study has compared the expressive behaviour in these two disorders.

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Jun
2013

Decision-making and apathy have common neuropsychological processes and neuroanatomical substrates. However, their links in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) remain unclear.
in order to evaluate these links, we compared 3 groups of 20 control subjects to 20 patients with MCI and 20 patients with mild AD.

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Oct
2013

Recent research has established that schizophrenia patients have difficulties envisioning the future. Although mental simulations have a clear adaptive value, little is known about the function of simulating future episodes, particularly emotional events. The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between apathy and future projection in schizophrenia.

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Oct
2013

Recent literature has shown the role of social factors, such as childhood negative experiences and attachment styles, in the genesis of psychotic symptoms. So far, despite this association with childhood negative experiences and a wide range of psychiatric disorders, no study has yet attempted to assess early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) in patients with schizophrenia as primary diagnosis. A sample of 48 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 44 control participants answered the schema questionnaire short form's French validation, and were assessed with the positive and negative syndrome scale as well as a scale of depression symptomatology.

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Mar
2013

The processes underlying the ability to make decisions about recommended treatments remain poorly understood in schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between capacity to consent to medication and cognitive biases in 60 schizophrenia patients. Main measures included the MacArthur Competence Assessment tool for Treatment (MacCAT-T) and the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS).

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Dec
2012

Decision making is a complex ability that is likely to be damaged in numerous psychiatric and neurologic disorders and also during the aging process. It therefore implies a large interconnection of cortical and subcortical structures that are directly impacted by the neuroanatomical and neurochemical modifications that occur during the usual or the pathologic aging. Two decision modalities have been isolated, depending on whether the decision making is performed under explicit knowledge of the risks taken or not.

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