Helping You Find Full Text Journal Articles

Search Results:

Author: Stewart L Einfeld (38)


Mar
2018

PWS is a severe developmental disability for which there is no known treatment. The oxytocin system is currently a primary target for intervention. The aim of this article is to review the evidence for the efficacy of intranasal oxytocin in PWS.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Sep
2017

Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder characterized by infantile hypotonia, hyperphagia, hypogonadism, growth hormone deficiency, intellectual disability, and severe emotional and behavioral problems. The brain mechanisms that underpin these disturbances are unknown. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) enables in vivo investigation of the microstructural integrity of white matter pathways.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Young people with intellectual disability exhibit substantial and persistent problem behaviours compared with their non-disabled peers. The aim of this study was to compare changes in emotional and behavioural problems for young people with intellectual disability with and without Down syndrome as they transition into adulthood in two different Australian cohorts.
Emotional and behavioural problems were measured over three time points using the Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC) for those with Down syndrome (n = 323 at wave one) and compared to those with intellectual disability of another cause (n = 466 at wave one).

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
2016

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is characterized by infantile hypotonia, hypogonadism, small hands and feet, distinct facial features and usually intellectual impairment. The disorder is associated with severe behavioral disturbances which include hyperphagia leading to morbid obesity, temper outbursts, skin-picking, and compulsive behaviors. While the brain mechanisms that underpin these disturbances are unknown these behaviors suggest a lack of inhibition and thus gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the main inhibitory neurotransmitter may be implicated.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Feb
2017

Individuals with an autism spectrum disorder commonly have limited social participation. This study aimed to examine the similarities and differences of everyday participation among males and females with autism spectrum disorder in Australia and Taiwan, using an experience sampling methodology. A total of 14 Australians (4 males, aged 16-43 years) and 16 Taiwanese (12 males, aged 19-45 years) with autism spectrum disorder who are cognitively able were asked to carry a device which prompted them seven times per day for 7 days, to record everyday participation: where they were, what they were doing, and who they were with.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Feb
2016

In the present study we examined the nature and developmental trajectory of self-injurious behaviour in Prader Willi syndrome (PWS) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The development of interventions is greatly aided by understanding gene to behaviour pathways, and this requires an accurate description of the behaviour phenotype, that is, which types and natural history of self-injurious behaviour are more common in PWS and ASD and which are shared with other forms of developmental disability. Self-injury displayed by individuals with PWS and individuals with ASD was compared with that reported in a group of individuals with intellectual disability due to mixed aetiology (ID group).

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

The purpose of the present study was to examine motivation for the contextual nature of motivations for social participation in cognitively able adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder, using self-determination theory as a theoretical framework.
Fourteen Australians and 16 Taiwanese (aged 16-45 years) with Asperger's syndrome and high functioning autism were asked to carry a device which prompted them seven times/day for 7 days, to record what they were doing, with whom, perceived difficulty and social reciprocity, and the reasons for engaging in a situation, which were then coded into degree of self-determination.
Multilevel analyses showed that participants were more likely to be self-determined while engaging in "solitary/parallel leisure" and "social activities" than in other types of activities.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

May
2015

People with intellectual disabilities are at a higher risk for experiencing behavioral, emotional, and psychiatric problems in comparison with the general population. People with Down syndrome have been reported as experiencing fewer behavioral problems than others with intellectual disability, although still at a greater level than the non-intellectually disabled population, except for depression and Alzheimer disease. The aim of this study was to describe the trajectories of subscales of behavior, including depressive symptoms, communication disturbance, anxiety, disruptiveness, and social relating abilities, for young adults with Down syndrome.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jun
2015

The aim of this study was to investigate the developmental trajectories of verbal aggression, physical aggression, and temper tantrums in four genetic syndrome groups. Participants were part of the Australian Child to Adult Development Study (ACAD), which collected information from a cohort of individuals with an intellectual disability at five time points over 18 years. Data were examined from a total of 248 people with one of the four following syndromes: Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, or Williams syndrome.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Mar
2015

To provide a review of the recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric disorders in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS).
Research in the last 12 months has provided a descriptive prognosis of psychosis in PWS and highlighted the possible genes associated with the increased risk of psychosis for those with maternal uniparental disomy (mUPD). Several studies investigating social and communication skills have shown people with PWS to have difficulty with core, receptive and expressive language skills, interpreting emotional valence in faces, playing with children of their own age, understanding personal space and a developmental delay in the theory of mind.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Apr
2015

There is increasing interest in oxytocin as a therapeutic to treat social deficits in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a course of oxytocin nasal spray to improve social behavior in youth with ASD.
In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial across two Australian university sites between February 2009 and January 2012, 50 male participants aged between 12 and 18 years, with Autistic or Asperger's Disorder, were randomized to receive either oxytocin (n = 26) or placebo (n = 24) nasal sprays (either 18 or 24 International Units), administered twice-daily for 8 weeks.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Sep
2014

Individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) have a significant reduction in the number of oxytocin-producing neurons (42%) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. A number of animal studies and observations of humans show that lesions in this region can produce PWS-like symptoms. Given the evidence for potential oxytocin deficiency, we tested the effects of a course of intranasal oxytocin on PWS symptoms.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
2014

Longitudinal research has demonstrated that social outcomes for adults with autism are restricted, particularly in terms of employment and living arrangements. However, understanding of individual and environmental factors that influence these outcomes is far from complete. This longitudinal study followed a community sample of children and adolescents with autism into adulthood.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Aug
2014

The literature on the association between behavioural and emotional problems and ageing in adults with Down syndrome (DS) without dementia is limited and has generally not reported on a wide range of behavioural and emotional problems. This research aimed to extend the field by examining the associations between age and a wide spectrum of behavioural and emotional problems in adults with DS without dementia. A preliminary analysis of the association between potential covariates and behavioural and emotional problems was also undertaken.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jul
2014

The current study aims to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Emotion Regulation and Social Skills Questionnaire (ERSSQ), a rating scale designed specifically to assess the social skills of young people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The participants were 84 children and young adolescents with ASD, aged between 7.97 and 14.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

May
2013

To review the recent evidence regarding early intervention and prevention studies for children with developmental disabilities and behaviour problems from 2011 to 2013. Recent advances in the field are discussed and important areas for future research are highlighted.
Recent reviews and studies highlight the utility of antecedent interventions and skills training interventions for reducing behaviour problems.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

May
2012

Children are motivated to engage in stereotypic and repetitive behaviours for a number of reasons. Their motivation seems to change according to context, but little empirical evidence supports that observation. Interventions designed to reduce the behaviours may be improved by an increased understanding of the interaction between motivation and context.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Mar
2012

In low- and middle-income (LAMI) countries, there is a lack of well-trained therapists to provide specialist interventions for children with intellectual disabilities and their families. We sought to identify strategies deliverable by families or non-specialist workers.
After searches of appropriate scientific databases, we applied GRADE methodology to rate the quality of evidence for these interventions.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Mar
2012

Given the paucity of relevant data, this study estimates the cost of intellectual disability (ID) to families and the government in Australia.
Family costs were collected via the Client Service Receipt Inventory, recording information relating to service use and personal expense as a consequence of ID. Government expenditure on the provision of support and services was estimated using top-down costing.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Mar
2012

Standardised normative data for checklists of behavioural and emotional disturbance have a demonstrated usefulness for clinicians, researchers, and service providers.
The Developmental Behaviour Checklist for Adults (DBC-A) was the instrument used in a large-scale Australian study (n = 1,538) of emotional and behavioural disturbance.
To assist the field, normative data is now available on the DBC-A for adults with ID from age 18-85 years, across three levels of intellectual disability (ID).

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jun
2011

Mental disorder and intellectual disability each accounts for substantial burden of disease. However, the extent of this co-occurrence varies substantially between reports. We sought to determine whether studies in children and/or adolescents with acceptably rigorous methods can be distinguished from existing reports, and whether key risk factors could be ascertained.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jun
2011

Although elevated rates of parent psychosocial distress have been associated with child behavior and emotional problems, little is known about the nature of this relationship over time. This study followed an epidemiological cohort of children and adolescents over 11 years with 4 waves of data collection. Within this cohort, complete data were available on 238 mothers and their children.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jun
2011

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is characterized by temper tantrums, impulsivity, mood fluctuations, difficulty with change in routine, skinpicking, stubbornness and aggression. Many studies on behavior in PWS are limited by sample size, age range, a lack of genetically confirmed diagnosis of PWS and inconsistent assessment of behavior. The aim of this study was to explore systematically the relation between behavioral problems and age groups, genetic subtypes and BMI categories in an adult PWS population.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Sep
2009

Individual change and variation in emotional/behavioral disturbance in children and adolescents with intellectual disability has received little empirical investigation. Based on 11 years of longitudinal data from the Australian Child to Adult Development Study, we report associations among individual differences in level, rate of change, and occasion-specific variation across subscales of the Developmental Behavior Checklist (DBC) with 506 participants who had intellectual disability and were ages 5 to 19 years at study entry. Correlations among the five DBC subscales ranged from .

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Apr
2010

A diagnostic hallmark of autism spectrum disorders is a qualitative impairment in social communication and interaction. Deficits in the ability to recognize the emotions of others are believed to contribute to this. There is currently no effective treatment for these problems.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Mar
2009

This study provides evidence for intrinsic and extrinsic motivators for stereotypical and repetitive behavior in children with autism and intellectual disability and children with intellectual disability alone. We modified the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) (1988b); dividing it into intrinsic and extrinsic measures and adding items to assess anxiety as an intrinsic motivator. Rasch analysis of data from 279 MASs (74 children) revealed that the items formed two unidimensional scales.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Sums of responses to behaviour checklist items are commonly used as outcome measures. We argue for the use of mean scores. For sets of responses registering absence and presence at different levels of intensity of behaviours we also show that mean scores may usefully be 'decomposed' into separate measures of the range and the intensity of problematic behaviours.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jan
2007

A 24-item short form of the 96-item Developmental Behaviour Checklist was developed to provide a brief measure of Total Behaviour Problem Score for research purposes. The short form Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC-P24) was chosen for low bias and high precision from among 100 randomly selected item sets. The DBC-P24 was developed from epidemiological data in the first three waves of the Australian Child to Adult Development study, and cross validated for groups with autism, fragile X, Prader-Willi, and Williams in this longitudinal study and in cross sectional Dutch, English, and Finnish samples of young people with intellectual disability.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Oct
2006

Comorbid severe mental health problems complicating intellectual disability are a common and costly public health problem. Although these problems are known to begin in early childhood, little is known of how they evolve over time or whether they continue into adulthood.
To study the course of psychopathology in a representative population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Oct
2006

Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a specific pattern of behavioural, communication and social problems. Additional mental health problems are often poorly understood and undetected. This study investigates the level and pattern of emotional and behavioural problems in young people with autism compared with children with intellectual disability (ID).

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

May
2006

Persons with Prader-Willi syndrome have been known to have a high mortality rate. However, intellectual disability, which usually accompanies Prader-Willi syndrome, is also associated with a higher mortality rate than in the general population. In this study, the death rates in a longitudinal cohort of people with Prader-Willi syndrome are compared with those for an epidemiologically derived control sample of people with intellectual disability from other causes.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

This study investigated factors associated with patient non-compliance with follow-up treatment after a presentation to an Emergency Department (ED) for deliberate self-harm (DSH). 56 patients under 24 years and 20 parents participated in this study. Subjects were interviewed by telephone after they had attended or missed a follow-up appointment following a presentation to an ED for DSH.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Sep
2003

Classification of psychopathology using operationalized diagnostic criteria is one component of psychiatric assessment. Previous literature has demonstrated that there are limitations in the International Classification of Diseases-10 (ICD-10) and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV (DSM-IV) when used with adults with intellectual disabilities.
A literature search using Medline, PsychLIT and hand searching of key journals identified the existing literature, which was reviewed by the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychiatric Disorders for Use with Adults with Learning Disabilities/Mental Retardation (DC-LD) Development Working Group.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Nov
2002

To determine whether a subset of items from the Developmental Behavior Checklist (DBC) could be selected to construct a reliable autism screening tool.
A 29-item scale-the Developmental Behavior Checklist-Autism Screening Algorithm (DBC-ASA)-was developed by using items from the DBC and evaluated in a sample comprising 180 children who met criteria for autism and 180 controls matched for age, sex, and IQ range.
This study found that the DBC-ASA has good validity in discriminating young people (4-18 years) with autism and IQ ranging from normal to severe intellectual disability from others using a cutoff score of 17.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

In 1998-1999, two Area Health Services in NSW conducted a project to implement evidence-based service enhancements for the clinical management of young people who present with Deliberate Self Harm (DSH) behaviour. The present study examined what structures and procedures were required to implement and sustain evidence-based practice in different health care settings for patients with DSH behaviour. Service provision was assessed at three points during the initial project to assess the degree of change that occurred, and 9 months after the completion of the project to allow an assessment of sustainability of the service provision.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Back to top