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Author: Sybil Crawford (151)


Feb
2018

Breastfeeding rates are lower for black women in the USA compared with other groups. Breastfeeding and lactation are sensitive time points in the life course, centering breastfeeding as a health equity issue. In the USA, experiences of racism have been linked to poor health outcomes but racism relative to breastfeeding has not been extensively investigated.

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Feb
2018

Many women experience both vasomotor menopausal symptoms (VMS) and depressed mood at midlife, but little is known regarding the prospective bi-directional relationships between VMS and depressed mood and the role of sleep difficulties in both directions.
A pooled analysis was conducted using data from 21 312 women (median: 50 years, interquartile range 49-51) in eight studies from the InterLACE consortium. The degree of VMS, sleep difficulties, and depressed mood was self-reported and categorised as never, rarely, sometimes, and often (if reporting frequency) or never, mild, moderate, and severe (if reporting severity).

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Jan
2017

Twenty-eight states have laws and regulations limiting the ability of nurse practitioners (NPs) to practice to the full extent of their education and training, thereby preventing patients from fully accessing NP services. Revisions to state laws and regulations require NPs to engage in the political process. Understanding the political engagement of NPs may facilitate the efforts of nurse leaders and nursing organizations to promote change in state rules and regulations.

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Jan
2018

Physicians have an important role addressing the obesity epidemic. Lack of adequate teaching to provide weight management counseling (WMC) is cited as a reason for limited treatment. National guidelines have not been translated into an evidence-supported, competency-based curriculum in medical schools.

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Nov
2017

Current preoperative assessment tools such as the American College of Surgeons Surgical Risk Calculator (ACS Calculator) are suboptimal for evaluating older adults. The objective was to evaluate and compare the performance of the ACS Calculator for predicting risk of serious postoperative complications with the addition of self-reported physical function versus a frailty score.
Prospective cohort.

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Sep
2017

The purpose of the current online cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship between hope, core self-evaluations (CSE), emotional well-being, health-risk behaviors, and academic performance in students enrolled in their first year of college. Freshmen (N = 495) attending a large public university in the Northeastern United States completed an online survey between February 1 and 13, 2017. Linear regression, path analysis, and structural equation modeling procedures were performed.

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Dec
2017

Depression risk increases during the menopausal transition (MT) and initial postmenopausal years-both times of significant fluctuations of estrogen. Research to date provides limited support for the hypothesis that estrogen fluctuations play a role in the greater susceptibility to midlife depression. Importantly, not all women report depressive symptoms during the MT, and recent reports suggest that duration of exposure to estradiol throughout the adult years may also play a role in vulnerability to depression.

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Sep
2017

We hypothesized that addressing anxiety and depressive mood disorders will improve chronic cough severity and cough quality of life (CQOL).
Major tenets of the theory of unpleasant symptoms were examined in a longitudinal observational study of consecutive adults with cough of > 8 weeks' duration treated in our cough clinic. At baseline and 3 and 6 months, subjects completed 3 Punum Ladders rating cough severity, the CQOL Questionnaire, the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales-21, and the Duke Functional Social Support Questionnaire.

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Jul
2017

Menstrual cycle hormone patterns in women approaching menopause are inadequately studied.
To describe day-to-day menstrual cycle hormones in women as they approach menopause from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation Daily Hormone Study (DHS).
DHS enrollees collected daily urine for one entire menstrual cycle or up to 50 days, whichever came first, annually, up to the final menstrual period (FMP) or for up to 10 years.

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Jul
2017

Up to 55% of patients who are administered ketamine experience an emergence phenomena (EP) that closely mimics schizophrenia and increases their risk of injury; however, to date, no studies have investigated genetic association of ketamine-induced EP in healthy patients.
The aim of the study was to investigate the feasibility and sample sizes required to explore the relationship between CYP2B6*6 and GRIN2B single-nucleotide polymorphisms and ketamine-induced EP.
This cross-sectional, pharmacogenetic candidate, gene pilot study recruited 75 patients having minor elective outpatient surgeries.

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Sep
2017

Given the 3.1 million breast cancer survivors in America, quality of life (QoL) is a vital issue. Bio-psychosocial milieu of survivorship is increasingly important.

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Sep
2017

Measurement of intervention fidelity is an essential component of any scientifically sound intervention trial. However, few papers have proposed ways to integrate intervention fidelity data into the execution of these trials.
The purpose of this article is to describe the intervention fidelity process used in a randomized controlled trial of a human patient simulator intervention and how these data were used to monitor drift and provide feedback to improve the consistency of both intervention and control delivery over time in a multisite education intervention for parents of children with newly diagnosed Type 1 diabetes.

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Nov
2016

There has been a 2% to 3% increase in Type 1 diabetes (T1D) in children below 11 years old. Preteens (9-12 years old) with T1D are often overlooked regarding future diabetes self-management (DSM) expectations because parents are still in the "driver's seat." The study purpose was to explore feasibility/ability to recruit and conduct a two-arm trial on reeducation, collaboration, and social support.

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Apr
2017

The aim of the study was to identify whether there is a decline in sexual functioning related to the menopausal transition or to hysterectomy.
In a cohort of 1,390 women aged 42 to 52, with intact uterus and at least one ovary, not using hormone therapy, and pre- or early perimenopausal at baseline, we fit piecewise linear growth curves to 5,798 repeated measurements (seven visits spanning 14.5 y) of a sexual functioning score (range, 5-25) as a function of time relative to date of final menstrual period (FMP) or hysterectomy.

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Jan
2017

Greater body mass index (BMI) and body fat are associated with vasomotor symptoms (VMS). Thus, weight loss may prevent VMS. We analyzed whether concurrent BMI or waist circumference and/or changes in weight or waist circumference predicted incident VMS and whether these relations differed by menopause stage or race/ethnicity.

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Jan
2017

This study examined racial/ethnic differences in gestational weight gain (GWG) predictors and association of first-trimester GWG to overall GWG among 271 White women and 300 Latina women. Rates of within-guideline GWG were higher among Latinas than among Whites (28.7% versus 24.

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Oct
2016

Women are at increased risk for mood disturbance during the menopause transition. Hot flashes (HFs), sleep disruption, and fluctuating estradiol levels correlate with menopause-associated depression but co-occur, making cause and effect relationships difficult to disentangle.
Using a GnRH agonist (GnRHa) experimental model, we investigated whether depressive symptoms are associated with HFs and/or are explained by concomitant sleep fragmentation in the absence of estradiol fluctuation.

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Dec
1969

Two case-control studies reported a 50 % decreased breast cancer risk among women who experienced menopausal vasomotor symptoms (VMS), but one cohort study found no association. VMS may be triggered by declining estrogen levels during menopause, whereas elevated estrogen levels have been associated with increased breast cancer risk. VMS may thus be indicative of lower susceptibility to breast cancer.

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Feb
2017

The menopausal transition (MT) is a critical period associated with physiologic changes that influence women's long-term health and longevity. Information is, however, limited regarding factors that influence age at the onset of the MT and its duration (ie, time from MT onset to the final menstrual period).
We analyzed data for 1,145 women from four sites of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation who participated in the menstrual calendar substudy, had the start of the MT identified, and had no missing covariate information.

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Oct
2016

The International Collaboration for a Life Course Approach to Reproductive Health and Chronic Disease Events (InterLACE) project is a global research collaboration that aims to advance understanding of women's reproductive health in relation to chronic disease risk by pooling individual participant data from several cohort and cross-sectional studies. The aim of this paper is to describe the characteristics of contributing studies and to present the distribution of demographic and reproductive factors and chronic disease outcomes in InterLACE.
InterLACE is an individual-level pooled study of 20 observational studies (12 of which are longitudinal) from ten countries.

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Jun
2016

Burnout is highly prevalent among Emergency Medicine (EM) physicians and has significant impact on quality of care and workforce retention. The objective of this study was to determine whether higher religion/spirituality (R/S) is associated with a lower prevalence of burnout among EM physicians (primary outcome). A history of malpractice lawsuits and maladaptive behaviors were the secondary outcomes.

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Dec
2016

Vasomotor symptoms (VMS) are highly prevalent among midlife women and have been associated with subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the association between VMS frequency and risk factors such as hypertension (HTN) remains unclear.
We examined VMS frequency and blood pressure (BP) among 2839 participants of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a multiethnic, prospective, study of women enrolled from seven U.

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Dec
1969

The aim of the study was to investigate the heterogeneity of temporal patterns of vasomotor symptoms (VMS) over the menopausal transition and identify factors associated with these patterns in a diverse sample of women.
The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation is a multisite longitudinal study of women from five racial/ethnic groups transitioning through the menopause. The analytic sample included 1,455 women with nonsurgical menopause and a median follow-up of 15.

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Aug
2016

The purpose of this study is to describe characteristics of middle-age inpatients' (ages 45-64) fallers and their fall and fall injury risk factors.
Middle-age falls were 42-46% of inpatient falls. Studies related to inpatient falls have not targeted this population.

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Mar
2017

To examine social and environmental factors that affect moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in mid-adolescent Hispanic females.
Secondary data analysis to examine social and environmental level factors related to MVPA levels in (n = 897) mid-adolescent Hispanic females.
Data were retrieved from the National Survey of Children's Health (2011/12).

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Jul
2016

To compare daily sex hormone levels and rates of change between women with history of migraine and controls.
History of migraine, daily headache diaries, and daily hormone data were collected in ovulatory cycles of pre- and early perimenopausal women in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Peak hormone levels, average daily levels, and within-woman day-to-day rates of decline over the 5 days following each hormone peak were calculated in ovulatory cycles for conjugated urinary estrogens (E1c), pregnanediol-3-glucuronide, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone.

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Feb
2016

Recommendations by the National Institute of Nursing Research and other groups have strongly encouraged nurses to pay greater attention to cost-effectiveness analysis when conducting research. Given the increasing prominence of translational science and comparative effective research, cost-effective analysis has become a basic tool in determining intervention value in research. Tracking phone-call communication (number of calls and context) with cross-checks between parents and healthcare providers is an example of this type of healthcare utilization data collection.

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Feb
2016

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends a staged approach to pediatric weight management, starting with helping families to make targeted dietary and activity changes. This pilot study evaluated the preliminary efficacy of a pediatric practice-based referral program to support parents in helping their overweight/obese children improve their weight-related behaviors and BMI.
A nonrandomized intervention study with contemporaneous control was used.

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Feb
2016

Care during pregnancy is multifaceted and often goes beyond traditional prenatal care from an obstetrical care provider. Coordinating care between multiple providers can be challenging, but is beneficial for providers and patients. Care coordination is associated with decreased costs, greater patient satisfaction, and a reduction in medical errors.

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Dec
1969

The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility of using human patient simulation (HPS) to teach type 1 diabetes (T1DM) management to grandparents of grandchildren with T1DM.
Thirty grandparents (11 male, 19 female) of young grandchildren (aged 12 and under) with T1DM were recruited from an urban medical center. Experimental group (n = 14) grandparents received hands-on visual T1DM management education using an HPS intervention, and control group (n = 16) grandparents received similar education using a non-HPS intervention.

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Feb
2016

Early in medical education, physicians must develop competencies needed for tobacco dependence treatment.
To assess the effect of a multi-modal tobacco dependence treatment curriculum on medical students' counseling skills.
A group-randomized controlled trial (2010-2014) included ten U.

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Dec
1969

To evaluate the efficacy of Parent Education Through Simulation-Diabetes (PETS-D; clinical trial registration NCT01517269) for parents of children <13 years old newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes with 3 parent education vignette sessions using human patient simulation (HPS) as compared with formal parent-nurse education sessions (vignette only) regarding diabetes knowledge, problem-solving skills, hypoglycemia fear, anxiety, and self-efficacy.
Subjects were randomized to the HPS parent diabetes education or the vignette-only arm. Using linear mixed modeling, we compared HPS and vignette-only groups at 2, 6, and 14 weeks.

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Aug
2015

Prospective trials investigating the accuracy of SLNB for cN0 (primary surgical therapy) and cN1 patients (neoadjuvant chemotherapy) have not utilized likelihood ratios (LR) to assess the impact of false negative SLNB. This review evaluates the evidence on accuracy of SLNB using STARD and QUADAS-2 (revised) criteria for patients undergoing primary surgical therapy and primary chemotherapy. It utilizes the: (i) Reported rates for pre-test probabilities of node positive disease from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database for the cN0 patients (primary surgical therapy) for each T stage; calculates the negative LR from cumulative evidence; and uses the Bayesian nomogram to compute the post-test probability of missing the metastatic axillary node based on negative SLNB.

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Feb
2015

To determine whether statin treatment is associated with increased risk of haemorrhagic stroke (HS) in older women. A secondary objective was to evaluate HS risk in users of combined statin and antiplatelet treatment.
Observational study: secondary data analysis from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) clinical trials.

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Mar
2015

This study aims to test the hypothesis that consistently ovulatory premenopausal/perimenopausal women have a more favorable cardiometabolic profile than anovulatory women.
The first four collections from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation Daily Hormone Study (DHS) were used. DHS enrollees annually completed a daily collection of first morning voided urine for an entire menstrual cycle or up to 50 days (whichever comes first).

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Mar
2015

Cardiovascular prevention is more effective if started early in life, but available interventions to promote healthy lifestyle habits among youth have been ineffective. Impulsivity in particular has proven to be an important barrier to the adoption of healthy behaviors in youth. Observational evidence suggests that mindfulness interventions may reduce impulsivity and improve diet and physical activity.

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Apr
2015

The expected duration of menopausal vasomotor symptoms (VMS) is important to women making decisions about possible treatments.
To determine total duration of frequent VMS (≥ 6 days in the previous 2 weeks) (hereafter total VMS duration) during the menopausal transition, to quantify how long frequent VMS persist after the final menstrual period (FMP) (hereafter post-FMP persistence), and to identify risk factors for longer total VMS duration and longer post-FMP persistence.
The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) is a multiracial/multiethnic observational study of the menopausal transition among 3302 women enrolled at 7 US sites.

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Mar
2015

Physicians play a critical role in addressing tobacco dependence, yet report limited training. Tobacco dependence treatment curricula for medical students could improve performance in this area. This study identified student and medical school tobacco treatment curricula characteristics associated with intentions and use of the 5As for tobacco treatment among 3rd year U.

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Mar
2015

This study aims to examine cross-sectional and longitudinal relations between dietary intake of isoflavones and bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) in black, white, Chinese, and Japanese women during the menopausal transition.
We tested whether tertiles of isoflavone intake were associated with baseline BMD when all women were premenopausal or early perimenopausal. To analyze whether isoflavone intake was associated with longitudinal BMD, we fitted piecewise linear models to repeated measurements of baseline-normalized LS or FN BMD as functions of time before or after the final menstrual period (FMP) date.

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Feb
2015

Few studies have evaluated factors that influence menstrual cycle length (MCL) during the menopausal transition (MT), a life stage during which very long cycles become more likely to occur. The objective of this article was to assess how body mass index and race/ethnicity--factors associated with MCL in young women--influence MCL during the MT.
Study of Women's Health Across the Nation menstrual calendar substudy data of African-American, white, Chinese, and Japanese women were available for three sites (southeastern Michigan, Los Angeles, and northern California).

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Dec
2014

This study prospectively examined the course of depression in African American and Caucasian midlife women over an 11-year period. Racial differences in lifetime history of depression, severity of depressive symptoms and rates of depressive disorders at baseline, and persistence or recurrence of depression over an 11 year period were examined. Predictors of persistence/recurrence of depression were also examined.

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Jun
2014

Women report greater sleep disturbance during the premenstrual phase of the menstrual cycle and during menses. However, the putative hormonal basis of perceived menstrual cycle-related sleep disturbance has not been investigated directly. We examined associations of objective measures of sleep fragmentation with reproductive hormone levels in healthy, premenopausal women.

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