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Author: Talissa A Altes (63)


Dec
1969

To develop and evaluate a protocol for hyperpolarized helium-3 (HHe) ventilation magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lungs of non-sedated infants and children.
HHe ventilation MRI was performed on seven children ≤4years old. Contiguous 2D-spiral helium-3 images were acquired sequentially with a scan time of ≤0.

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Jun
2017

To assess reader performance and subjective workflow experience when reporting bone age studies with a digital bone age reference as compared to the Greulich and Pyle atlas (G&P). We hypothesized that pediatric radiologists would achieve equivalent results with each method while digital workflow would improve speed, experience, and reporting quality.
IRB approval was obtained for this HIPAA-compliant study.

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Sep
2017

The aim of the study was to determine whether hyperpolarized He diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging detects abnormalities in the lungs in children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) as compared with age-matched normal children.
All experiments were compliant with Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and performed with Food and Drug Administration approval under an IND application. The protocol was approved by our Institutional Review Board, and written informed consent was obtained.

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Mar
2017

This pilot study evaluated the effect of short- and long-term ivacaftor treatment on hyperpolarized 3He-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-defined ventilation defects in patients with cystic fibrosis aged ≥12years with a G551D-CFTR mutation.
Part A (single-blind) comprised 4weeks of ivacaftor treatment; Part B (open-label) comprised 48weeks of treatment. The primary outcome was change from baseline in total ventilation defect (TVD; total defect volume:total lung volume ratio).

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Oct
2017

To evaluate T2 , T2*, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for hyperpolarized helium-3 (3 He) MRI of the human lung at three magnetic field strengths ranging from 0.43T to 1.5T.

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Sep
2016

The assessment of early pulmonary disease and its severity can be difficult in young children, as procedures such as spirometry cannot be performed on them. Computed tomography provides detailed structural images of the pulmonary parenchyma, but its major drawback is that the patient is exposed to ionizing radiation. In this context, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a promising technique for the evaluation of pediatric lung disease, especially when serial imaging is needed.

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Jan
2017

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an irreversible lung disease characterized by small-airway obstruction and alveolar-airspace destruction. Hyperpolarized 129 Xe diffusion MRI of lung is a promising biomarker for assessing airspace enlargement, but has yet to be validated by direct comparison to lung histology. Here we have compared diffusion measurements of hyperpolarized (HP) 129 Xe in explanted lungs to regionally matched morphological measures of airspace size.

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Mar
2016

Lung ventilation defects identified by using hyperpolarized 3-helium gas ((3)He) lung magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are prevalent in asthmatic patients, but the clinical importance of ventilation defects is poorly understood.
We sought to correlate the lung defect volume quantified by using (3)He MRI with clinical features in children with mild and severe asthma.
Thirty-one children with asthma (median age, 10 years; age range, 3-17 years) underwent detailed characterization and (3)He lung MRI.

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Apr
2016

Choline depletion is seen in cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency in spite of enzyme treatment and may result in liver, fatty acid, and muscle abnormalities. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of an easily absorbed choline-rich structured lipid (LYM-X-SORB™ [LXS]) to improve choline status.
Children with CF and pancreatic insufficiency were randomized to LXS or placebo in a 12-month double blind trial.

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Dec
1969

To propose an accurate methodological framework for automatically segmenting pulmonary proton MRI based on an optimal consensus of a spatially normalized library of annotated lung atlases.
A library of 62 manually annotated lung atlases comprising 48 mixed healthy, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthmatic subjects of a large age range with multiple ventilation levels is used to produce an optimal segmentation in proton MRI, based on a consensus of the spatially normalized library. An extension of this methodology is used to provide best-guess estimates of lobar subdivisions in proton MRI from annotated computed tomography data.

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Apr
2016

To investigate whether chemical shift saturation recovery (CSSR) MR spectroscopy with hyperpolarized xenon-129 is sensitive to the pulsatile nature of pulmonary blood flow during the cardiac cycle.
A CSSR pulse sequence typically uses radiofrequency (RF) pulses to saturate the magnetization of xenon-129 dissolved in lung tissue followed, after a variable delay time, by an RF excitation and subsequent acquisition of a free-induction decay. Thereby it is possible to monitor the uptake of xenon-129 by lung tissue and extract physiological parameters of pulmonary gas exchange.

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Dec
2015

To evaluate regional anisotropy of lung-airspace orientation by assessing the dependence of helium-3 ((3) He) apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values on the direction of diffusion sensitization at two field strengths.
Hyperpolarized (3) He diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lung was performed at 0.43T and 1.

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Oct
2015

To develop and validate a method for acquiring helium-3 ((3) He) and proton ((1) H) three-dimensional (3D) image sets of the human lung with isotropic spatial resolution within a 10-s breath-hold by using compressed sensing (CS) acceleration, and to assess the fidelity of undersampled images compared with fully sampled images.
The undersampling scheme for CS acceleration was optimized and tested using (3) He ventilation data. Rapid 3D acquisition of both (3) He and (1) H data during one breath-hold was then implemented, based on a balanced steady-state free-precession pulse sequence, by random undersampling of k-space with reconstruction by means of minimizing the L1 norm and total variance.

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Dec
2014

Magnetic-resonance spectroscopy and imaging using hyperpolarized xenon-129 show great potential for evaluation of the most important function of the human lung -- gas exchange. In particular, chemical shift saturation recovery (CSSR) xenon-129 spectroscopy provides important physiological information for the lung as a whole by characterizing the dynamic process of gas exchange, while dissolved-phase (DP) xenon-129 imaging captures the time-averaged regional distribution of gas uptake by lung tissue and blood. Herein, we present recent advances in assessing lung function using CSSR spectroscopy and DP imaging in a total of 45 subjects (23 healthy, 13 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and 9 asthma).

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Dec
2014

The field of proton lung MRI is advancing on a variety of fronts. In the realm of functional imaging, it is now possible to use arterial spin labeling (ASL) and oxygen-enhanced imaging techniques to quantify regional perfusion and ventilation, respectively, in standard units of measurement. By combining these techniques into a single scan, it is also possible to quantify the local ventilation-perfusion ratio, which is the most important determinant of gas-exchange efficiency in the lung.

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Sep
2014

Ventilation heterogeneity in asthma.

J Asthma 2014 Sep 15;51(7):677-84. Epub 2014 May 15.
W Gerald Teague, Nicholas J Tustison, Talissa A Altes
Non-uniform distribution of inspired gas within the lung, termed ventilation heterogeneity, is present in patients with even mild asthma. Current evidence strongly supports ventilation heterogeneity as a fundamental derangement of lung function in asthma that contributes per se to hypoxemia and airway hyper-responsiveness. An extreme example of ventilation heterogeneity is the identification by hyperpolarized gas MRI of lung regions with no ventilation, termed filling defects.

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Jan
2014

To determine whether helium-3 diffusion MR can detect the changes in the lungs of healthy nonsmoking individuals who were regularly exposed to secondhand smoke.
Three groups were studied (age: 59 ± 9 years): 23 smokers, 37 exposure-to-secondhand-smoke subjects, and 29 control subjects. We measured helium-3 diffusion values at diffusion times from 0.

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Jul
2013

Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is a noninvasive imaging modality, particularly attractive for pediatric patients given its lack of ionizing radiation. Despite many advantages, the physical properties of the lung (inherent low signal-to-noise ratio, magnetic susceptibility differences at lung-air interfaces, and respiratory and cardiac motion) have posed technical challenges that have limited the use of MR imaging in the evaluation of thoracic disease in the past. However, recent advances in MR imaging techniques have overcome many of these challenges.

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Feb
2014

To develop a breathhold acquisition for regional mapping of ventilation and the fractions of hyperpolarized xenon-129 (Xe129) dissolved in tissue (lung parenchyma and plasma) and red blood cells (RBCs), and to perform an exploratory study to characterize data obtained in human subjects.
A three-dimensional, multi-echo, radial-trajectory pulse sequence was developed to obtain ventilation (gaseous Xe129), tissue, and RBC images in healthy subjects, smokers, and asthmatics. Signal ratios (total dissolved Xe129 to gas, tissue-to-gas, RBC-to-gas, and RBC-to-tissue) were calculated from the images for quantitative comparison.

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Feb
2013

By permitting direct visualization of the airspaces of the lung, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using hyperpolarized gases provides unique strategies for evaluating pulmonary structure and function. Although the vast majority of research in humans has been performed using hyperpolarized (3)He, recent contraction in the supply of (3)He and consequent increases in price have turned attention to the alternative agent, hyperpolarized (129) Xe. Compared to (3)He, (129)Xe yields reduced signal due to its smaller magnetic moment.

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Aug
2013

Hyperpolarized xenon-129 has the potential to become a noninvasive contrast agent for lung MRI. In addition to its utility for imaging of ventilated airspaces, the property of xenon to dissolve in lung tissue and blood upon inhalation provides the opportunity to study gas exchange. Implementations of imaging protocols for obtaining regional parameters that exploit the dissolved phase are limited by the available signal-to-noise ratio, excitation homogeneity, and length of acquisition times.

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Apr
2012

Hyperpolarized xenon-129 is a noninvasive contrast agent for lung MRI, which upon inhalation dissolves in parenchymal structures, thus mirroring the gas-exchange process for oxygen in the lung. Multiple-exchange-time xenon polarization transfer contrast (MXTC) MRI is an implementation of the XTC MRI technique in four dimensions (three spatial dimensions plus exchange time). The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of MXTC MRI for the detection of microstructural deformations of the healthy lung in response to gravity-induced tissue compression and the degree of lung inflation.

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Oct
2011

To develop an automated segmentation method to differentiate the ventilated lung volume on (3) He magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Computational processing (CP) for each subject consisted of the following three essential steps: 1) inhomogeneity bias correction, 2) whole lung segmentation, and 3) subdivision of the lung segmentation into regions of similar ventilation. Evaluation consisted of two comparative analyses: i) comparison of the number of defects scored by two human readers in 43 subjects, and ii) simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE) in 18 subjects in which the ventilation defects were manually segmented by four human readers.

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May
2011

To develop and test a method to noninvasively assess the functional lung microstructure.
The Multiple exchange time Xenon polarization Transfer Contrast technique (MXTC) encodes xenon gas-exchange contrast at multiple delay times permitting two lung-function parameters to be derived: (i) MXTC-F, the long exchange-time depolarization value, which is proportional to the tissue to alveolar-volume ratio and (ii) MXTC-S, the square root of the xenon exchange-time constant, which characterizes thickness and composition of alveolar septa. Three healthy volunteers, one asthmatic, and two chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (GOLD stage I and II) subjects were imaged with MXTC MRI.

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Dec
2010

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects both the large and small airways and results in bronchoconstriction, mucous hypersecretion, smooth muscle hypertrophy, and subepithelial fibrosis. To gain insight into the pathophysiology of asthma, chest computed tomography (CT) has been investigated as a noninvasive method to evaluate airway wall thickness of medium and large airways. Hyperpolarized gas MRI can assess the functional alterations of airflow within the lung resulting from the structural changes in the airways.

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Dec
2010

Despite a myriad of technical advances in medical imaging, as well as the growing need to address the global impact of pulmonary diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, on health and quality of life, it remains challenging to obtain in vivo regional depiction and quantification of the most basic physiological functions of the lung-gas delivery to the airspaces and gas uptake by the lung parenchyma and blood-in a manner suitable for routine application in humans. We report a method based on MRI of hyperpolarized xenon-129 that permits simultaneous observation of the 3D distributions of ventilation (gas delivery) and gas uptake, as well as quantification of regional gas uptake based on the associated ventilation. Subjects with lung disease showed variations in gas uptake that differed from those in ventilation in many regions, suggesting that gas uptake as measured by this technique reflects such features as underlying pathological alterations of lung tissue or of local blood flow.

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Nov
2010

Carotid atherosclerotic plaque rupture is thought to cause transient ischemic attack (TIA) and ischemic stroke (IS). Pathological hallmarks of these plaques have been identified through observational studies. Although generally accepted, the relationship between cerebral thromboembolism and in situ atherosclerotic plaque morphology has never been directly observed noninvasively in the acute setting.

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Jun
2010

A computational framework is described that was developed for quantitative analysis of hyperpolarized helium-3 MR lung ventilation image data. This computational framework was applied to a study consisting of 55 subjects (47 asthmatic and eight normal). Each subject was imaged before and after respiratory challenge and also underwent spirometry.

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May
2010

To propose and test the feasibility of a novel method for quantifying 3D regional pulmonary kinematics from hyperpolarized helium-3 tagged MRI in human subjects using a tailored image processing pipeline and a recently developed nonrigid registration framework.
Following image acquisition, inspiratory and expiratory tagged (3)He magnetic resonance (MR) images were preprocessed using various image filtering techniques to enhance the tag surfaces. Segmentation of the three orthogonal sets of tag planes in each lung produced distinct point-set representations of the tag surfaces.

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Jan
2010

A pulse-sequence strategy was developed for generating regional maps of alveolar oxygen partial pressure (pO2) in a single 6-sec breath hold, for use in human subjects with impaired lung function. Like previously described methods, pO2 values are obtained by measuring the oxygen-induced T1 relaxation of inhaled hyperpolarized 3He. Unlike other methods, only two 3He images are acquired: one with reverse-centric and the other with centric phase-encoding order.

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Jan
2010

Disposable diapers contain super absorbent polymers that absorb liquid. A radio-dense artifact, seen when the diaper is wet, obscures radiographic information but is frequently misinterpreted. Our purpose was to examine this artifact on CT and MR to further clarify and explain its origin.

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Apr
2009

The purpose of our study was to develop a new method for quantifying the severity of cystic lung disease using chest CT and to evaluate this method in patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM).
Eighteen patients with LAM (all women; mean age, 43.6 years) underwent chest CT and pulmonary function testing including diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO).

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Jul
2009

The purpose of this study was to assess the properties of a model system for hyperpolarized He-3 (HHe) diffusion MR imaging created from the lungs of New Zealand white rabbits by drying the lungs while inflated at constant pressure. The dried lungs were prepared by sacrificing the animal, harvesting the lungs en bloc and dehydrating the lungs for several days using dry compressed air. In four rabbits, the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of HHe gas was measured in vivo and, within 1 week, in vitro in the dried lungs.

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Feb
2009

To determine changes in regional airflow obstruction over time in the lungs of patients with asthma, as demonstrated with hyperpolarized helium 3 ((3)He) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and to assess correlations with disease severity and use of asthma medications.
Institutional review board approval and written informed consent were obtained for this HIPAA-compliant study. Use of (3)He was approved by the U.

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Dec
2008

To prospectively apply an automated, quantitative three-dimensional approach to imaging and airway analysis to assess airway remodeling in asthma patients.
Using quantitative software (Pulmonary Workstation, version 0.139; VIDA Diagnostics; Iowa City, IA) that enables quantitative airway segment measurements of low-dose, thin-section (0.

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Jul
2008

To investigate short- and long-time-scale (3)He diffusion in asthma.
A hybrid MRI sequence was developed to obtain co-registered short- and long-time-scale apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps during a single breath-hold. The study groups were: asthma (n = 14); healthy (n = 14); chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 9).

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Jun
2008

Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with hyperpolarized (3)He gas is a powerful technique for probing the characteristics of the lung microstructure. A key parameter for this technique is the diffusion time, which is the period during which the atoms are allowed to diffuse within the lung for measurement of the signal attenuation. The relationship between diffusion time and the length scales that can be explored is discussed, and representative, preliminary results are presented from ongoing studies of the human lung for diffusion times ranging from milliseconds to several seconds.

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Mar
2008

A stimulated-echo-based technique was developed to measure the regional apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of hyperpolarized 3He during a single breathhold for diffusion times of 25 ms or greater. Compared to previous methods, a substantially shorter minimum diffusion time was achieved by decoupling diffusion sensitization from image acquisition. A hyperpolarized-gas phantom was used to validate the method, which was then tested in four healthy subjects in whom regional ADC maps were acquired with diffusion times of 50, 200, and 1500 ms and a tag wavelength of 5 or 10 mm.

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Mar
2008

Although subpleural cysts are known to be associated with Down syndrome, their etiology and prevalence remains unknown.
To determine the prevalence of subpleural cysts in children with Down syndrome and the association with prematurity, congenital heart disease (CHD), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and chronic ventilator support.
A review of the CT examinations of 25 children with Down syndrome was performed to determine the presence, location, and distribution of cysts along with associated abnormalities.

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Aug
2007

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide regional information about lung structural changes in cystic fibrosis (CF), albeit at lower spatial and temporal resolution than computed tomography. The lack of ionizing radiation associated with MRI may make MRI an attractive alternative to computed tomography in applications in which repeated or serial scanning is desired. Furthermore, MRI can provide functional information about the lung, which may prove to be a useful outcome measure in CF.

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Jun
2007

The purpose of this study was to assess the compromise between CT technical parameters and the accuracy of CT quantification of lung attenuation.
Materials that simulate water (0 H), healthy lung (-650 H), borderline emphysematous lung (-820 H), and severely emphysematous lung (-1,000 H) were placed at both the base and the apex of the lung of an anthropomorphic phantom and outside the phantom. Transaxial CT images through the samples were obtained while the effective tube current was varied from 440 to 10 mAs, kilovoltage from 140 to 80 kVp, and slice thickness from 0.

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Jul
2007

To measure lung motion between end-inhalation and end-exhalation using a hyperpolarized helium-3 (HP (3)He) magnetic resonance (MR) tagging technique.
Three healthy volunteers underwent MR tagging studies after inhalation of 1 L HP (3)He gas diluted with nitrogen. Multiple-slice two-dimensional and volumetric three-dimensional MR tagged images of the lungs were obtained at end-inhalation and end-exhalation, and displacement vector maps were computed.

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May
2007

It is unknown whether focal changes of airflow obstruction within the lungs of patients with asthma vary or are fixed in location with time or repeated bronchoconstriction. With hyperpolarized helium-3 magnetic resonance (H(3)HeMR) imaging, the airspaces are depicted and focal areas of airflow obstruction are shown as "ventilation defects."
To investigate the regional changes of airflow obstruction with time and repeated bronchoconstriction.

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Jan
2007

Treatment planning based on probability distribution function (PDF) of patient geometries has been shown a potential off-line strategy to incorporate organ motion, but the application of such approach highly depends upon the reproducibility of the PDF. In this paper, we investigated the dependences of the PDF reproducibility on the imaging acquisition parameters, specifically the scan time and the frame rate. Three healthy subjects underwent a continuous 5 min magnetic resonance (MR) scan in the sagittal plane with a frame rate of approximately 10 f s-1, and the experiments were repeated with an interval of 2 to 3 weeks.

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Mar
2007

The theoretical dependence of the mean and standard deviation of ADC values on signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was derived and compared to measured values in porous phantoms and the lungs of human subjects using diffusion-weighted hyperpolarized helium-3 MRI. For SNR values below 15, mean ADC values were highly SNR-dependent due to a combination of noise and choice of noise thresholding. Above SNR values of 15 and for mean ADC values within ranges relevant for evaluating lung disease (<0.

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Mar
2007

The apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) of hyperpolarized (3)He and (129)Xe gases were measured in the lungs of rabbits with elastase-induced emphysema and correlated against the mean chord length from lung histology. In vivo measurements were performed at baseline and 2, 4, 6, and 8 wk after instillation of elastase (mild and moderate emphysema groups) or saline (control group). ADCs were determined from acquisitions that used two b values.

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Dec
2006

To determine whether hyperpolarized helium-3 (HHe) diffusion MR can detect the expected enlargement of alveoli that occurs with lung growth during childhood.
A total of 29 normal subjects aged four to 30 years underwent HHe diffusion MR imaging with the b-value pair 0, 1.6 second/cm(2).

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Oct
2006

Accurate characterization of asthma severity is difficult due to the variability of symptoms. Hyperpolarized helium-3 MRI (H(3)HeMR) is a new technique in which the airspaces are visualized, depicting regions with airflow obstruction as "ventilation defects." The objective of this study was to compare the extent of H(3)HeMR ventilation defects with measures of asthma severity and spirometry.

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Oct
2006

Although computed tomography lung-screening programs report a 31% to 51% incidence of subcentimeter pulmonary nodules, 85% are too small to biopsy or interrogate with positron emission spectroscopy scans. We developed a technique using transthoracic percutaneous radiotracer injection with thoracoscopic radioprobe localization and excision for small pulmonary nodules. This report describes our series of the first 46 patients evaluated with this technique.

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