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Author: Theodoros D Karamitsos (95)


Jan
2018

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a multi-system, autoimmune disorder and confers one of the strongest risks for cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality.
To assess myocardial function and vascular stiffness in RA patients with and without cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR).
23 RA patients with no CVRFs (17 female, mean age 52±13 years), 46 RA patients with CVRFs (32 female, mean age 53± 12), 50 normal controls (32 female, mean age 50±11 years), and 13 controls with CVRFs (7 female, mean age 55±7 years), underwent CMR at 1.

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Dec
2017

The paper refers to the safety of MRI in patients with prosthetic heart valves or coronary stents. This condition is commonly regarded as a contraindication for MRI, where patients with these stents or valves are excluded from yielding the diagnostic imaging information provided by one of the most important noninvasive imaging modalities. On the basis of available evidence to date, all patients with prosthetic heart valves or coronary stents can safely undergo MRI at 1.

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Feb
2018

The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of qualitative stress perfusion cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) to diagnose ischemia-causing lesions according to different definitions of significant coronary artery disease (CAD), and magnetic field strength.
We searched PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for studies evaluating diagnostic performance of qualitative stress perfusion CMR for diagnosis of CAD versus coronary angiography or fractional flow reserve (FFR) from inception to 10 September 2017. We used hierarchical models to synthesize the available data.

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Feb
2018

Novel biomarkers have been proposed for identification of patients at greater risk of future adverse events among those presenting with chest pain. In this review, we aim to elucidate the ability of pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) to predict mortality and other cardiovascular events in this patient population.
A literature search of the electronic databases Medline, Scopus, Cochrane Library and ClinicalTrials.

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May
2017

Atrial septal defects (ASDs) are common immediately after percutaneous mitral commissurotomy (PMC). They are usually small, hemodynamically insignificant, and tend to decrease or disappear within 6 to 12 months. Herein, a case is described of persistent ASD in a patient with mitral valve stenosis who had undergone successful PMC three years previously.

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Oct
2017

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with coronary microvascular dysfunction in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) T1-mapping at rest and during adenosine stress can assess coronary vascular reactivity. We hypothesised that the non-contrast T1 response to vasodilator stress will be altered in patients with T2DM without CAD compared to controls due to coronary microvascular dysfunction.

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Oct
2016

Lone atrial fibrillation (AF) may reflect a subclinical cardiomyopathy that persists after sinus rhythm (SR) restoration, providing a substrate for AF recurrence. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of restoring SR by catheter ablation on left ventricular (LV) function and energetics in patients with AF but no significant comorbidities.
Fifty-three patients with symptomatic paroxysmal or persistent AF and without significant valvular disease, uncontrolled hypertension, coronary artery disease, uncontrolled thyroid disease, systemic inflammatory disease, diabetes mellitus, or obstructive sleep apnea (ie, lone AF) undergoing ablation and 25 matched control subjects in SR were investigated.

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May
2016

Pheochromocytoma is associated with catecholamine-induced cardiac toxicity, but the extent and nature of cardiac involvement in clinical cohorts is not well-characterized.
This study characterized the cardiac phenotype in patients with pheochromocytoma using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR).
A total of 125 subjects were studied, including patients with newly diagnosed pheochromocytoma (n = 29), patients with previously surgically cured pheochromocytoma (n = 31), healthy control subjects (n = 51), and hypertensive control subjects (HTN) (n = 14), using CMR (1.

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Jun
2016

Surgery for severe mitral regurgitation is indicated if symptoms or left ventricular dilation or dysfunction occur. However, prognosis is already reduced by this stage, and earlier surgery on asymptomatic patients has been advocated if valve repair is likely, but identifying suitable patients for early surgery is difficult. Quantifying the regurgitation may help, but evidence for its link with outcome is limited.

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Jan
2016

Concentric left ventricular (LV) remodeling is associated with adverse cardiovascular events and is frequently observed in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Despite this, the cause of concentric remodeling in diabetes per se is unclear, but it may be related to cardiac steatosis and impaired myocardial energetics. Thus, we investigated the relationship between myocardial metabolic changes and LV remodeling in T2DM.

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Dec
2016

Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are known to have impaired resting myocardial energetics and impaired myocardial perfusion reserve, even in the absence of obstructive epicardial coronary artery disease (CAD). Whether or not the pre-existing energetic deficit is exacerbated by exercise, and whether the impaired myocardial perfusion causes deoxygenation and further energetic derangement during exercise stress, is uncertain.
Thirty-one T2DM patients, on oral antidiabetic therapies with a mean HBA1c of 7.

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Nov
2015

Whether the myocardium in nonischemic heart failure experiences oxygen limitation remains a long-standing controversy. We addressed this question in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) using a dual approach. First, we tested the changes in myocardial oxygenation between rest and stress states, using oxygenation-sensitive cardiovascular magnetic resonance.

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Jun
2015

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the commonest cause of sudden cardiac death in the young, with an excess of exercise-related deaths. The HCM sarcomere mutations increase the energy cost of contraction and impaired resting cardiac energetics has been documented by measurement of phosphocreatine/ATP (PCr/ATP) using (31)Phosphorus MR Spectroscopy ((31)P MRS). We hypothesized that cardiac energetics are further impaired acutely during exercise in HCM and that this would have important functional consequences.

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May
2015

The goal of this study was to assess the diffuse myocardial fibrosis and edema in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using multiparametric cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and the association of myocardial T1 and extracellular volume (ECV) with disease activity, duration, and cardiac function.
RA is a connective tissue disorder, with frequent cardiovascular disease. Myocardial inflammation and diffuse fibrosis can be detected noninvasively by using native T1 mapping and ECV quantification on CMR.

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Aug
2015

Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors improve left ventricular (LV) remodelling and outcome in heart failure and hypertensive heart disease. They may be similarly beneficial in patients with aortic stenosis (AS), but historical safety concerns have limited their use, and no prospective clinical trials exist.
We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 100 patients with moderate or severe asymptomatic AS to examine the physiological effects of ramipril, particularly LV mass (LVM) regression.

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Nov
2014

Myocardial T1 relaxation times have been reported to be markedly abnormal in diverse myocardial pathologies, ascribed to interstitial changes, evaluated by T1 mapping and calculation of extracellular volume (ECV). T1 mapping is sensitive to myocardial water content of both intra- and extracellular in origin, but the effect of intravascular compartment changes on T1 has been largely neglected. We aimed to assess the role of intravascular compartment on native (pre-contrast) T1 values by studying the effect of adenosine-induced vasodilatation in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) before and after aortic valve replacement (AVR).

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Sep
2014

To explore the role of systemic inflammation in the regulation of adiponectin levels in patients with ischemic heart disease.
In a cross-sectional study of 575 subjects, serum adiponectin was compared between healthy subjects, patients with coronary artery disease with no/mild/severe heart failure (HF), and patients with nonischemic HF. Adiponectin expression and release from femoral, subcutaneous and thoracic adipose tissue was determined in 258 additional patients with coronary artery bypass grafting.

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May
2014

Acute myocarditis can be diagnosed on cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) using multiple techniques, including late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging, which requires contrast administration. Native T1-mapping is significantly more sensitive than LGE and conventional T2-weighted (T2W) imaging in detecting myocarditis. The aims of this study were to demonstrate how to display the non-ischemic patterns of injury and to quantify myocardial involvement in acute myocarditis without the need for contrast agents, using topographic T1-maps and incremental T1 thresholds.

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Jul
2014

An updated version of the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) Core Syllabus for the European Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) Certification Exam is now available online. The syllabus lists key elements of knowledge in CMR. It represents a framework for the development of training curricula and provides expected knowledge-based learning outcomes to the CMR trainees, in particular those intending to demonstrate CMR knowledge in the European CMR exam, a core requirement in the CMR certification process.

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Apr
2014

Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy in aortic stenosis (AS) is characterized by reduced myocardial perfusion reserve due to coronary microvascular dysfunction. However, whether this hypoperfusion leads to tissue deoxygenation is unknown. We aimed to assess myocardial oxygenation in severe AS without obstructive coronary artery disease, and to investigate its association with myocardial energetics and function.

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Mar
2014

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is characterised by multi-organ tissue fibrosis including the myocardium. Diffuse myocardial fibrosis can be detected non-invasively by T1 and extracellular volume (ECV) quantification, while focal myocardial inflammation and fibrosis may be detected by T2-weighted and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), respectively, using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). We hypothesised that multiparametric CMR can detect subclinical myocardial involvement in patients with SSc.

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May
2014

Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is a well-established noninvasive imaging modality in clinical cardiology. Its unsurpassed accuracy in defining cardiac morphology and function and its ability to provide tissue characterization make it well suited for the study of patients with cardiac diseases. Late gadolinium enhancement was a major advancement in the development of tissue characterization techniques, allowing the unique ability of CMR to differentiate ischemic heart disease from nonischemic cardiomyopathies.

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Oct
2013

This study sought to test the diagnostic performance of native T1 mapping in acute myocarditis compared with cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) techniques such as dark-blood T2-weighted (T2W)-CMR, bright-blood T2W-CMR, and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging.
The diagnosis of acute myocarditis on CMR often requires multiple techniques, including T2W, early gadolinium enhancement, and LGE imaging. Novel techniques such as T1 mapping and bright-blood T2W-CMR are also sensitive to changes in free water content.

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Dec
1969

Functional mitral regurgitation (MR) is prevalent among patients with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and is associated with a poorer prognosis. Our aim was to assess the primary determinants of MR severity in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) and nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM).
Patients with functional MR secondary to ICM (n = 55) and DCM (n = 48) were prospectively enrolled.

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Sep
2013

Aortic stenosis (AS) leads to left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and dysfunction. We hypothesized that cardiac steatosis is involved in the pathophysiology and also assessed whether it is reversible after aortic valve replacement.
Thirty-nine patients with severe AS (symptomatic=25, asymptomatic=14) with normal LV ejection fraction and no significant coronary artery disease and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls underwent cardiac 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging for the determination of steatosis (myocardial triglyceride content) and cardiac function, including circumferential strain (measured by magnetic resonance tagging).

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May
2013

Oxygenation-sensitive cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is a non-contrast technique that allows the non-invasive assessment of myocardial oxygenation. It capitalizes on the fact that deoxygenated hemoglobin in blood can act as an intrinsic contrast agent, changing proton signals in a fashion that can be imaged to reflect the level of blood oxygenation. Increases in O(2) saturation increase the BOLD imaging signal (T2 or T2*), whereas decreases diminish it.

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Jun
2013

Revascularization strategies for multivessel coronary artery disease include percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary artery bypass grafting. In this study, we compared the completeness of revascularization as assessed by coronary angiography and by quantitative serial perfusion imaging using cardiovascular magnetic resonance.
Patients with multivessel coronary disease were recruited into a randomized trial of treatment with either coronary artery bypass grafting or percutaneous coronary intervention.

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Nov
2013

Is it really fat? Ask a T1-map.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 2013 Nov 18;14(11):1060. Epub 2013 May 18.
Vanessa M Ferreira, Cameron J Holloway, Stefan K Piechnik, Theodoros D Karamitsos, Stefan Neubauer

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Apr
2013

This study sought to explore the potential role of noncontrast myocardial T1 mapping for detection of cardiac involvement in patients with primary amyloid light-chain (AL) amyloidosis.
Cardiac involvement carries a poor prognosis in systemic AL amyloidosis. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is useful for the detection of cardiac amyloid, but characteristic LGE patterns do not always occur or they appear late in the disease.

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Mar
2013

This study sought to assess myocardial perfusion and tissue oxygenation during vasodilator stress in patients with overt hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), as well as in HCM mutation carriers without left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, and to compare findings to those in athletes with comparable hypertrophy and normal controls.
Myocardial perfusion under vasodilator stress is impaired in patients with HCM. Whether this is associated with impaired myocardial oxygenation and tissue ischemia is unknown.

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Jul
2013

Aortic stenosis (AS) leads to diffuse fibrosis in the myocardium, which is linked to adverse outcome. Myocardial T1 values change with tissue composition.
To test the hypothesis that our recently developed non-contrast cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) T1 mapping sequence could identify myocardial fibrosis without contrast agent.

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Jan
2013

Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is a valuable clinical tool in everyday practice providing additional information to echocardiography. The late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) technique is now part of nearly every CMR protocol and enables in-vivo tissue characterization in ischemic (identification of scaring due to infarction) and many nonischemic cardiomyopathies (identification of regional or patchy fibrosis or infiltration). This review presents the evolving prognostic evidence base of LGE-CMR with a particular focus on nonischemic cardiomyopathies.

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Nov
2012

Noncontrast magnetic resonance T1 mapping reflects a composite of both intra- and extracellular signal. We hypothesized that noncontrast T1 mapping can characterize the myocardium beyond that achieved by the well-established late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) technique (which detects focal fibrosis) in both hypertrophic (HCM) and dilated (DCM) cardiomyopathy, by detecting both diffuse and focal fibrosis.
Subjects underwent Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance imaging at 3T (28 HCM, 18 DCM, and 12 normals).

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Sep
2012

Current indications for surgery in patients with significant aortic regurgitation (AR) focus on symptoms and left ventricular dilation/dysfunction. However, prognosis is already reduced by this stage, and earlier identification of patients for surgery could be beneficial. Quantifying the regurgitation may help, but there are limited data on its link with outcome.

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Jul
2012

To determine the effects of short-term exercise training on cardiac function and metabolism during rest and physical exercise in patients with heart failure from dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM).
Patients with DCM (n=15, age 58±2 years, NYHA class I-III) were studied before and after 8 weeks of cycle exercise for 20 min, five times per week.
Cardiac volumes, function and high energy phosphate metabolism were measured using cardiac magnetic resonance during rest and 7 min of acute physical exercise (leg-raising).

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Jun
2012

T2w-CMR is used widely to assess myocardial edema. Quantitative T1-mapping is also sensitive to changes in free water content. We hypothesized that T1-mapping would have a higher diagnostic performance in detecting acute edema than dark-blood and bright-blood T2w-CMR.

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May
2012

The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) MRI in suspected coronary artery disease (CAD).
By exploiting the paramagnetic properties of deoxyhemoglobin, BOLD magnetic resonance imaging can detect myocardial ischemia. We applied BOLD imaging and first-pass perfusion techniques to: 1) examine the pathophysiological relationship between coronary stenosis, perfusion, ventricular scar, and myocardial oxygenation; and 2) evaluate the diagnostic performance of BOLD imaging in the clinical setting.

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Mar
2012

The pathophysiology of chest pain in patients with cardiac syndrome X remains controversial. Advances in perfusion imaging with cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) now enable absolute quantification of regional myocardial blood flow (MBF). Furthermore, blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) or oxygenation-sensitive CMR provides the unprecedented capability to assess regional myocardial oxygenation.

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Feb
2012

Current cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) methods, such as late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and oedema imaging (T2W) used to depict myocardial ischemia, have limitations. Novel quantitative T1-mapping techniques have the potential to further characterize the components of ischemic injury. In patients with myocardial infarction (MI) we sought to investigate whether state-of the art pre-contrast T1-mapping (1) detects acute myocardial injury, (2) allows for quantification of the severity of damage when compared to standard techniques such as LGE and T2W, and (3) has the ability to predict long term functional recovery.

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Feb
2012

Echocardiography is the primary imaging modality for initial assessment and longitudinal evaluation of patients with valvular heart disease. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has emerged as an additional or alternative modality in these patients providing clinically useful information not only about the valve lesion itself but also about the consequences for the relevant ventricle. Other unique capabilities of CMR include the assessment of surrounding anatomy (eg, great vessels) and the evaluation of myocardial scar or fibrosis.

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