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Author: Till Sprenger (99)


Dec
1969

Migraine is associated with increased cardiovascular risk and vascular dysfunction. Since aerobic exercise can reduce cardiovascular risk, the present randomized controlled trail aimed at investigating the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIT) vs. moderate continuous exercise training (MCT) on arterial stiffness in migraine patients.

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Sep
2017

Amiselimod, an oral selective sphingosine-1-phosphate 1 receptor modulator, suppressed disease activity dose-dependently without clinically relevant bradyarrhythmia in a 24-week phase 2, placebo-controlled study in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.
To assess safety and efficacy of amiselimod over 96 weeks.
After completing the core study, patients on amiselimod continued at the same dose, whereas those on placebo were randomised 1:1:1 to amiselimod 0.

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Jan
2017

Background Functional connectivity of brain networks may be altered in migraine without aura patients. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have demonstrated changed activity in the thalamus, pons and cerebellum in migraineurs. Here, we investigated the thalamic, pontine and cerebellar network connectivity during spontaneous migraine attacks.

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Oct
2017

Daclizumab for the treatment of multiple sclerosis.

Neurodegener Dis Manag 2017 Oct 29;7(5):279-297. Epub 2017 Aug 29.
Athina Papadopoulou, Tobias Derfuss, Till Sprenger
Daclizumab is a monoclonal antibody that targets the α-chain of the IL-2 receptor. Results of Phase II and III clinical trials showed efficacy of daclizumab in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, with reduction of annualized relapse rate by 50-54% versus placebo and 45% versus intramuscular IFN-β-1a. Certain aspects of the immunomodulatory mode of action of daclizumab were only discovered during its clinical development, such as the expansion of a subpopulation of natural killer cells.

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Sep
2017

To assess, using structural image evaluation using normalization of atrophy (SIENA), the effect of teriflunomide, a once-daily oral immunomodulator, on brain volume loss (BVL) in patients with relapsing forms of MS enrolled in the phase 3 TEMSO study.
TEMSO MR scans were analyzed (study personnel masked to treatment allocation) using SIENA to assess brain volume changes between baseline and years 1 and 2 in patients treated with placebo or teriflunomide. Treatment group comparisons were made via rank analysis of covariance.

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Sep
2017

Some gadolinium-enhancing multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions remain T1-hypointense over months ("persistent black holes, BHs") and represent areas of pronounced tissue loss. A reduced conversion of enhancing lesions to persistent BHs could suggest a favorable effect of a medication on tissue repair. However, the individual tracking of enhancing lesions can be very time-consuming in large clinical trials.

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Jan
2017

Acute headache is a main reason for emergency consultations and can be a symptom of dangerous neurological conditions. We hypothesised that in medical walk-in headache patients with low suspicion of intracranial bleeding significant findings in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are associated with clinical features.
Retrospective chart review on medical outpatient referrals for brain MRI (2010-2014) with the chief complaint "acute headache" (duration <4 weeks).

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Feb
2018

Background We have recently shown that the presence of headache in ischemic stroke is associated with lesions of the insular cortex. The aim of this post-hoc subgroup analysis was to investigate the association of specific headache features with stroke location in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Methods In this observational study, patients (mean age: 61.

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Feb
2018

Introduction A large proportion of migraine patients remain undiagnosed or misdiagnosed in Italy. In our experience, many migraineurs self-diagnose their condition as "cervical pain attack" or "cervical pain syndrome" (CP), assuming cervical spine pathology as the cause. We aimed to phenotype and classify the headache of patients with self-diagnosed CP, and to describe this sample of patients.

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Oct
2016

Patients with multiple sclerosis, a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system with autoimmune pathogenesis, have shown partial response to a number of immunomodulating treatments, but the search for more effective, safe, and convenient therapeutic options continues. Amiselimod is an oral selective modulator of sphingosine 1-phosphate 1 (S1P1) receptor, which is being developed for the treatment of various autoimmune-mediated diseases. We assessed the safety and efficacy of amiselimod in patients with relapsing- remitting multiple sclerosis.

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Dec
1969

Practice-induced effects of specific balance training on brain structure and activity in elderly people are largely unknown.
In the present study, we investigated morphological and functional brain changes following slacking training (balancing over nylon ribbons) in a group of elderly people.
Twenty-eight healthy volunteers were recruited and randomly assigned to the intervention (mean age: 62.

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Jul
2016

Daclizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody against CD25 that modulates interleukin 2 signaling. The SELECT TRILOGY of clinical studies (SELECT/SELECTION/SELECTED) evaluated the safety and efficacy of daclizumab in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). We report the long-term safety and efficacy of daclizumab 150 mg subcutaneous every 4 weeks in patients with RRMS in the SELECTED open-label extension study.

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Apr
2017

To define values of normalized brain volume (NBV) that can be categorized as low, medium, or high, according to baseline characteristics of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients.
Expected NBV (eNBV) was calculated for each patient based on age, disease duration, sex, baseline Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), and T2-lesion volume, entering these variables into a multiple regression model run on 2342 RRMS patients (pooled FREEDOMS/FREEDOMS-II population). According to the difference between their observed NBV and their eNBV, patients were classified as having low NBV, medium NBV, or high NBV.

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Jul
2016

To provide new insights into the role of markers of response to interferon-β therapy in multiple sclerosis (MS) in a multicenter setting, focusing on the relevance of MRI lesions in combination with clinical variables.
A large multicenter clinical dataset was collected within the Magnetic Resonance Imaging in MS (MAGNIMS) network. This included a large cohort of patients with relapsing-remitting MS on interferon-β treatment, MRI and clinical assessments during the first year of treatment, and clinical follow-up of at least 2 additional years.

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May
2016

Multiple sclerosis (MS) affects all areas of the brain resulting in both focal and diffuse damage. In Phase 3 clinical trials, fingolimod showed significant reductions in both focal lesions and rate of brain volume loss (BVL) in patients with relapsing-remitting MS.
To investigate if the effects of fingolimod 0.

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Dec
1969

SEE DREIER DOI 101093/AWW112 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: For many decades a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier has been postulated to occur in migraine. Hypothetically this would facilitate access of medications, such as dihydroergotamine or triptans, to the brain despite physical properties otherwise restricting their entry. We studied the permeability of the blood-brain barrier in six migraineurs and six control subjects at rest and during acute glyceryl trinitrate-induced migraine attacks using positron emission tomography with the novel radioligand (11)C-dihydroergotamine, which is chemically identical to pharmacologically active dihydroergotamine.

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Jul
2016

Spinal cord (SC) atrophy is an important contributor to the development of disability in many neurological disorders including multiple sclerosis (MS). To assess the spinal cord atrophy in clinical trials and clinical practice, largely automated methods are needed due to the sheer amount of data. Moreover, using these methods in longitudinal trials requires them to deliver highly reliable measurements, enabling comparisons of multiple data sets of the same subject over time.

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Jul
2016

A concern for researchers planning multisite studies is that scanner and T1-weighted sequence-related biases on regional volumes could overshadow true effects, especially for studies with a heterogeneous set of scanners and sequences. Current approaches attempt to harmonize data by standardizing hardware, pulse sequences, and protocols, or by calibrating across sites using phantom-based corrections to ensure the same raw image intensities. We propose to avoid harmonization and phantom-based correction entirely.

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Dec
1969

The mechanisms leading to disability and the long-term efficacy and safety of disease modifying drugs (DMDs) in multiple sclerosis (MS) are unclear. We aimed at building a prospective cohort of MS patients with standardized collection of demographic, clinical, MRI data and body fluids that can be used to develop prognostic indicators and biomarkers of disease evolution and therapeutic response. The Swiss MS Cohort (SMSC) is a prospective observational study performed across seven Swiss MS centers including patients with MS, clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), radiologically isolated syndrome or neuromyelitis optica.

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Dec
1969

Fingolimod is a first in class oral compound approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS). The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical and neuroradiological responses to fingolimod as well as the safety and tolerability in RR-MS patients in clinical practice. In addition, a panel of pro-inflammatory serum cytokines was explored as potential biomarker for treatment response.

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Jan
2016

To investigate resting-state functional connectivity in the salience network (SN), the sensorimotor network (SMN), and the default mode network (DMN) during migraine attacks induced by pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-38 (PACAP38).
In a double-blind, randomized study, 24 female migraine patients without aura received IV PACAP38 or vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) over 20 minutes. Both peptides are closely related and cause vasodilation, but only PACAP38 induces migraine attacks.

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Jan
2016

Headache is a common symptom in acute ischaemic stroke, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. The aim of this lesion mapping study was to identify brain regions, which are related to the development of headache in acute ischaemic stroke. Patients with acute ischaemic stroke (n = 100) were assessed by brain MRI at 3 T including diffusion weighted imaging.

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Dec
1969

'No evidence of disease activity' (NEDA), defined as absence of magnetic resonance imaging activity (T2 and/or gadolinium-enhanced T1 lesions), relapses and disability progression ('NEDA-3'), is used as a comprehensive measure of treatment response in relapsing multiple sclerosis (RMS), but is weighted towards inflammatory activity. Accelerated brain volume loss (BVL) occurs in RMS and is an objective measure of disease worsening and progression.
To assess the contribution of individual components of NEDA-3 and the impact of adding BVL to NEDA-3 ('NEDA-4') METHODS: We analysed data pooled from two placebo-controlled phase 3 fingolimod trials in RMS and assessed NEDA-4 using different annual BVL mean rate thresholds (0.

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Oct
2015

The thalamus contains third-order relay neurons of the trigeminal system, and animal models as well as preliminary imaging studies in small cohorts of migraine patients have suggested a role of the thalamus in headache pathophysiology. However, larger studies using advanced imaging techniques in substantial patient populations are lacking. In the present study, we investigated changes of thalamic volume and shape in a large multicenter cohort of patients with migraine.

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Aug
2015

To determine the safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), and immunogenicity of the recombinant human monoclonal antibody MOR103 to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) with clinical or MRI activity.
In this 20-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 1b dose-escalation trial (registration number NCT01517282), adults with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) or secondary progressive MS (SPMS) received an IV infusion of placebo (n = 6) or MOR103 0.5 (n = 8), 1.

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Aug
2015

Magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) is a semi-quantitative measure that seems to correlate with the degree of myelin loss and generally tissue destruction in multiple sclerosis (MS). Our objective was to comprehensively assess the MTR of lesions and normal appearing (NA) tissue separately in the white matter (WM), the cortex, the thalamus and the basal ganglia (BG) and determine their relative contribution to disability. In this cross-sectional study 71 patients were included (59 with relapsing-remitting MS, 12 with secondary progressive MS).

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Jul
2015

To investigate the effect of different natalizumab washout (WO) periods on recurrence of MRI and clinical disease activity in patients switching from natalizumab to fingolimod.
In this multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (TOFINGO), patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) were randomized 1:1:1 to 8-, 12-, or 16-week WO followed by fingolimod treatment over 32 weeks from last natalizumab infusion (LNI). Brain MRI was performed at baseline and weeks 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24.

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May
2015

This review aims to understand the prevalence of premonitory symptoms in migraine, postulate their mechanisms, and compare these with functional imaging studies. A thorough literature review was conducted using PubMed for prevalence studies of premonitory symptoms in migraine and functional imaging studies in the premonitory phase. The majority of studies have been retrospective reporting a prevalence of 7-88% for premonitory symptoms in migraine.

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Jul
2014

In multiple sclerosis (MS), periaqueductal lesions (PAL) have been described histopathologically.
We sought to investigate the frequency and characteristics of PAL on magnetic resonance images (MRIs) in patients with MS or clinically isolated syndrome (CIS).
We analyzed proton density (PD)-weighted MRIs of 247 MS and 10 CIS patients.

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May
2015

Teriflunomide is a new oral disease-modifying drug (DMD), recently approved for the first-line treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS). Since MS is a chronic disease, which often necessitates long-term treatment, data not only on efficacy but also on long-term safety, including pregnancy-related issues, are very important.
In this review article, we outline the key preclinical and clinical data on teriflunomide with a focus on its safety profile.

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Feb
2015

We investigated the determinants and clinical correlations of MRI-detected brain volume loss (BVL) among patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis from the phase 3 trials of fingolimod: FREEDOMS, FREEDOMS II, and TRANSFORMS.
Post hoc analyses were conducted in the intent-to-treat populations from each trial and in a combined dataset of 3,635 patients from the trials and their extensions. The relationship between brain volume changes and demographic, clinical, and MRI parameters was studied in pairwise correlations (Pearson) and in multiple regression models.

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Dec
1969

Brain atrophy has been identified as an important contributing factor to the development of disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). In this respect, more and more interest is focussing on the role of deep grey matter (DGM) areas. Novel data analysis pipelines are available for the automatic segmentation of DGM using three-dimensional (3D) MRI data.

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Jun
2015

In multiple sclerosis (MS), cerebellar signs and symptoms as well as cognitive dysfunction are frequent and contribute to clinical disability with only poor response to symptomatic treatment. The current consensus paper highlights the broad range of clinical signs and symptoms of MS patients, which relate to cerebellar dysfunction. There is considerable evidence of cerebellar involvement in MS based on clinical, histopathological as well as structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies.

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Mar
2015

Different pathological processes like demyelination and axonal loss can alter the magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) in brain tissue. The standard method to measure this effect is to scan the respective tissue twice, one with and one without a specific saturation pulse. A major drawback of this technique based on spoiled gradient echo (GRE) sequences relates to its long acquisition time due to the saturation pulses.

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May
2015

In relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), the cerebellum is a known predilection site for atrophy. Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is characterized by extensive lesions in the spinal cord and optic nerve; however, cerebellar involvement has been less studied. Secondary degeneration of the spinocerebellar tract could impact the cerebellum in NMO.

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Dec
2014

Nausea is a common and disabling symptom of migraine. The origin of nausea is not well understood although functional connections between trigeminal neurons and the nucleus tractus solitarius may explain occurrence of nausea with pain. However, nausea occurs as a premonitory symptom in about a quarter of patients, suggesting that a primary brain alteration unrelated to the experience of pain may be the reason for nausea.

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Dec
2015

The neural mechanisms of heroin addiction are still incompletely understood, even though modern neuroimaging techniques offer insights into disease-related changes in vivo. While changes on cortical structure have been reported in heroin addiction, evidence from subcortical areas remains underrepresented. Functional imaging studies revealed that the brain reward system and particularly the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of drug addiction.

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Sep
2014

Previous studies have demonstrated that white matter (WM) lesions bias automated brain tissue classifications and cerebral volume measurements. However, filling WM lesions using the intensity of neighbouring normal-appearing WM has been shown to increase the accuracy of automated volume measurements in the brain. In the present study, we investigate the influence of WM lesions on cortical thickness (CTh) measures and assessed the impact of lesion filling on both cross-sectional/longitudinal and global/regional measurements of CTh in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients.

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Jun
2014

Crowned dens syndrome (CDS) is a clinical-radiological entity characterized by acute attacks of neck pain with fever, rigidity, general signs of inflammation, and calcification of the periodontoid articular structures.
Case report with 42 months follow-up.
An 81-year-old man, who had never suffered from headache before July 2010, developed strictly left-sided headaches.

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Jun
2014

To assess the relationship between the phenotype of the "visual snow" syndrome, comorbid migraine, and typical migraine aura on a clinical basis and using functional brain imaging.
Patients with "visual snow" suffer from continuous TV-static-like tiny flickering dots in the entire visual field. Most patients describe a syndrome with additional visual symptoms of the following categories: palinopsia ("afterimages" and "trailing"), entopic phenomena arising from the optic apparatus itself (floaters, blue field entoptic phenomenon, photopsia, self-light of the eye), photophobia, nyctalopia (impaired night vision), as well as the non-visual symptom tinnitus.

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Jan
2015

The hallmark of migraine aura (MA) is transient cortical dysfunction but it is not known if MA is associated with structural cortical or subcortical changes. To determine the relation between MA and structural gray matter abnormalities, we studied a unique sample of 20 patients with frequent side-locked MA, i.e.

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Nov
2014

Iron accumulation in deep grey matter (GM) structures is a consistent finding in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. This study focused on the identification of independent determinants of iron accumulation using R2* mapping.
Ninety-seven MS patients and 81 healthy controls were included in this multicentre study.

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Apr
2014

We report the case of a 49-year-old woman with painful trigeminal neuropathy in the right maxillary division attributed to a multiple sclerosis plaque as the presenting symptom of multiple sclerosis. The patient was initially treated with intravenous corticosteroids and was pain free on pregabalin for six months. She was then started on an immunomodulatory treatment and coinciding with the up-titration of interferon beta-1a, she experienced recurrence of painful trigeminal neuropathy as well as weekly migraine attacks.

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Aug
2014

Deep gray matter (DGM) atrophy has been reported in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) already at early stages of the disease and progresses throughout the disease course. We studied DGM volume and shape and their relation to disability in a large cohort of clinically well-described MS patients using new subcortical segmentation methods and shape analysis. Structural 3D magnetic resonance images were acquired at 1.

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Dec
1969

The cerebellum is known to be involved not only in motor but also cognitive and affective processes. Structural changes in the cerebellum in relation to cognitive dysfunction are an emerging topic in the field of neuro-psychiatric disorders. In Multiple Sclerosis (MS) cerebellar motor and cognitive dysfunction occur in parallel, early in the onset of the disease, and the cerebellum is one of the predilection sites of atrophy.

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Jan
2014

Our aim was identify brain areas involved in the premonitory phase of migraine using functional neuroimaging. To this end, we performed positron emission tomography scans with H2(15)O to measure cerebral blood flow as a marker of neuronal activity. We conducted positron emission tomography scans at baseline, in the premonitory phase without pain and during migraine headache in eight patients.

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Nov
2013

Multiple sclerosis (MS) has traditionally been considered to be primarily an inflammatory demyelinating disorder. Nowadays it is recognised as both an inflammatory and a neurodegenerative condition. This recognition is reflected in the development of new disease-modifying therapies that may offer the potential to reduce axon damage, either by inhibiting neurodegeneration or by promoting endogenous repair mechanisms.

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Sep
2013

Migraine is a largely inherited disorder of the brain with recurrent head pain attacks. There is an increasing awareness, however, that the manifestation of migrainous biology is not restricted to such acute head pain attacks, but that migraine is rather a disorder with a continuous complex and broad sensory processing dysfunction in which normal sensory stimuli (somatosensory, visual, auditory and olfactory) are misinterpreted by the brain. This dysfunction is most prominent during attacks, but there are more and more evidences that the processing and perception of stimuli is abnormal also outside of attacks to a varying degree.

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