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Author: Timothy G Heckman (32)


Mar
2018

Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) has demonstrated efficacy for the treatment of depression, yet little is known about its therapeutic mechanisms. As a specific treatment, IPT has been shown to directly reduce depressive symptoms, although it is unclear whether these reductions occur via interpersonal changes. Within IPT, the potential role of the working alliance, a common factor, as a predictor of depression and interpersonal changes is also unclear.

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Jun
2017

This study investigated how HIV-related shame is associated with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in older people living with HIV (PLHIV). Structural equation modeling tested whether HIV-related shame was associated with three dimensions of HRQoL (physical, emotional, and social well-being) and whether there were significant indirect associations of HIV-related shame with the three HRQoL dimensions via depression and loneliness in a sample of 299 PLHIV ≥50 years old. Results showed that depression and loneliness were key mechanisms, with depression at least partially accounting for the association between HIV-related shame and both emotional and physical well-being, respectively, and loneliness accounting for the association between HIV-related shame and social well-being.

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Jun
2017

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive rural individuals carry a 1.3-times greater risk of a depressive diagnosis than their urban counterparts. This randomized clinical trial tested whether telephone-administered interpersonal psychotherapy (tele-IPT) acutely relieved depressive symptoms in 132 HIV-infected rural persons from 28 states diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV major depressive disorder (MDD), partially remitted MDD, or dysthymic disorder.

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Jan
2017

Telepsychology research has focused primarily on treatment efficacy, with far less attention devoted to how common factors relate to teletherapy outcomes. This research identified trajectories of depressive symptom relief in 105 older people living with HIV with elevated depressive symptoms enrolled in a randomized clinical trial testing two 12-session group teletherapies and compared common factors (e.g.

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Dec
1969

Older adults are remaining sexually active for longer periods of time, underscoring the need to assess sexual activity patterns in this group and identify differences by race/ethnicity, some of which may have implications for the development and implementation of sexual risk reduction interventions.
Using data from the 2010 National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, this study examined responses from 1,429 adults aged 60 years and older. Multinomial logistic regression compared sexual behaviors, health-related indicators, interactions with healthcare professionals, and HIV-related perceptions across participants' race/ethnicity.

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Dec
1969

This study tested the mediating effect of resilience on the relationship between life stress and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in older people, 50 years of age and older, living with HIV/AIDS (OPLWHA).
Data from 299 OPLWHA were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM) to define a novel resilience construct (represented by coping self-efficacy, active coping, hope/optimism, and social support) and to assess mediating effects of resilience on the association between life stress and HRQoL (physical, emotional, and functional/global well-being).
SEM analyses showed satisfactory model fit for both resilience and mediational models, with resilience mediating the associations between life stress and physical, emotional, and functional/global well-being.

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Dec
1969

An estimated one-third of HIV-positive older adults continues to engage in sexual behaviors that risk HIV transmission or the acquisition of other sexually transmitted infections. A recently completed pilot randomized controlled trial of telephone-administered motivational interviewing (Tele-MI) targeting sexual risk behavior in 100 HIV-positive late middle-age and older adults found that a four-session Tele-MI intervention reduced episodes of non-condom-protected anal and vaginal intercourse. This secondary analysis examined the moderating effect of baseline depressive symptoms on intervention efficacy.

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Jan
2015

By 2015, one-half of all HIV-positive persons in the U.S. will be 50-plus years of age, and as many as 30 % of older adults living with HIV/AIDS continue to engage in unprotected sexual intercourse.

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Nov
2013

This clinical trial tested whether telephone-administered supportive-expressive group therapy or coping effectiveness training reduce depressive symptoms in HIV-infected older adults. Participants from 24 states (N = 361) completed the Geriatric Depression Scale at pre-intervention, post-intervention, and 4- and 8-month follow-up and were randomized to one of three study arms: (1) 12 weekly sessions of telephone-administered, supportive-expressive group therapy (tele-SEGT; n = 122); (2) 12 weekly sessions of telephone-administered, coping effectiveness training (tele-CET; n = 118); or (3) a standard of care (SOC) control group (n = 121). Tele-SEGT participants reported fewer depressive symptoms than SOC controls at post-intervention (MSEGT = 11.

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Dec
2013

The prevalence of HIV infection in older adults is increasing; by 2015, over half of adults living with HIV/AIDS in the United States will be over 50. This study describes the prevalence of drug use and examines psychosocial predictors of drug use in a sample of HIV-infected adults aged 50 and older. Participants were 301 HIV-positive older adults enrolled in a clinical trial of a coping intervention aimed to reduce their depressive symptoms.

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Feb
2013

One-third of adults living with HIV/AIDS are over the age of 50. This study evaluated the structure of coping among 307 older adults living with HIV/AIDS. Participants completed 61 coping items and measures of anxiety, depression, loneliness, and coping self-efficacy.

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Nov
2011

By 2014, 50% of all adults living with HIV/AIDS will be 50-plus years of age. This pilot randomized controlled trial assessed the efficacy of two telephone-delivered motivational interviewing (MI) interventions to reduce risky sexual behavior in HIV-infected adults 45-plus years old. Eligible participants reported engaging in at least one occasion of unprotected anal and/or vaginal intercourse in the 3 months prior to study enrollment.

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Feb
2011

Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) has transformed HIV from a terminal illness to a chronic condition. While disagreement remains regarding the level of medication adherence required to achieve and maintain viral suppression, the highest possible rate is preferable. This article discusses the case study of "Bob," a 54 year-old man living with HIV for 25 years.

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Feb
2011

Measurement invariance is the extent to which scales have the same meaning across groups, a condition that is necessary prior to conducting between-group comparisons. As stress and coping research increasingly examines the adjustment efforts of African Americans and Caucasians living with chronic health conditions, it is first necessary to assess the equivalence of existing stress and coping measures for both racial groups. This study examined the psychometric properties and measurement invariance of four measures used frequently in stress and coping research.

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Oct
2010

To assess the reliability of applying a radiographic scoring system in estimating the severity of stool retention (SR) in hospitalized older adults with constipation, and to identify risk factors associated with clinical constipation and SR scores.
Retrospective, case series study.
Southeast Ohio community hospital.

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Apr
2011

This research tested if a 12-session coping improvement group intervention (n = 104) reduced depressive symptoms in HIV-infected older adults compared to an interpersonal support group intervention (n = 105) and an individual therapy upon request (ITUR) control condition (n = 86). Participants were 295 HIV-infected men and women 50-plus years of age living in New York City, Cincinnati, OH, and Columbus, OH. Using A-CASI assessment methodology, participants provided data on their depressive symptoms using the Geriatric Depression Screening Scale (GDS) at pre-intervention, post-intervention, and 4- and 8-month follow-up.

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Oct
2011

This study characterized rates and correlates of ART adherence in 242 HIV-infected persons 50+ years of age. Hierarchical regressions tested a model in which depression mediated the relationships between social support and avoidance coping with ART adherence. Results indicated low rates of consistent and timely adherence in both men (48%) and women (51%).

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Mar
2010

Although several studies have characterized patterns and predictors of continued risky sexual behavior in HIV-infected rural persons, far less research has evaluated interventions to reduce risky sex in this group. This pilot randomized clinical trial compared 2 brief telephone-administered interventions designed to reduce continued risky sexual behaviors in HIV-infected rural persons.
Participants were 79 HIV-infected rural persons who reported 1 or more occasions of unprotected anal, vaginal, or oral sex in the past 2 months.

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Nov
2009

Adherence to HAART medication regimens is vital to maintaining suppression of HIV, but persons with HIV face many challenges to adhering consistently to HIV medication regimens. This is particularly true for persons who live in geographically-isolated areas or who have significant levels of cognitive compromise. A videophone-based version of Reynolds' HAART CARE (HC) telephone intervention for medication adherence was pilot-tested with 23 persons living with HIV residing in both urban and non-urban communities.

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May
2009

The CDC estimates that by 2015, half of all persons living with HIV/AIDS in the USA will be over the age of 50. Despite increasing HIV seroprevalence rates in older adults, most research examining adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) has focused on young HIV-infected persons and, in general, has been atheoretical in nature. This study examined two ART adherence conceptual frameworks to determine whether these models generalize to HIV-seropositive older adults.

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Nov
2008

This study characterized rates of sexual activity and identified psychosocial and behavioral correlates of sexual activity and condom use in a metropolitan sample of 290 HIV-infected adults 50-plus years of age. Thirty-eight percent of participants were sexually active in the past three months, 33% of whom had at least one occasion of anal or vaginal intercourse that was not condom protected. Rates and correlates of sexual activity and condom use differed between gay/bisexual men, heterosexual men, and heterosexual women.

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Aug
2006

By 2015, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention predicts that 50% of all cases of HIV/AIDS in the United States will be in persons 50 years of age or older.
This pilot research tested whether a 12-session, coping improvement group intervention delivered via teleconference technology could improve life quality in 90 middle-age and older adults living with HIV/AIDS.
This research used a lagged-treatment control group design.

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Feb
2006

The Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model of HIV preventive behavior (1-4) specifies that treatment effects on behavior occur largely as the result of treatment effects on behavioral skills, which follow from effects on information and motivation.
The objective was to determine whether the variables specified by the IMB model of HIV preventive behavior (1-4) accounted for the relation between an IMB-based treatment and resulting HIV preventive behavior (condom use).
Women (n = 557) living in 18 low-income housing developments in 5 geographically dispersed cities were recruited to participate in an HIV-prevention study.

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Sep
2005

Youth are increasingly at risk for contracting HIV infection, and community-level interventions are needed to reduce behavioral risk.
A randomized, controlled, multi-site community-level intervention trial was undertaken with adolescents living in 15 low-income housing developments in five US cities.
Baseline (n = 1172), short-term follow-up (n = 865), and long-term follow-up (n = 763) risk assessments were conducted among adolescents, ages 12-17, in all 15 housing developments.

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Aug
2004

To describe patterns and predictors of HIV risk behaviors among ethnically diverse, low-income adolescents.
Computer-assisted surveys were administered to 1172 adolescents between the ages of 12 and 17 years living in 15 low-income housing developments in three urban areas in the United States to characterize and identify predictors of HIV risk behavior. Data were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression to identify variables predictive of "no risk," "lower risk," and "higher risk" group classification.

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Jan
2004

The study delineated depressive symptoms and modeled emotional distress in persons living with HIV disease in nonmetropolitan areas of 13 U.S. states.

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Mar
2003

The chronic illness quality of life (CIQOL) model theorizes that life satisfaction in persons living with a chronic illness such as HIV disease is a function of illness-related discrimination, barriers to health care and social services, physical well-being, social support, and coping. The CIQOL model was evaluated using data from 275 persons living with HIV disease. Women reported less life satisfaction and confronted more barriers to health care and social services than men, and White participants reported higher perceptions of AIDS-related discrimination than non-White participants.

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Feb
2003

Little is known about continued high-risk sexual behavior of persons living with HIV disease in rural areas of the United States. However, as HIV seroprevalence rates increase in rural communities, there is an urgent need to develop interventions to assist HIV-infected rural individuals who have difficulty refraining from high-risk sex.
To characterize patterns of continued high-risk sex among 216 men and women living with HIV disease in rural areas of 12 states.

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