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Author: Tobias Gleich (18)


May
2017

In the present longitudinal study, we aimed to investigate video game training associated neuronal changes in reward processing using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We recruited 48 healthy young participants which were assigned to one of 2 groups: A group in which participants were instructed to play a commercial video game ("Super Mario 64 DS") on a portable Nintendo DS handheld console at least 30minutes a day over a period of two months (video gaming group; VG) or to a matched passive control group (CG). Before and after the training phase, in both groups, fMRI imaging was conducted during passively viewing reward and punishment-related videos sequences recorded from the trained video game.

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Mar
2017

Focused attention meditations have been shown to improve psychological health and wellbeing and are nowadays an integral part of many psychotherapies. While research on the neural correlates of focused attention meditation is increasing, findings vary on whether meditations are associated with high or low activity in the default mode network (DMN). To clarify the relationship between focused attention meditation and the activity in DMN regions, it may be helpful to distinguish internal and external attention as well as different phases within one meditation: During focused attention meditation, the practitioner switches between mindful attention, mind-wandering and refocusing.

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Dec
1969

Parenting is an essential factor within a child's development, yet the impact of normative variations of parenting on neural emotion processing has not been studied to date. The present study investigated 83 healthy adolescents using functional magnetic resonance imaging and an emotional face-matching paradigm. The faces paradigm elicited an increased amygdala response towards negative facial expressions (fearful and angry each compared to neutral faces) and a significant activation of fusiform gyrus to all emotions separately (fearful, happy, angry faces) compared to neutral faces.

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Dec
1969

The formation of a coherent and unified self-concept represents a key developmental stage during adolescence. Imaging studies on self-referential processing in adolescents are rare, and it is not clear whether neural structures involved in self-reflection are also involved in reflections of familiar others. In the current study, 41 adolescents were asked to make judgments about trait adjectives during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI): they had to indicate whether the word describes themselves, their friends, their teachers or politicians.

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Jan
2017

Adolescence is a critical maturation period for human cognitive control and executive function. In this study, a large sample of adolescents (n = 85) performed a reversal learning task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. We analyzed behavioral data using a reinforcement learning model to provide individually fitted parameters and imaging data with regard to reward prediction errors (PE).

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Dec
1969

This multi-methodological study applied functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate neural activation in a group of adolescent students (N = 88) during a probabilistic reinforcement learning task. We related patterns of emerging brain activity and individual learning rates to socio-motivational (in-)dependence manifested in four different motivation types (MTs): (1) peer-dependent MT, (2) teacher-dependent MT, (3) peer-and-teacher-dependent MT, (4) peer-and-teacher-independent MT. A multinomial regression analysis revealed that the individual learning rate predicts students' membership to the independent MT, or the peer-and-teacher-dependent MT.

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Feb
2016

Keratoacanthoma: a distinct entity?

Exp Dermatol 2016 Feb 4;25(2):85-91. Epub 2015 Dec 4.
Tobias Gleich, Elena Chiticariu, Marcel Huber, Daniel Hohl
Keratoacanthoma (KA) are common but exceptional benign tumors, often appearing on sun-exposed areas of light skinned people and showing spontaneous resolution. The goal of this study was to review existing literature, to point out the etiological complexity of KA biology and to answer the controversial debate if or not KA is a distinct entity or a variant of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Relying on recent results, we highlight that KA is an individual lesion with a unique molecular signature caused by alterations in the TGFβ signalling pathway.

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Jan
2016

A dysfunctional differentiation between self-relevant and irrelevant information may affect the perception of environmental stimuli as abnormally salient. The aberrant salience hypothesis assumes that positive symptoms arise from an attribution of salience to irrelevant stimuli accompanied by the feeling of self-relevance. Self-referential processing relies on the activation of cortical midline structures which was demonstrated to be impaired in psychosis.

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Jul
2015

The striatum is known to play a key role in reinforcement learning, specifically in the encoding of teaching signals such as reward prediction errors (RPEs). It has been proposed that aberrant salience attribution is associated with impaired coding of RPE and heightened dopamine turnover in the striatum, and might be linked to the development of psychotic symptoms. However, the relationship of aberrant salience attribution, RPE coding, and dopamine synthesis capacity has not been directly investigated.

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Oct
2015

Response inhibition is a basic mechanism in cognitive control and dysfunctional in major psychiatric disorders. The neuronal mechanisms are in part driven by dopamine in the striatum. Animal data suggest a regulatory role of glutamate on the level of the striatum.

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Jul
2015

Theoretical and animal work has proposed that prefrontal cortex (PFC) glutamate inhibits dopaminergic inputs to the ventral striatum (VS) indirectly, whereas direct VS glutamatergic afferents have been suggested to enhance dopaminergic inputs to the VS. In the present study, we aimed to investigate relationships of glutamate and dopamine measures in prefrontostriatal circuitries of healthy humans. We hypothesized that PFC and VS glutamate, as well as their balance, are differently associated with VS dopamine.

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Aug
2015

The perception of control over the environment constitutes a fundamental biological adaptive mechanism, especially during development. Previous studies comparing an active choice condition with a passive no-choice condition showed that the neural basis of this mechanism is associated with increased activity within the striatum and the prefrontal cortex. In the current study, we aimed to investigate whether subjective belief of control in an uncertain gambling situation induces elevated activation in a cortico-striatal network.

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Dec
1969

Video games contain elaborate reinforcement and reward schedules that have the potential to maximize motivation. Neuroimaging studies suggest that video games might have an influence on the reward system. However, it is not clear whether reward-related properties represent a precondition, which biases an individual toward playing video games, or if these changes are the result of playing video games.

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Dec
2014

Accurate chromosome segregation during mitosis is temporally and spatially coordinated by fidelity-monitoring checkpoint systems. Deficiencies in these checkpoint systems can lead to chromosome segregation errors and aneuploidy, and promote tumorigenesis. Here, we report that the TRAF-interacting protein (TRAIP), a ubiquitously expressed nucleolar E3 ubiquitin ligase important for cellular proliferation, is localized close to mitotic chromosomes.

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Nov
2015

The fronto-limbic network interaction, driven by glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission, represents a core mechanism of motivated behavior and personality traits. Reward seeking behavior undergoes tremendous changes in adolescence paralleled by neurobiological changes of this network including the prefrontal cortex, striatum and amygdala. Since fronto-limbic dysfunctions also underlie major psychiatric diseases beginning in adolescence, this investigation focuses on network characteristics separating adolescents from adults.

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Oct
2014

Processing of reward is the basis of adaptive behavior of the human being. Neural correlates of reward processing seem to be influenced by developmental changes from adolescence to late adulthood. The aim of this study is to uncover these neural correlates during a slot machine gambling task across the lifespan.

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Feb
2013

Altered striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission is thought to be fundamental to schizophrenia. Increased presynaptic dopaminergic activity ([18F]-DOPA PET) may predate the onset of psychotic symptoms and correlates to clinical symptoms in subjects at Ultra High Risk (UHR) for developing psychosis. Postsynaptic dopaminergic neurotransmission has not been investigated yet in UHR patients.

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