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Author: Ulrich Kintscher (100)


Jan
2018

Adipose tissue lipolysis occurs during the development of heart failure as a consequence of chronic adrenergic stimulation. However, the impact of enhanced adipose triacylglycerol hydrolysis mediated by adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) on cardiac function is unclear. To investigate the role of adipose tissue lipolysis during heart failure, we generated mice with tissue-specific deletion of ATGL (atATGL-KO).

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Dec
2017

The subendocardium is highly vulnerable to damage and is thus affected even in subclinical disease stages. Therefore, methods reflecting subendocardial status are of great clinical relevance for the early detection of cardiac damage and the prevention of functional impairment. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential ability of myocardial strain parameters to evaluate changes within the subendocardium.

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Sep
2017

To investigate matrix metalloproteinase-11 (MMP-11) expression in adipose tissue dysfunction, using in vitro and in vivo models of insulin resistance.
Culture of mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were induced to differentiation into mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Cellular insulin resistance was induced by treating differentiated cultured adipocytes with hypoxia and/or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and transcriptional changes were analyzed in each condition thereafter.

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Aug
2017

Cardiovascular magnetic resonance feature tracking (CMR-FT) is a novel tissue tracking technique developed for noninvasive assessment of myocardial motion and deformation. This preliminary study aimed to evaluate the observer's reproducibility of CMR-FT in a small animal (mouse) model and define sample size calculation for future trials.
Six C57BL/6 J mice were selected from the ongoing experimental mouse model onsite and underwent CMR with a 3 Tesla small animal MRI scanner.

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Aug
2017

The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and obesity have been implicated in vascular outward remodeling, including aneurysms, but the precise mechanisms are not yet understood. We investigated the effect of the angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1-receptor) antagonist telmisartan on aortic outward remodeling in a diet-induced obesity model in mice. C57/Black6J mice were fed either a low-fat diet (LFD) or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 14 weeks.

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Feb
2017

Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is a major regulator of metabolic processes in obesity. In this study we aimed to define the relevance of adipose tissue ERα during high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity using female aP2-Cre-/+/ERαfl/fl mice (atERαKO). HFD did not affect body weight or glucose metabolism in atERαKO- compared to control mice.

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Dec
1969

Monocyte migration is a key element in atherosclerosis. LDL-C facilitates monocyte migration via induction of CCR2. PCSK9 regulates cell surface expression of the LDL-R and is expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs).

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Jan
2017

In this structure-activity relationship study, the influence of aryl substituents at position 5 or 6 on the pharmacological profile of the partial PPARγ agonist 4'-((2-propyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-1-yl)methyl)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-2-carboxylic acid was investigated. This lead was previously identified as the essential part of telmisartan to induce PPARγ activation. Para-OCH3-phenyl substitution strongly increased potency and efficacy independent of the position.

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Nov
2016

In previous studies, the 4'-((2-propyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-1-yl)methyl)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-2-carboxylic acid was identified as pharmacophoric core for PPARγ activation. In this structure-activity relationship study the C2-alkyl chain was elongated and the 2-COOH group was changed to a carbamide/carbonitrile or shifted to the 3- or 4-position. Furthermore, the benzo[d]imidazole was exchanged by 2,3-dihydrobenzo[d]thiazole or 1H-indole.

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Jun
2016

In weight loss trials, a considerable inter-individual variability in reduction of fat mass and changes of insulin resistance is observed, even under standardized study conditions. The underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Given the metabolic properties of the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) system, we hypothesized that ANP signaling might be involved in this phenomenon by changes of ANP secretion or receptor balance.

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Mar
2016

Insulin resistance plays a crucial role in the development of type 2 diabetes. Insulin receptor signalling is antagonized and tightly controlled by protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). However, the precise role of the PTP src homology 2 domain-containing phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) in insulin resistance has not been explored.

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May
2016

Pharmacological blockade of mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) is known as an efficacious therapy in chronic heart failure. Therapy with steroidal MR antagonists such as spironolactone or eplerenone (EPL) is often limited because of side effects. Recently, a new highly selective and potent, nonsteroidal MR antagonist, finerenone (FIN), has been developed.

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Sep
2015

Endurance exercise training induces substantial adaptive cardiac modifications such as left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Simultaneously to the development of LVH, adipose tissue (AT) lipolysis becomes elevated upon endurance training to cope with enhanced energy demands. In this study, we investigated the impact of adipose tissue lipolysis on the development of exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

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May
2015

[Therapy of hypertension--2015].

Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2015 May 28;140(11):835-42; quiz 843-4. Epub 2015 May 28.
Ulrich Kintscher, Felix Mahfoud
With an prevalence of 32%, arterial hypertension remains on of the most common diseases among adults in Germany. The ESH/ESC-guidelines from 2013 and the corresponding pocket guidelines of the DHL(®)/DGK from 2014 contain multiple modifications in diagnosis and therapy that are discussed in the present review. Target blood pressure recommendations have been simplified to <140/90 mmHg for almost all hypertensive patients.

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Jul
2015

The coexistence of arterial hypertension and diabetes represents a devastating partnership for cardiovascular health. Thus, blood pressure and blood glucose control are essential therapeutic goals to reduce cardiovascular risk and other diabetes-related endpoints in these patients. The major benefit of blood pressure lowering in diabetes comes from a marked reduction of cardiovascular and renal endpoints.

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Apr
2015

Insulin resistance can be triggered by enhanced dephosphorylation of the insulin receptor or downstream components in the insulin signaling cascade through protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). Downregulating density-enhanced phosphatase-1 (DEP-1) resulted in an improved metabolic status in previous analyses. This phenotype was primarily caused by hepatic DEP-1 reduction.

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May
2014

The G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) has been claimed as an estrogen receptor. However, the literature reports controversial findings and the physiological function of GPR30 is not fully understood yet. Consistent with studies assigning a role of GPR30 in the cardiovascular and metabolic systems, GPR30 expression has been reported in small arterial vessels, pancreas and chief gastric cells of the stomach.

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Mar
2014

Left ventricular (LV) remodeling is the main reason for the development of progressive cardiac dysfunction after myocardial infarction (MI). This study investigated whether stimulation of the angiotensin type 2 receptor is able to ameliorate post-MI cardiac remodeling and what the underlying mechanisms may be. MI was induced in Wistar rats by permanent ligation of the left coronary artery.

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Mar
2014

The individualized obesity paradox.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2014 Mar 4;63(8):786-7. Epub 2013 Dec 4.
Ulrich Kintscher

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Nov
2012

Selective modulation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) by direct binding of small molecules demonstrates a promising tool for treatment of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Besides its blood pressure-lowering properties, the AT1-receptor blocker telmisartan has been shown to be a partial agonist of PPARγ with beneficial metabolic effects in vitro and in mice. In our previous work, comprehensive structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies discussed the different parts of the telmisartan structure and various moieties.

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Aug
2013

Hypertension is a global healthcare concern associated with a wide range of comorbidities. The recognition that elevated sympathetic drive plays an important role in the pathogenesis of hypertension led to the use of renal artery denervation to interrupt the efferent and afferent sympathetic nerves between the brain and kidneys to lower blood pressure. Clinical trials of the Symplicity™ renal denervation system have demonstrated that radiofrequency ablation of renal artery nerves is safe and significantly lowers blood pressure in patients with severe resistant (systolic BP >160 mmHg) hypertension.

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Dec
1969

Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-dependent extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling is a key feature in cardiometabolic syndrome-associated adipogenesis and atherosclerosis. Activation of membrane-tethered (MT) 1-MMP depends on furin (PCSK3). However, the regulation and function of the natural furin-inhibitor serpinB8 and thus furin/MT1-MMP-activity in obesity-related tissue inflammation/remodeling is unknown.

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Jul
2013

Insulin signaling is tightly controlled by tyrosine dephosphorylation of the insulin receptor through protein-tyrosine-phosphatases (PTPs). DEP-1 is a PTP dephosphorylating tyrosine residues in a variety of receptor tyrosine kinases. Here, we analyzed whether DEP-1 activity is differentially regulated in liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue under high-fat diet (HFD), examined the role of DEP-1 in insulin resistance in vivo, and its function in insulin signaling.

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May
2013

The burden of hypertension.

EuroIntervention 2013 May;9 Suppl R:R12-5
Ulrich Kintscher
Arterial hypertension is among the leading global risks for mortality, being responsible for 9.4 million deaths in 2010. The reason for this enormous burden has been documented in multiple studies.

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Jul
2013

In the present study we investigated the influence of sex difference on the development of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) during obesity. Male and female C57BL/6J mice were fed for 15 and 25 wk with a high-fat diet (HFD) or low-fat control diet (LFD). Analysis of body composition, monitoring of body weight (BW), and echocardiographic analysis were performed, as well as analysis of expression of different adipocytokines in epicardial adipose tissue.

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Jul
2013

The cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, are expressed in the heart, but their role under pathological conditions remains controversial. This study examined the effect of CB1 receptor blockade on cardiovascular functions after experimental MI and in experimental metabolic syndrome. MI was induced in Wistar rats by permanent ligation of the left coronary artery.

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May
2013

Sex differences in exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

Pflugers Arch 2013 May 17;465(5):731-7. Epub 2013 Feb 17.
Anna Foryst-Ludwig, Ulrich Kintscher
Physiological cardiac hypertrophy (PCH), induced by intensive exercise or pregnancy, differs substantially from the pathological form of myocardial hypertrophy, accruing after aortic stenosis or chronic arterial hypertension. In contrast to pathological forms of cardiac hypertrophy, exercise-induced increase of left ventricular mass is related to cardiac myocytes enlargement, with no apparent sign of fibrosis or apoptosis, and does usually not result in cardiac failure. Recently published results obtained from various animal studies documented clear sex-specific regulation of exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy in rodents, with a pronounced hypertrophic response to training load observed in female animals when compared to male littermate.

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Mar
2013

The deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt mouse model exhibits adverse cardiac remodeling in male mice and cardiac protection in female mice, even when blood pressure is normalized. We hypothesized that intact mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling is necessary for cardiac protection in females. We first tested sex differences and intracellular signaling after mTOR targeting with rapamycin in wild-type mice.

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May
2013

Bezafibrate exerts multiple effects on lipid metabolism by activating the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α, which modulates the expression of key genes of lipid transport, lipoprotein metabolism as well as inflammation. The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy and safety of bezafibrate in patients with advanced chronic hepatitis C.
A total of 34 patients received oral bezafibrate treatment (400 mg/day) on the basis of a prospective observational open-label study design.

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Nov
2012

Genetic factors strongly contribute to the pathogenesis of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Nevertheless, genome-wide association studies only yielded single nucleotide polymorphism loci of moderate importance. In contrast, microsatellite repeats are functionally less characterized structures within our genomes.

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Feb
2013

Maturation of nerve growth factor (NGF) in neuronal cells requires endoproteolytic processing of the precursor protein proNGF to β-NGF by the proprotein convertase furin. Pro- and β-NGF elicit opposite biological functions by differential neurotrophin-receptor binding, leading to apoptosis via sortilin or survival via neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type-1 (TrkA), respectively. The present study was done to investigate the impact of furin-dependent proNGF processing on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) function.

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Dec
1969

The influence of sex on the development of obesity, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), and dyslipidemia is well documented, although the molecular mechanism underlying those differences reminds elusive. Ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are used as oral antidiabetics (PPARgamma agonists: thiazolidinediones, TZDs), or for the treatment of dyslipidemia and cardiovascular diseases, due to their lipid-lowering properties (PPARalpha agonists: fibrates), as PPARs control transcription of a set of genes involved in the regulation of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Given a high prevalence of those metabolic disorders, and thus a broad use of PPAR agonists, the present review will discuss distinct aspects of sex-specific differences in antiobesity treatment using those groups of PPAR ligands.

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Dec
1969

Successful reduction of body weight (BW) is often followed by recidivism to obesity. BW-changes including BW-loss and -regain is associated with marked alterations in energy expenditure (EE) and adipose tissue (AT) metabolism. Since these processes are sex-specifically controlled, we investigated sexual dimorphisms in metabolic processes during BW-dynamics (gain-loss-regain).

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Jul
2012

And in the end--Telmisartan directly binds to PPARγ.

Hypertens Res 2012 Jul 22;35(7):704-5. Epub 2012 Mar 22.
Ulrich Kintscher

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Dec
1969

Pharmacological inhibition of monoamine reuptake transporters has been known for many years as an effective therapy to reduce food intake and body weight in obese subjects. However, most of the marketed drugs failed after a distinct period in clinical use and had to be withdrawn because of serious adverse effects resulting in a negative benefit-risk profile. The most common side effects for this drug class included increases in systemic or pulmonary blood pressure and/or heart rate, cardiac valvulopathies, higher cardiovascular event rates, psychiatric disorders, or high abuse potential.

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Feb
2012

In the current study, we investigated the importance of histone deacetylase (HDAC)6 for glucocorticoid receptor-mediated effects on glucose metabolism and its potential as a therapeutic target for the prevention of glucocorticoid-induced diabetes. Dexamethasone-induced hepatic glucose output and glucocorticoid receptor translocation were analyzed in wild-type (wt) and HDAC6-deficient (HDAC6KO) mice. The effect of the specific HDAC6 inhibitor tubacin was analyzed in vitro.

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Feb
2012

The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) is an important regulator of gene transcription in vascular cells and mediates the vascular protection observed with antidiabetic glitazones.
To determine the molecular mechanism of ligand-dependent transrepression in vascular smooth muscle cells and their impact on the vascular protective actions of PPARγ.
Here, we report a molecular pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells by which ligand-activated PPARγ represses transcriptional activation of the matrix-degrading matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) gene, a crucial mediator of vascular injury.

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Feb
2012

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) has been suggested to have direct effects on nonislet tissues. GIP also reportedly increased glucose uptake and inhibition of lipolysis in adipocytes after inhibition of the intracellular cortisone-cortisol shuttle 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1). We here analyzed whether GIP modifies lipid metabolism and further elucidated the relation between GIP, 11β-HSD1, and fatty acid metabolism.

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Oct
2011

The present study aimed to explore the anti-inflammatory effects and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ)-activating properties of the angiotensin type 1 receptor blocker telmisartan by analysis of serum interleukin 6 levels and monocytic PPARγ target gene expression in drug-naïve patients with the metabolic syndrome. This was a 14-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 2-center study with telmisartan 80 mg/d and telmisartan 160 mg/d in 54 patients with the metabolic syndrome. In addition to clinical laboratory measurements, peripheral monocytes were extracted by negative isolation using a Dynal Monocyte kit to evaluate ligand-activated PPARγ target gene expression (CD36 and CD163) at baseline and study end using quantitative real-time RT-PCR.

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Sep
2011

To determine the concentrations of adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (AFABP) and other adipocytokines in maternal and cord serum of pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and of control subjects and to relate them to indexes of insulin sensitivity.
In 86 control and 98 GDM pregnant women, venous blood was collected before vaginal delivery and arterial blood from cord immediately after delivery. Serum insulin and adipocytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

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Jul
2011

Exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy has been recently identified to be regulated in a sex-specific manner. In parallel, women exhibit enhanced exercise-mediated lipolysis compared with men, which might be linked to cardiac responses. The aim of the present study was to assess if previously reported sex-dependent differences in the cardiac hypertrophic response during exercise are associated with differences in cardiac energy substrate availability/utilization.

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Mar
2011

We found earlier that deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt treatment causes blood pressure-independent left ventricular hypertrophy, but only in male mice. To test the hypothesis that the estrogen receptor-β (ERβ) protects the females from left ventricular hypertrophy, we treated male and female ERβ-deficient (ERβ(-/-)) mice and their male and female littermates (wild-type [WT]) with deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt and made them telemetrically normotensive with hydralazine. WT males had increased (+16%) heart weight/tibia length ratios compared with WT females (+7%) at 6 weeks.

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Feb
2011

Infiltration of immune cells into adipose tissue plays a central role in the pathophysiology of obesity-associated low-grade inflammation. The aim of this study was to analyze the role of adipocyte NF-κB signaling in the regulation of the chemokine/adipokine interferon-γ-induced protein 10 kDa (IP-10) and adipocyte-mediated T cell migration. Therefore, the regulation of IP-10 was investigated in adipose tissue of male C57BL/6J mice, primary human and 3T3-L1 preadipocytes/adipocytes.

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Oct
2010

Inflammation of adipose tissue (AT) has been recently accepted as a first step towards obesity-mediated insulin resistance. We could previously show that mice fed with high fat diet (HFD) develop systemic insulin resistance (IR) and glucose intolerance (GI) associated with CD4-positive T-lymphocyte infiltration into visceral AT. These T-lymphocytes, when enriched in AT, participate in the development of fat tissue inflammation and subsequent recruitment of proinflammatory macrophages.

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Aug
2010

In this and previous studies we investigated the importance of partial structures of Telmisartan on PPARgamma activation. The biphenyl-4-ylmethyl moiety at N1 and residues at C2 of the central benzimidazole were identified to be essential for receptor activation and potency of receptor binding. Now we focused our attention on positions 5 and 6 of the central benzimidazole and introduced bromine (3b-5/6, 3c), phenylcarbonyl (3d-5/6), hydroxy(phenyl)methyl (3g-5/6), hydroxymethyl (3h-5/6) and formyl (3i) groups.

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Oct
2010

Metabolic impact of estrogen signalling through ERalpha and ERbeta.

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2010 Oct 3;122(1-3):74-81. Epub 2010 Jul 3.
Anna Foryst-Ludwig, Ulrich Kintscher
Estrogens, acting on both estrogen receptors alpha (ERalpha) and beta (ERbeta) are recognized as important regulators of glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism. ERs belong to the family of nuclear hormone receptors which mainly act as ligand activated transcription factors. Both ERs are expressed in metabolic tissue such as adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, liver and pancreas, as well as in the central nervous system.

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