Helping You Find Full Text Journal Articles

Search Results:

Author: Vince D Calhoun (486)


Feb
2018

There is compelling evidence that epigenetic factors contribute to the manifestation of depression, in which microRNA132 (miR-132) is suggested to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and neuronal mechanisms underlying the symptoms of depression. Additionally, several depression-associated genes [MECP2, ARHGAP32 (p250GAP), CREB, and period genes] were experimentally validated as miR-132 targets. However, most studies regarding miR-132 in major depressive disorder are based on post-mortem, animal models or genetic comparisons.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jan
2018

Response inhibition (RI) is a component of the cognitive control systems that support optimal cognition. Cognitive control deficits are well-described in schizophrenia, but are not well characterized in individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for developing psychosis. Functional magnetic resonance imaging during Go/NoGo task performance was collected from 30 CHR youth, 23 early illness schizophrenia patients (ESZ), and 72 healthy adolescents and young adults (HC).

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Functional brain imaging has revealed two types of dynamic patterns of brain in the resting-state: the dynamics of spontaneous brain activities and the dynamics of functional interconnections between spontaneous brain activities. Although these two types of brain dynamics are usually investigated separately in the literature, recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown that they exhibit similar spatial patterns, suggesting the dynamics of spontaneous brain activities and the dynamics of their interconnections are associated with each other. In this study, we characterized the local blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) dynamics and the functional connectivity dynamics (FCD) in the resting-state, and then investigated their between-region associations.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Feb
2018

Finding correlations across multiple data sets in imaging and (epi)genomics is a common challenge. Sparse multiple canonical correlation analysis (SMCCA) is a multivariate model widely used to extract contributing features from each data while maximizing the cross-modality correlation. The model is achieved by using the combination of pairwise covariances between any two data sets.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jan
2018

Functional connectivity during the resting state has been shown to change over time (i.e., has a dynamic connectivity).

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jan
2018

Acquisition of multimodal brain imaging data for the same subject has become more common leading to a growing interest in determining the intermodal relationships between imaging modalities to further elucidate the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Multimodal data have previously been individually analyzed and subsequently integrated; however, these analysis techniques lack the ability to examine true modality inter-relationships. The utilization of a multiset canonical correlation and joint independent component analysis (mCCA + jICA) model for data fusion allows shared or distinct abnormalities between modalities to be examined.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Previous work using simultaneously acquired electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data has shown that the slow temporal dynamics of resting state brain networks (RSNs), e.g., default mode network (DMN), visual network (VN), obtained from fMRI are correlated withof various EEG features such as microstates and band-limited power envelopes.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jan
2018

Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited brain disorder characterized by progressive motor, cognitive and behavioral dysfunctions. It is caused by abnormally large trinucleotide cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) repeat expansions on exon 1 of the Huntingtin gene. CAG repeat length (CAG-RL) inversely correlates with an earlier age of onset.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Mar
2018

Brain maturation through adolescence has been the topic of recent studies. Previous works have evaluated changes in morphometry and also changes in functional connectivity. However, most resting-state fMRI studies have focused on static connectivity.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Feb
2018

Disparate results have been found in previous reports when incorporating both interview-based and self-report measures of psychopathic traits within the same sample, suggesting such assessments should not be used interchangeably. We previously found Total and Facet 4 scores from Hare's Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV) were negatively related to amplitude of the error-related positivity (Pe) event-related potential (ERP) component. Here, we investigated using the same previously published sample whether scores on four different self-report measures of adolescent psychopathic traits (the Antisocial Process Screening Device [APSD], Child Psychopathy Scale [CPS], Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits [ICU], and Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory [YPI]) were similarly associated with reduced Pe amplitude.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Studies featuring multimodal neuroimaging data fusion for understanding brain function and structure, or disease characterization, leverage the partial information available in each of the modalities to reveal data variations not exhibited through the independent analyses. Similar to other complex syndromes, the characteristic brain abnormalities in schizophrenia may be better understood with the help of the additional information conveyed by leveraging an advanced modeling method involving multiple modalities. In this study, we propose a novel framework to fuse feature spaces corresponding to functional magnetic resonance imaging (functional) and gray matter (structural) data from 151 schizophrenia patients and 163 healthy controls.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Although individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis exhibit a psychosis-risk syndrome involving attenuated forms of the positive symptoms typical of schizophrenia (SZ), it remains unclear whether their resting-state brain intrinsic functional networks (INs) show attenuated or qualitatively distinct patterns of functional dysconnectivity relative to SZ patients. Based on resting-state functional magnetic imaging data from 70 healthy controls (HCs), 53 CHR individuals (among which 41 subjects were antipsychotic medication-naive), and 58 early illness SZ (ESZ) patients (among which 53 patients took antipsychotic medication) within five years of illness onset, we estimated subject-specific INs using a novel group information guided independent component analysis (GIG-ICA) and investigated group differences in INs. We found that when compared to HCs, both CHR and ESZ groups showed significant differences, primarily in default mode, salience, auditory-related, visuospatial, sensory-motor, and parietal INs.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jan
2018

Psychotic disorders are associated with neurobehavioral impairments in mental state attribution (mentalizing). These impairments are most severe in psychotic patients with elevated symptom levels, particularly negative and cognitive symptoms. There have been few studies of functional connectivity related to mentalizing in psychotic disorders and associations with symptoms.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jan
2018

Neuroscientists and clinical researchers are awash in data from an ever-growing number of imaging and other bio-behavioral modalities. This flow of brain imaging data, taken under resting and various task conditions, combines with available cognitive measures, behavioral information, genetic data plus other potentially salient biomedical and environmental information to create a rich but diffuse data landscape. The conditions being studied with brain imaging data are often extremely complex and it is common for researchers to employ more than one imaging, behavioral or biological data modality (e.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Mar
2018

Alcohol, nicotine, and cannabis are among the most commonly used drugs. A prolonged and combined use of these substances can alter normal brain wiring in different ways depending on the consumed cocktail mixture. Brain connectivity alterations and their change with time can be assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) because of its spatial and temporal content.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Oct
2017

Dynamic functional network connectivity (dFNC), derived from magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), is an important technique in the search for biomarkers of brain diseases such as mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). At the individual level, mTBI can affect cognitive functions and change personality traits. Previous research aimed at detecting significant changes in the dFNC of mTBI subjects.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
2017

Self-control and the ability to resist temptation are critical for successful completion of long-term goals. Contemporary models in cognitive neuroscience emphasize the primary role of prefrontal cognitive control networks in aligning behavior with such goals. Here, we use gaze pattern analysis and dynamic functional connectivity fMRI data to explore how individual differences in the ability to resist temptation are related to intrinsic brain dynamics of the cognitive control and salience networks.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Oct
2017

Individuals at clinical high-risk (CHR) for psychosis are characterized by attenuated psychotic symptoms. Only a minority of CHR individuals convert to full-blown psychosis. Therefore, there is a strong interest in identifying neurobiological abnormalities underlying the psychosis risk syndrome.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Clinical and cognitive symptoms domain-based subtyping in schizophrenia (Sz) has been critiqued due to the lack of neurobiological correlates and heterogeneity in symptom scores. We, therefore, present a novel data-driven framework using biclustered independent component analysis to detect subtypes from the reliable and stable gray matter concentration (GMC) of patients with Sz. The developed methodology consists of the following steps: source-based morphometry (SBM) decomposition, selection and sorting of two component loadings, subtype component reconstruction using group information-guided ICA (GIG-ICA).

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Nov
2017

For more than 20 years, the powerful, flexible family of independent component analysis (ICA) techniques has been used to examine spatial, temporal, and subject variation in functional magnetic resonance (fMR) imaging data. This article provides an overview of 10 key principles in the basic and advanced application of ICA to resting-state fMR imaging. ICA's core advantages include robustness to artifact; false-positives and autocorrelation; adaptability to variant study designs; agnosticism to the temporal evolution of fMR imaging signals; and ability to extract, identify, and analyze neural networks.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Oct
2017

Schizophrenia has a large genetic component, and the pathways from genes to illness manifestation are beginning to be identified. The Genetics of Endophenotypes of Neurofunction to Understand Schizophrenia (GENUS) Consortium aims to clarify the role of genetic variation in brain abnormalities underlying schizophrenia. This article describes the GENUS Consortium sample collection.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Sep
2017

The aim of this study was to investigate the spontaneous neural activity and functional connectivity (FC) in heavy metal music lovers (HMML) compared with classical music lovers (CML) during resting state. Forty HMML and 31 CML underwent resting-state functional MRI scans. Fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) and seed-based resting-state FC were computed to explore regional activity and functional integration.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
2017

The past few years have seen an emergence of approaches that leverage temporal changes in whole-brain patterns of functional connectivity (the chronnectome). In this chronnectome study, we investigate the replicability of the human brain's inter-regional coupling dynamics during rest by evaluating two different dynamic functional network connectivity (dFNC) analysis frameworks using 7 500 functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) datasets. To quantify the extent to which the emergent functional connectivity (FC) patterns are reproducible, we characterize the temporal dynamics by deriving several summary measures across multiple large, independent age-matched samples.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jan
2018

Interventions that promote mindfulness consistently show salutary effects on cognition and emotional wellbeing in adults, and more recently, in children and adolescents. However, we lack understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying mindfulness in youth that should allow for more judicious application of these interventions in clinical and educational settings.
Using multi-echo multi-band fMRI, we examined dynamic (i.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Sep
2017

It's increasingly important but difficult to determine potential biomarkers of schizophrenia disease, owing to the complex pathophysiology of this disease. In this study, a network-fusion based framework was proposed to identify genetic biomarkers of complex diseases. Genomic, epigenomic and neuroimaging data were integrated by network fusion.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
2017

Cognitive control is a construct that refers to the set of functions that enable decision-making and task performance through the representation of task states, goals, and rules. The neural correlates of cognitive control have been studied in humans using a wide variety of neuroimaging modalities, including structural MRI, resting-state fMRI, and task-based fMRI. The results from each of these modalities independently have implicated the involvement of a number of brain regions in cognitive control, including dorsal prefrontal cortex, and frontal parietal and cingulo-opercular brain networks.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Oct
2017

In this paper we describe an open-access collection of multimodal neuroimaging data in schizophrenia for release to the community. Data were acquired from approximately 100 patients with schizophrenia and 100 age-matched controls during rest as well as several task activation paradigms targeting a hierarchy of cognitive constructs. Neuroimaging data include structural MRI, functional MRI, diffusion MRI, MR spectroscopic imaging, and magnetoencephalography.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Nov
2017

A key challenge in building a brain graph using fMRI data is how to define the nodes. Spatial brain components estimated by independent components analysis (ICA) and regions of interest (ROIs) determined by brain atlas are two popular methods to define nodes in brain graphs. It is difficult to evaluate which method is better in real fMRI data.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jul
2017

Due to the rapid and robust clinical effects, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) represents an optimal model to develop and test treatment predictors for major depressive disorders (MDD), while imaging markers can be informative in identifying MDD patients who will respond to a specific antidepressant treatment or not. Here, we aim to predict post-ECT depressive rating changes and remission status using pre-ECT grey matter (GM) in 38 MDD patients and validate in two independent datasets. Six GM regions including right hippocampus/parahippocampus, right orbitofrontal gyrus, right inferior temporal gyrus, left postcentral gyrus/precuneus, left supplementary motor area, and left lingual gyrus were identified as predictors of ECT response, achieving accuracy of 89, 90 and 86% for remission prediction in three independent, age-matched datasets respectively.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Nov
2017

Spatial normalization of brains to a standardized space is a widely used approach for group studies in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Commonly used template-based approaches are complicated by signal dropout and distortions in echo planar imaging (EPI) data. The most widely used software packages implement two common template-based strategies: (1) affine transformation of the EPI data to an EPI template followed by nonlinear registration to an EPI template (EPInorm) and (2) affine transformation of the EPI data to the anatomic image for a given subject, followed by nonlinear registration of the anatomic data to an anatomic template, which produces a transformation that is applied to the EPI data (T1norm).

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Sep
2017

Cannabis and alcohol are believed to have widespread effects on the brain. Although adolescents are at increased risk for substance use, the adolescent brain may also be particularly vulnerable to the effects of drug exposure due to its rapid maturation. Here, we examined the association between cannabis and alcohol use duration and resting-state functional connectivity in a large sample of male juvenile delinquents.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jan
2018

By exploiting cross-information among multiple imaging data, multimodal fusion has often been used to better understand brain diseases. However, most current fusion approaches are blind, without adopting any prior information. There is increasing interest to uncover the neurocognitive mapping of specific clinical measurements on enriched brain imaging data; hence, a supervised, goal-directed model that employs prior information as a reference to guide multimodal data fusion is much needed and becomes a natural option.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Functional connectivity of the resting-state (RS) brain is a vehicle to study brain dysconnectivity aspects of diseases such as schizophrenia and bipolar. Methods that are developed to measure functional connectivity are based on the underlying hypotheses regarding the actual nature of RS-connectivity including evidence of temporally dynamic versus static RS-connectivity and evidence of frequency-specific versus hemodynamically-driven connectivity over a wide frequency range. This study is derived by these observations of variation of RS-connectivity in temporal and frequency domains and evaluates such characteristics of RS-connectivity in clinical population and jointly in temporal and frequency domains (the).

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jun
2017

In this work, we consider the problem of estimating multiple sparse, co-activated brain regions from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) observations belonging to different classes. More precisely, we propose a method to analyze similarities and differences in functional connectivity between children and young adults. Often, analysis is conducted on each class separately, and differences across classes are identified with an additional postprocessing step using adequate statistical tools.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jun
2017

Among the challenges arising in brain imaging genetic studies, estimating the potential links between neurological and genetic variability within a population is key. In this work, we propose a multivariate, multimodal formulation for variable selection that leverages co-expression patterns across various data modalities. Our approach is based on an intuitive combination of two widely used statistical models: sparse regression and canonical correlation analysis (CCA).

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

The proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-MRS) signals from glutamate (or the combined glutamate and glutamine signal-Glx) have been found to be greater in various brain regions in people with schizophrenia. Recently, the Psychiatric Genetics Consortium reported that several common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in glutamate-related genes confer increased risk of schizophrenia. Here, we examined the relationship between presence of these risk polymorphisms and brain Glx levels in schizophrenia.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
2017

Bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) share similar clinical characteristics that often obscure the diagnostic distinctions between their depressive conditions. Both functional and structural brain abnormalities have been reported in these two disorders. However, the direct link between altered functioning and structure in these two diseases is unknown.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Spatial group independent component analysis (GICA) methods decompose multiple-subject functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data into a linear mixture of spatially independent components (ICs), some of which are subsequently characterized as brain functional networks. Group information guided independent component analysis (GIG-ICA) as a variant of GICA has been proposed to improve the accuracy of the subject-specific ICs estimation by optimizing their independence. Independent vector analysis (IVA) is another method which optimizes the independence among each subject's components and the dependence among corresponding components of different subjects.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

May
2017

Functional connectivity (FC) has been widely used to study the functional organization of temporally correlated and spatially distributed brain regions. Recent studies of FC dynamics, quantified by windowed correlations, provide new insights to analyze dynamic, context-dependent reconfiguration of brain networks. A set of reoccurring whole-brain connectivity patterns at rest, referred to as FC states, have been identified, hypothetically reflecting underlying cognitive processes or mental states.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jul
2017

Altered resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) and functional network connectivity (FNC), which is a measure of coherence between brain networks, may be associated with nicotine use disorder (NUD). We hypothesized that higher connectivity between insula and 1) dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and 2) dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) would predict better treatment outcomes. We also performed an exploratory analysis of the associations between FNC values between additional key frontal and striatal regions and treatment outcomes.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

May
2017

Closely linking genetics and environment factors, epigenetics has been of increasing interest in psychiatric disease studies. In this work, we integrated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), DNA methylation of blood and saliva, and brain gray matter (GM) measures to explore the role of genetic and epigenetic variation to the brain structure changes in schizophrenia (SZ). By focusing on the reported SZ genetic risk regions, we applied a multi-stage multivariate analysis to a discovery dataset (92 SZ patients and 110 controls, blood) and an independent replication dataset (93 SZ patients and 99 controls, saliva).

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Oct
2016

In the past decade, numerous advances in the study of the human brain were fostered by successful applications of blind source separation (BSS) methods to a wide range of imaging modalities. The main focus has been on extracting "networks" represented as the underlying latent sources. While the broad success in learning latent representations from multiple datasets has promoted the wide presence of BSS in modern neuroscience, it also introduced a wide variety of objective functions, underlying graphical structures, and parameter constraints for each method.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Apr
2017

Both schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) are highly heritable psychiatric disorders. The significant genomic risk loci are of great importance but with no guarantee of known functional impact and they cannot totally explain the genetic inheritance. In this study we present regional enrichment analyses across the genome, aiming to strike a balance between individual risk loci and integrated regional effects.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Mar
2017

Recent studies suggest dysfunctional brain-gut interactions are involved in the pathophysiology of functional dyspepsia (FD). However, limited studies have investigated brain structural abnormalities in FD patients. This study aimed to identify potential differences in both cortical thickness and subcortical volume in FD patients compared to healthy controls (HCs) and to explore relationships of structural abnormalities with clinical symptoms.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Music is ubiquitous throughout recent human culture, and many individual's have an innate ability to appreciate and understand music. Our appreciation of music likely emerges from the brain's ability to process a series of repeated complex acoustic patterns. In order to understand these processes further, cortical responses were measured to a series of guitar notes presented with a musical pattern or without a pattern.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

May
2017

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown altered brain dynamic functional connectivity (DFC) in mental disorders. Here, we aim to explore DFC across a spectrum of symptomatically-related disorders including bipolar disorder with psychosis (BPP), schizoaffective disorder (SAD), and schizophrenia (SZ). We introduce a group information guided independent component analysis procedure to estimate both group-level and subject-specific connectivity states from DFC.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

The extraction of information from multiple sets of data is a problem inherent to many disciplines. This is possible by either analyzing the data sets jointly as in data fusion or separately and then combining as in data integration. However, selecting the optimal method to combine and analyze multiset data is an ever-present challenge.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Aug
2017

Imaging genetics and genomics research has begun to provide insight into the molecular and genetic architecture of neural phenotypes and the neural mechanisms through which genetic risk for psychopathology may emerge. As it approaches its third decade, imaging genetics is confronted by many challenges, including the proliferation of studies using small sample sizes and diverse designs, limited replication, problems with harmonization of neural phenotypes for meta-analysis, unclear mechanisms, and evidence that effect sizes may be more modest than originally posited, with increasing evidence of polygenicity. These concerns have encouraged the field to grow in many new directions, including the development of consortia and large-scale data collection projects and the use of novel methods (e.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Functional fMRI data are typically analyzed under the assumption that participants experience one long, continuous connectivity state throughout rest scan sessions. The chronnectome is a model that takes into account the temporal variance in connectivity throughout a scan session. In this work, we evaluate the repeatability of properties of functional network connectivity (FNC) dynamics assessed using sliding-windowed correlations in 28 independent age-matched large samples of 250 subjects.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Back to top