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Author: Viola Kappel (22)


Feb
2018

Although admissions of children with anorexia nervosa (AN) are increasing, there remains a dearth of up-to-date knowledge of the course and outcome of early-onset AN. The aim of the present study was to investigate the outcomes of patients with AN onset before the age of 14.
Sixty-eight consecutive former patients who met the DSM-IV criteria for AN and who had been treated at one of three German university hospitals were asked to participate in a follow-up study.

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Jan
2018

Multimodal treatment of children with ADHD often includes parent-child training (PCT). However, due to the high heritability, parents of children with ADHD are frequently also affected by the disorder, which is likely to constitute a significant barrier to successful treatment of the child. This secondary analysis of our randomized controlled multicentre AIMAC trial (ADHD in mothers and children) investigates whether children's outcomes following parent-child training in combination with maternal ADHD treatment depend on maternal symptom improvement.

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Dec
1969

Maternal sensitive behavior depends on recognizing one's own child's affective states. The present study investigated distinct and overlapping neural responses of mothers to sad and happy facial expressions of their own child (in comparison to facial expressions of an unfamiliar child).
We used functional MRI to measure dissociable and overlapping activation patterns in 27 healthy mothers in response to happy, neutral and sad facial expressions of their own school-aged child and a gender- and age-matched unfamiliar child.

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Nov
2017

Neuroimaging studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have most commonly reported volumetric abnormalities in the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and prefrontal cortices. Few studies have examined the relationship between ADHD symptomatology and brain structure in population-based samples. We investigated the relationship between dimensional measures of ADHD symptomatology, brain structure, and reaction time variability-an index of lapses in attention.

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Mar
2017

Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) is a specialized treatment approach targeting cognitive weaknesses in anorexia nervosa (AN). Regarding follow-up effects of CRT, there are only few studies available; for adolescents, there are no data.
Forty-eight adolescents with AN were assigned to receive either CRT and treatment as usual (TAU) or TAU alone.

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Sep
2017

Whereas the evidence in adolescents is inconsistent, anorexia nervosa (AN) in adults is characterized by weak cognitive flexibility. This study investigates cognitive flexibility in adolescents with AN and its potential associations with symptoms of depression, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and duration of illness.
69 patients and 63 age-matched healthy controls (HC) from 9 till 19 years of age were assessed using the Trail-Making Test (TMT) and self-report questionnaires.

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Sep
2017

To provide further insight into the presently poorly understood role of familial psychopathology in the development of eating disorders (ED).
The present study assesses psychiatric and personality disorders listed on Axis I and II of the DSM-IV in 27 mothers of adolescent patients with anorexia (AN mothers) and 14 bulimia nervosa (BN mothers) as well as 22 mentally healthy girls (CG mothers) on a categorical level. Furthermore, we conducted a dimensional diagnostic regarding personality styles and personality traits.

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Nov
2016

When anorexia nervosa (AN) occurs in children below the age of 14 years, it is referred to as early-onset AN (EO-AN). Over the last years, there has been an increased focus on the role of cognitive functioning in the development and maintenance of AN. Adults with AN show inefficiencies in cognitive functions such as flexibility and central coherence.

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Dec
1969

Negative life events (NLE) contribute to anxiety and depression disorders, but their relationship with brain functioning in adolescence has rarely been studied. We hypothesized that neural response to social threat would relate to NLE in the frontal-limbic emotional regions. Participants (N = 685) were drawn from the Imagen database of 14-year-old community adolescents recruited in schools.

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Sep
2016

This study aimed to identify discrete neuropsychological profiles and their relationship to clinical symptoms in 253 female children and adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) and 170 healthy controls (HCs) using a standardised neuropsychological assessment battery.
Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to identify the optimum number of clusters, and participants were assigned using K-means cluster analysis. Confirmatory discriminant function analysis determined which combination of neuropsychological variables best distinguished the clusters RESULTS: Three distinct clusters in the AN sample emerged- AN cluster 1 (19%) - "neuropsychologically low average to average"; AN cluster 2 (33%) - "verbal/visuo-spatial discrepancy"; and AN cluster 3 (48%) - "verbally strong and neuropsychologically average to high average".

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Aug
2016

Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) is a relatively new therapy for patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). There is an increased demand to include the patient view during the evaluation of treatment programs. So far, there is no structured evaluation of the subjective view of adolescents with AN on CRT available.

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Oct
2015

Neuroimaging findings have been reported in regions of the brain associated with emotion in both adults and adolescents with depression, but few studies have investigated whether such brain alterations can be detected in adolescents with subthreshold depression, a condition at risk for major depressive disorder. In this study, we searched for differences in brain structure at age 14 years in adolescents with subthreshold depression and their relation to depression at age 16 years.
High-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess adolescents with self-reported subthreshold depression (n = 119) and healthy control adolescents (n = 461), all recruited from a community-based sample.

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Sep
2015

Evidence-based treatment programs for children with anorexia nervosa (AN) are scarce, while their prognosis is negative and the incidence rate rises. A new therapeutic approach recently received positive attention: cognitive remediation therapy (CRT). This intervention targets inflexibility and the inability to perceive the bigger picture in persons with AN.

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Jan
2016

Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) aims to strengthen weak cognitive flexibility and central coherence in adult and adolescent anorexia nervosa (AN). Currently, there are no studies in adolescents with AN that control for learning effects because of re-testing while evaluating CRT.
Twenty in- and outpatients with AN aged 12 to 18 years received CRT.

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Dec
2015

This is the first randomized controlled multicenter trial to evaluate the effect of two treatments of maternal attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on response to parent-child training targeting children's external psychopathology.
Mother-child dyads (n = 144; ADHD according to DSM-IV; children: 73.5% males, mean age 9.

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Dec
2015

The authors examined whether alterations in the brain's reward network operate as a mechanism across the spectrum of risk for depression. They then tested whether these alterations are specific to anhedonia as compared with low mood and whether they are predictive of depressive outcomes.
Functional MRI was used to collect blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) responses to anticipation of reward in the monetary incentive task in 1,576 adolescents in a community-based sample.

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Sep
2015

ADHD seriously impacts family functioning, even the more in families with simultaneous parental and child ADHD. The aim of the study was to examine associations between family impact of child ADHD and child, mother and family characteristics in multiplex families with children and mothers both affected by ADHD. One hundred and forty-four mother-child pairs were assessed (children: mean age 9.

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Jul
2015

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with decreased ventral-striatal responsiveness during reward anticipation. However, previous research mostly focused on adults with heterogeneous ADHD subtype and divers drug treatment status while studies in children with ADHD are sparse. Moreover, it remains unclear to what degree ADHD is characterized by a delay of normal brain structure or function maturation.

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Jan
2014

Anorexia nervosa is a frequent disorder especially among adolescent girls and young women, with high morbidity, mortality, and relapse rates. To date, no single therapeutic approach has proved to be superior to others (Herpertz et al., 2011).

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Nov
2013

Numerous research centres apply magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for research purposes in children. In view of this practical research, ethical concerns regarding the strains the study participants are exposed to during the MRI examination are discussed. The study evaluates whether an MRI examination induces negative emotions in children and adolescents which are more intense than the ones caused by electroencephalography (EEG), an examination method currently classified as causing "minimal stress.

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Nov
2013

Adults with anorexia nervosa (AN) show weaknesses in several cognitive functions before and after weight restoration. There is a great demand for standardized examinations of executive functioning in the field of child and adolescent AN. Previous studies exhibited methodological inconsistencies regarding test selection and operationalization of cognitive functions, making the interpretation of their findings difficult.

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Aug
2013

Despite several modifications and the wide use of the monetary incentive delay paradigm (MID; Knutson et al. in J Neurosci 21(16):RC159, 2001a) for assessing reward processing, evidence concerning its application in children is scarce. A first child-friendly MID modification has been introduced by Gotlib et al.

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