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Author: Virginia A Stallings (136)


Jan
2018

Obese adolescents have increased fracture risk, but effects of alterations in adiposity on bone accrual and strength in obese adolescents are not understood. We evaluated 12-month changes in trabecular and cortical volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and cortical geometry in obese adolescents undergoing a randomized weight management program, and investigated the effect of body composition changes on bone outcomes. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) of the radius and tibia, and whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans were obtained at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months in 91 obese adolescents randomized to standard care versus behavioral intervention for weight loss.

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Nov
2016

Systemic mitochondrial energy deficiency is implicated in the pathophysiology of many age-related human diseases. Currently available tools to estimate mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity in skeletal muscle in vivo lack high anatomic resolution. Muscle groups vary with respect to their contractile and metabolic properties.

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Dec
2016

Hormonally sensitive organs in the neonate can change size within days of birth as circulating maternal estrogen wanes. Although several reports document the size of these organs through infancy, few focus attention on the near-birth period. Clinical and research evaluation of hormonal and genitourinary disorders would benefit from reference size standards.

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Dec
1969

Early-life exposure to estrogenic compounds affects the development of the reproductive system in rodent models and humans. Soy products, which contain phytoestrogens such as genistein, are one source of exposure in infants fed soy formula, and they result in high serum concentrations.
Our goal was to determine whether soy exposure is associated with differential DNA methylation in vaginal cells from soy-fed infant girls.

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Dec
1969

Osteopenia and increased fracture rates are well-recognized in adults with CF, but neither the specific contributions of cortical and trabecular bone deficits to bone fragility nor their presence in youth with CF are well-characterized. This study sought to characterize cortical and trabecular volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), geometry, and biomechanical competence in children with CF and determine their relationship to growth, body composition, and disease severity. Peripheral quantitative computerized tomography (pQCT) measures of total, cortical, and trabecular vBMD, cortical, muscle, and fat cross-sectional areas (CSA), periosteal and endosteal circumferences, and the polar unweighted section modulus (Zp) of the tibia were converted to age- and tibial length-adjusted Z-scores in 97 CF and 199 healthy children (aged 8-21y).

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Mar
2017

Body composition prediction equations using skinfolds are useful alternatives to advanced techniques, but their utility across diverse paediatric populations is unknown.
To evaluate published and new prediction equations across diverse samples of children with health conditions affecting growth and body composition.
Anthropometric and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) body composition measures were obtained in children with Down syndrome (n = 59), Crohn disease (n = 128), steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (n = 67) and a healthy reference group (n = 835).

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May
2016

The present study determined the plasma amino acid status in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency (PI) in the modern medical and nutritional care setting and investigated the effect of choline supplementation on amino acid status. A total of 110 children aged 5 to 18 years with CF and PI were randomized to receive choline-enriched structured lipid (LYM-X-SORB) or placebo with similar energy and fat content. Plasma amino acids were measured at baseline and 3 and 12 months.

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Dec
2016

Pancreatic enzyme therapy does not normalize dietary fat absorption in patients with cystic fibrosis and pancreatic insufficiency. Efficacy of LYM-X-SORB (LXS), an easily absorbable lipid matrix that enhances fat absorption, was evaluated in a 12-month randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial with plasma fatty acids (FA) and coefficient of fat absorption (CFA) outcomes. A total of 110 subjects (age 10.

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Dec
2016

Early-life antibiotic exposure has been associated with increased adiposity in animal models, mediated through the gut microbiome. Infant antibiotic exposure is common and often inappropriate. Studies of the association between infant antibiotics and childhood weight gain have reported inconsistent results.

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May
2016

Additional strategies are needed to prevent and treat tuberculosis (TB). Although vitamin D may have antimycobacterial effects, it is unknown whether low vitamin D status confers a risk for active TB in African children. This case-control study assessed serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration in children with and without active TB in Gaborone, Botswana.

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Mar
2016

Pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1A (PHP1A) is caused by loss-of-function mutations on the maternally inherited GNAS allele and is associated with early-onset obesity, neurocognitive defects, and resistance to multiple hormones. The role of energy intake vs central regulation of energy expenditure in the pathophysiology of obesity remains unclear.
The aim of this study was to evaluate resting energy expenditure (REE) in participants with PHP1A.

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Dec
2014

Suboptimal vitamin D (vitD) status is common in children and young adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The vitD supplemental dose needed to normalize vitD status in this population is unknown.
In this double-blind trial, subjects infected with HIV ages 8.

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Feb
2016

To assess the association between early anthropometric measurements, device-assisted feeding, and early neurodevelopment in infants with complex congenital heart diseases (CHDs).
Bayley Scales of Infant Development II were used to assess cognitive and motor skills in 72 infants with CHD at 6 and 12 months of age. Linear regression models were used to assess the association between mode of feeding and anthropometric measurements with neurodevelopment at 6 and 12 months of age.

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Oct
2016

Primary care providers are charged with distinguishing children with an underlying growth problem from those with healthy variant short stature. Knowing the heights of the biological parents aids in making that decision. This study sought to determine the feasibility and functionality of an electronic mid-parental height (MPH) auto-calculator in the clinical assessment of child growth in a pediatric primary care setting.

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Nov
2015

Children with Down syndrome (DS) have lower birth weights and grow more slowly than children without DS. Advances in and increased access to medical care have improved the health and well-being of individuals with DS; however, it is unknown whether their growth has also improved. Our objective was to develop new growth charts for children with DS and compare them to older charts from the United States and more contemporary charts from the United Kingdom.

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Apr
2016

Choline depletion is seen in cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency in spite of enzyme treatment and may result in liver, fatty acid, and muscle abnormalities. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of an easily absorbed choline-rich structured lipid (LYM-X-SORB™ [LXS]) to improve choline status.
Children with CF and pancreatic insufficiency were randomized to LXS or placebo in a 12-month double blind trial.

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Sep
2016

There is uncertainty whether long-term daily dosing with vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) supplementation (vitD3) above the 4000-IU/d dietary reference intake upper tolerable limit in children and adults is safe. As part of a randomized placebo-controlled trial, we determined if supplementation with 7000-IU/d vitD3 for 12 months in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-Infected subjects was safe and/or associated with metabolic outcomes.
A total of 58 HIV-infected subjects-aged 9-24.

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Jun
2015

Growth hormone (GH) treatment of idiopathic short stature (ISS), defined as height <-2.25 standard deviations (SD), is approved by U.S.

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Jul
2015

Suboptimal vitamin D (vit D) status (<32 ng/mL) is ubiquitous among African American children with type SS sickle cell disease (SCD-SS). The vit D supplemental dose to normalize vit D status is unknown. Five to 20-year-old African American children with (n=21) and without (n=23) SCD-SS were randomized to vit D3 supplementation (4000 or 7000 IU/d) and evaluated at 6 and 12 weeks for changes in vit D and SCD status.

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May
2015

Evidence-based treatments that achieve optimal energy intake and improve growth in preschool-aged children with cystic fibrosis (CF) are a critical need.
To test whether behavioral and nutritional treatment (intervention) was superior to an education and attention control treatment in increasing energy intake, weight z (WAZ) score, and height z (HAZ) score.
This randomized clinical trial included 78 children aged 2 to 6 years (mean age, 3.

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Dec
1969

Since vitamin D insufficiency is common worldwide in people with HIV, we explored safety and efficacy of high dose cholecalciferol (D₃) in Botswana, and evaluated potential modifiers of serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D change (Δ25D).
Prospective randomized double-blind 12-week pilot trial of subjects ages 5.0-50.

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Aug
2015

The malabsorption blood test (MBT), consisting of pentadecanoic acid (PA), a free fatty acid, and triheptadecanoic acid (THA), a triglyceride that requires pancreatic lipase for absorption of the heptadecanoic acid (HA), was developed to assess fat malabsorption in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency (PI). The objective was to construct a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model to describe PA and HA disposition in healthy subjects and CF subjects. A model was simultaneously fit to PA and HA concentrations, consisting of 1-compartment disposition and a transit model to describe absorption.

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Apr
2015

Childhood obesity is associated with biologic and behavioral characteristics that may impact bone mineral density (BMD) and structure. The objective was to determine the association between obesity and bone outcomes, independent of sexual and skeletal maturity, muscle area and strength, physical activity, calcium intake, biomarkers of inflammation, and vitamin D status. Tibia and radius peripheral quantitative CT scans were obtained in 91 obese (BMI>97th percentile) and 51 non-obese adolescents (BMI>5th and <85th percentiles).

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Apr
2015

Human monocytes activated by toll-like receptor 2/1 ligand (TLR2/1L) show enhanced expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the vitamin D-activating enzyme 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1). The resulting intracrine conversion of precursor 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD) to active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) can stimulate expression of antibacterial cathelicidin (CAMP). To determine whether this response is functional in HIV-infected subjects (HIV+ ), serum from HIV+ subjects pre- and post-vitamin D supplementation was utilized in monocyte cultures with or without TLR2/1L.

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Feb
2015

Suboptimal vitamin D status is prevalent in HIV-infected patients and associated with increased risk of disease severity and morbidity. We aimed to determine 12-month safety and efficacy of daily 7000 IU vitamin D3 (vitD3) versus placebo to sustain increased serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and improve immune status in HIV-infected subjects.
This was a double-blind trial of perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV)-infected subjects or behaviorally acquired HIV (BHIV)-infected subjects (5.

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Dec
1969

Lower body mass index (BMI) is associated with worse pulmonary function in cystic fibrosis (CF).
lean body mass (LBM) is more strongly associated with pulmonary function than BMI is.
Anthropometrics, body composition by dual x-ray absorptiometry, and pulmonary function were determined in pancreatic insufficient CF (PI-CF) youth.

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Sep
2014

The long-term effects of the ketogenic diet, a high fat diet for treating intractable epilepsy, on resting energy expenditure (REE) are unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of 15 months of ketogenic diet treatment on growth and REE in children with intractable epilepsy.
Growth, body composition, and REE were assessed at baseline, 3 months and 15 months in 24 children (14 males, 10 females; mean age 5 y 6 mo [SD 26 mo], range 7 mo-6 y 5 mo), 10 with cerebral palsy [CP]).

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Sep
2014

The study aim was to determine the effect of a dietary intervention on growth, body composition and resting energy expenditure (REE) in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency (PI) in a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Subjects (5 to 17 yrs) participated in a 12-month trial of the organized lipid matrix LYM-X-SORB™ (LXS) vs. placebo dietary supplements with similar calories, total fat and fatty acids.

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Jun
2014

Unexpectedly high serum B12 concentrations were noted in most study subjects with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency (PI) participating in a nutrition intervention at the baseline evaluation. The objectives of this study were to determine dietary, supplement-based, and enzyme-based B12 intake, serum B12 concentrations, and predictors of vitamin B12 status in children with CF and PI.
Serum B12 status was assessed in subjects (5-18 years) and categorized as elevated (serum B12 above reference range for age and sex [Hi-B12]) or within reference range (serum B12 within reference range for age and sex) for age and sex.

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Apr
2014

The aim of the study was to assess the impact of LYM-X-SORB (LXS), an organized lipid matrix that has been shown to be absorbable without pancreatic enzyme therapy on fat-soluble vitamin status in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency (PI).
Children with CF and PI were randomized to daily LXS or an isocaloric placebo comparison supplement for 12 months. Serum vitamins A (retinol), D (25-hydroxyvitamin D[25D]), E (α-tocopherol, α-tocopherol:cholesterol ratio), and K (percentage of undercarboxylated osteocalcin [%ucOC] and plasma proteins induced by vitamin K absence factor II [PIVKA II]) were assessed at baseline and 12 months.

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Dec
1969

Exposure to estrogen-mimicking chemicals during critical periods of development, such as infancy, may have adverse effects. However, these effects can be difficult to characterize in most epidemiologic studies. For example, growth of reproductive organs may be susceptible to estrogenic chemicals, but measuring it requires skilled ultrasound examination; timing of pubertal onset may be altered, but observing it requires long-term follow up.

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Dec
2013

Proximal interstitial 6q deletion involving Single-minded 1 (SIM1) gene causes a syndromic form of obesity mimicking Prader-Willi syndrome. In addition to obesity, Prader-Willi syndrome includes several other endocrinopathies, such as hypothyroidism, growth hormone deficiency, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. The endocrine phenotype of interstitial 6q deletion remains largely unknown, although clinical similarities between Prader-Willi syndrome and interstitial 6q deletion suggest endocrine abnormalities also may contribute to the interstitial 6q deletion phenotype.

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Dec
2013

Infants with Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) often exhibit growth failure. This can affect anthropometric and neurodevelopmental outcomes well into childhood. To determine the resting energy expenditure (REE), body composition, and growth in infants with CHD at 3 months of age, with the secondary aim to identify predictors of REE as compared with healthy infants.

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Apr
2013

A Malabsorption Blood Test (MBT) is proposed as an alternative method to the 72-hour stool and dietary collection for assessing the degree of fat malabsorption in people with pancreatic insufficiency. The MBT consists of a simultaneous oral dose of pentadecanoic acid (PA), a free fatty acid, and triheptadecanoic acid (THA), a triglyceride with three heptadecanoic (HA) saturated fatty acids requiring hydrolysis by pancreatic lipase before HA can be intestinally absorbed. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the ability of MBT to detect fat malabsorption in healthy adult subjects using the pancreatic lipase (PL) inhibitor Orlistat (Xenical®), and in subjects with CF and PI while on and off routine pancreatic enzyme doses.

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Apr
2013

This study sought to determine if changes in parent-reported health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in children with sickle cell disease (SCD-SS) occurred after participation in a nutritional supplementation study and to compare HRQOL responses with normative scores from non-White children.
Parents of children with SCD-SS between the ages of 5 and 13 years completed the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ-PF50) at baseline and at 12 months.
For the 47 children (8.

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Mar
2013

Optimal vitamin D status is known to have beneficial health effects and vitamin D supplements are commonly used. It has been suggested that vitamin D supplementation may increase blood lead in children and adults with previous lead exposure. The objective was to determine the safety regarding lead toxicity during 12 weeks of high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in children and young adults with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

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Oct
2012

Suboptimal vitamin A status is prevalent in children with type SS sickle cell disease (SCD-SS) and is associated with hospitalizations and poor growth and hematologic status. The supplemental vitamin A dose that optimizes suboptimal vitamin A status in this population is unknown.
The efficacy of Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) doses (based on age and sex) of vitamin A (300, 400, or 600 μg retinyl palmitate/d) or vitamin A + zinc (10 or 20 mg zinc sulfate/d) compared with placebo to optimize vitamin A status was assessed in children aged 2.

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Sep
2012

An impaired ability to compensate for calories and increased eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) has been associated with increased energy intake and weight gain in unrelated children.
The aims of this study were to compare caloric compensation [the percentage compensation index (%COMPX)] and EAH in weight-discordant siblings aged 5-12 y.
In a crossover, behavioral genetics design, 47 same-sex sibling pairs (53% female, 55% full siblings) were served dinner once a week for 3 wk.

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Nov
2012

Children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency (PI) are at risk for fatty acid (FA) abnormalities and essential FA deficiency, with low linoleic acid (LA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) concentrations and abnormal triene:tetraene (T:T) and arachidonic acid (AA):DHA ratios. The aim of the article was to determine whether type of dietary fat predicted serum LA, DHA, T:T, and AA:DHA ratios in subjects with CF and PI as compared to an unaffected comparison group.
Serum FA concentrations were assessed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography (mol%) and dietary intake by 7-day weighed food records; the 3-day coefficient of fat absorption was calculated.

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Jun
2012

This study compared child-feeding and related practices with child weight status between Chinese-American and non-Hispanic white caregivers who attended three community health centers. Study participants were caregivers of 50 Chinese-American and 108 non-Hispanic white children aged 2-12 years who completed a short version of the child feeding questionnaire in English or Chinese. The feeding behaviors assessed were concern, pressure, restriction, and monitoring.

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Feb
2012

This study explored the association between maternal obesity during pregnancy and the inflammatory markers, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and the cytokine, adiponectin, in the offspring.
Weight, height, Tanner stage and biomarkers were measured in thirty-four 12-year-old children, from the Infant Growth Study, who were divided into high risk (HR) and low risk (LR) groups based on maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI).
The two groups differed markedly in their hs-CRP levels, but no group difference was found for the other three biomarkers.

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Apr
2011

To determine if gender is associated with diagnostic evaluation by primary care pediatricians caring for children with growth-faltering.
This was a retrospective study of children who were attending 4 urban pediatric primary care practices affiliated with a tertiary pediatric hospital. Growth-faltering was defined as height at the <5th percentile or a z-score decrease of ≥ 1.

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Aug
2011

Adequate nutritional support is essential for normal infant growth and development. Infants with congenital cardiac disease are known to be at risk for growth failure. We sought to describe perioperative growth in infants undergoing surgical repair of two-ventricle congenital cardiac disease and assess for predictors of their pattern of growth.

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May
2011

To examine the effects of a multi-component, theory-based, 2.5-year intervention on children's fruit and vegetable consumption, preferences, knowledge and body mass index.
Four inner city elementary schools in the Northeastern United States were randomized to an intervention (n=149) or control group (n=148) in 2005.

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Nov
2011

The skinny on tuna fat: health implications.

Public Health Nutr 2011 Nov 16;14(11):2049-54. Epub 2011 Feb 16.
Asim Maqbool, Birgitta Strandvik, Virginia A Stallings
Dietary n-3 (omega-3) and n-6 (omega-6) PUFA have significant implications in health and disease prevention. Marine life is rich in long-chain n-3 PUFA. Children and adults in North America are reluctant fish eaters; canned tuna is a common fish in children's diets.

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Mar
2011

Dominant hand maximal handgrip strength evaluated with a handgrip dynamometer and peak power evaluated with a force plate, adjusted for body size and composition, were compared in African-American children aged 5 to 13 years, with and without type SS sickle cell disease (SCD-SS). Children with SCD-SS (n = 35; age, 9.0 ± 2.

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